The Delta9 Fatty Acid Desaturase (Delta9-FADS)-like CD includes the delta-9 and delta-11 acyl CoA desaturases found in various eukaryotes including vertebrates, insects, higher plants, and fungi. The delta-9 acyl-lipid desaturases are found in a wide range of bacteria. These enzymes play essential roles in fatty acid metabolism and the regulation of cell membrane fluidity. Acyl-CoA desaturases are the enzymes involved in the CoA-bound desaturation of fatty acids. Mammalian stearoyl-CoA delta-9 desaturase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, and in yeast, the delta-9 acyl-CoA desaturase (OLE1) reaction accounts for all de nova unsaturated fatty acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These non-heme, iron-containing, ER membrane-bound enzymes are part of a three-component enzyme system involving cytochrome b5, cytochrome b5 reductase, and the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase. This complex catalyzes the NADH- and oxygen-dependent insertion of a cis double bond between carbons 9 and 10 of the saturated fatty acyl substrates, palmitoyl (16:0)-CoA or stearoyl (18:0)-CoA, yielding the monoenoic products palmitoleic (16:l) or oleic (18:l) acids, respectively. In cyanobacteria, the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids is initiated by delta 9 acyl-lipid desaturase (DesC) which introduces the first double bond at the delta-9 position of a saturated fatty acid that has been esterified to a glycerolipid. This domain family has extensive hydrophobic regions that would be capable of spanning the membrane bilayer at least twice. Comparison of sequences also reveals the existence of three regions of conserved histidine cluster motifs that contain the residues: HXXXXH, HXXHH, and H/QXXHH. These histidine residues are reported to be catalytically essential and proposed to be the ligands for the iron atoms contained within the rat stearoyl CoA delta-9 desaturase. Some eukaryotic (Fungi, Euglenozoa, Mycetozoa, Rhodophyta) desaturase domains have an adjacent C-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain.