Src homology 2 (SH2) domain found in SH2 adaptor protein C (SHC)
SHC is involved in a wide variety of pathways including regulating proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, and bone metabolism. An adapter protein, SHC has been implicated in Ras activation following the stimulation of a number of different receptors, including growth factors [insulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor, and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)], cytokines [interleukins 2, 3, and 5], erythropoietin, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and antigens [T-cell and B-cell receptors]. SHC has been shown to bind to tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors, and receptor stimulation leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of SHC. Upon phosphorylation, SHC interacts with another adapter protein, Grb2, which binds to the Ras GTP/GDP exchange factor mSOS which leads to Ras activation. SHC is composed of an N-terminal domain that interacts with proteins containing phosphorylated tyrosines, a (glycine/proline)-rich collagen-homology domain that contains the phosphorylated binding site, and a C-terminal SH2 domain. SH2 has been shown to interact with the tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors of EGF and PDGF and with the tyrosine-phosphorylated C chain of the T-cell receptor, providing one of the mechanisms of T-cell-mediated Ras activation. In general SH2 domains are involved in signal transduction. They typically bind pTyr-containing ligands via two surface pockets, a pTyr and hydrophobic binding pocket, allowing proteins with SH2 domains to localize to tyrosine phosphorylated sites.