Conserved Protein Domain Family
Delta9-FADS-like

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cd03505: Delta9-FADS-like 
The Delta9 Fatty Acid Desaturase (Delta9-FADS)-like CD includes the delta-9 and delta-11 acyl CoA desaturases found in various eukaryotes including vertebrates, insects, higher plants, and fungi. The delta-9 acyl-lipid desaturases are found in a wide range of bacteria. These enzymes play essential roles in fatty acid metabolism and the regulation of cell membrane fluidity. Acyl-CoA desaturases are the enzymes involved in the CoA-bound desaturation of fatty acids. Mammalian stearoyl-CoA delta-9 desaturase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, and in yeast, the delta-9 acyl-CoA desaturase (OLE1) reaction accounts for all de nova unsaturated fatty acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These non-heme, iron-containing, ER membrane-bound enzymes are part of a three-component enzyme system involving cytochrome b5, cytochrome b5 reductase, and the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase. This complex catalyzes the NADH- and oxygen-dependent insertion of a cis double bond between carbons 9 and 10 of the saturated fatty acyl substrates, palmitoyl (16:0)-CoA or stearoyl (18:0)-CoA, yielding the monoenoic products palmitoleic (16:l) or oleic (18:l) acids, respectively. In cyanobacteria, the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids is initiated by delta 9 acyl-lipid desaturase (DesC) which introduces the first double bond at the delta-9 position of a saturated fatty acid that has been esterified to a glycerolipid. This domain family has extensive hydrophobic regions that would be capable of spanning the membrane bilayer at least twice. Comparison of sequences also reveals the existence of three regions of conserved histidine cluster motifs that contain the residues: HXXXXH, HXXHH, and H/QXXHH. These histidine residues are reported to be catalytically essential and proposed to be the ligands for the iron atoms contained within the rat stearoyl CoA delta-9 desaturase. Some eukaryotic (Fungi, Euglenozoa, Mycetozoa, Rhodophyta) desaturase domains have an adjacent C-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain.
Statistics
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PSSM-Id: 239582
View PSSM: cd03505
Aligned: 90 rows
Threshold Bit Score: 112.649
Threshold Setting Gi: 48854729
Created: 16-Feb-2006
Updated: 2-Oct-2020
Structure
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Aligned Rows:
 
Di-iron ligands
Feature 1:Di-iron ligands [ion binding site]
Evidence:
  • Comment:Mutation of any one of these eight histidines in stearoyl-CoA desaturase resulted in complete inactivity.
  • Citation:PMID 7947684

Sequence Alignment
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Format: Row Display: Color Bits: Type Selection:
Feature 1                            #    #                               #  ##               
NP_033153  93 KLYTCLFGIFYYMTSalgITAGAHRLWSHRTYkaRLPLRIFLIiantmafqndVYEWARDHRAHHKFSEthaDPHNSrrG 172  house mouse
AAY55583   69 SWATILFTALLTLLGtlgVTVGVHRLWAHRTFtaSKPLKVFLMfcqttagqgsIYSVVQAHRLHHAKFQqdeDPYYSkhS 148  fruit fly
AAN39698   43 KWPTLLWAFLLLEFAkigITAGAHRLWCHRSYkaKLPLEILLLifnsiaymntATYWVRDHRVHHKFADtdaDPHNVnrG 122  oblique banded le...
24211439   63 KWETLLFSFVLFHMSnigITAGAHRLWTHKTFkaKLPLEIVLMifnslafqntAITWAREHRLHHKYSDtdaDPHNAsrG 142  cabbage looper
XP_396573  68 KLWTWIWNIAYGVVAgfgITAGAHRLWAHKSYsaKTPLRIFLAylycmagqthFYKWIRDHRTHHRYTEtraDPHDAtrG 147  honey bee
10726866  127 NFYTFLWVVVTVWVSgigITAGAHRLWSHKSYtaSLPLRILLAfafsiagqrdAYTWALDHRIHHKFSEtdaDPHNAkrG 206  fruit fly
AAL35330   69 KIASIIWAVFYSLVAtegAHMGAHRCFSHRAFkaKPLLKVILLimqtisgqhsTYIWCRDHRQHHRYSDtdgDPHNSkrG 148  European corn borer
7294783    68 TWTTVVLFWPTVVVTilgVSGGAHRLWAHRTFkaNTPLKLIFLflntlafqdaVYYWARDHRVHHKYTEtdaDPYNSqrG 147  fruit fly
NP_703456 358 GKSLLIQCVIFYLINgfgITFGAHRLWSHRAFkaGHIVQVLFLilnsfanqgsVIVWAINHRLHHKYSDtkyDPHNIryG 437  Plasmodium falcip...
2204075    46 FINSIYMLAIFHVISglgITGGSHRLWAHRSYtaKTPYRVLLMlfnsmafqgsIFHWSRDHRLHHKFSDtdiDPHSMnkG 125  Tetrahymena pyrif...
Feature 1                                                                                     
NP_033153 173 FFFSHVGWLlvrkhpavkekggkldmsdlkaeklvmfqrryykpglllmcfilptlvpwycwgetfvnslfvSTFLRYTL 252  house mouse
AAY55583  149 FMYAQVRGGllkyspqqeellkdvdmsdlesdpvvmfqkrfyvllyiflnvllsvntpfqyfgdslatsmfvGFWLRSLI 228  fruit fly
AAN39698  123 FWFSQIGWLfvrkhpdviekgktvfmedihknpllrfqekyaffviglwayviptvvpmyfwgetlsnswhiCTMLRHVL 202  oblique banded le...
24211439  143 FFYSHVGWLlvkkhpdvlkygktidmsdvynnpvlkfqkk-yavpligtvcfalptlipvycwgeswnnawhIALFRYIF 221  cabbage looper
XP_396573 148 FFFSHIGWLmvkrdpavkeygskidmsdiaadpvikffdk-yyevimltlcfampilvpilawdetwfisfhAGLIRYVW 226  honey bee
10726866  207 FFFAHVGWLfltphpkvvakrkvidmsdleadavcmfqrkyyiplfalcsiilpvavpwyfwnedlwmsfwiNFNMRFTW 286  fruit fly
AAL35330  149 MFYCHVGWLmtsrhplckklrktidmsdlqqdplvmfqyryfrslfftfgfllpvwvpmhffqesftnavfvCFFLRYVY 228  European corn borer
7294783   148 WFFAHIGWLccrkhpevvekgkqidlsdleadplimfqkkyylllmpiicfvlptvlpmylwgeslnvswhvMALLRWCL 227  fruit fly
NP_703456 438 FFYSHVGWLlyqktkyvkekekeiyvddllqnpylllqhk-ldpyfnfffcfiipgiysyfmynnfwdgffiLGALRWII 516  Plasmodium falcip...
2204075   126 FFFAHVGWLlvkkspelveegkklnvqdllddpvvafqkk-hyfkistlmcfilptlimeytigggffynflMSCFRYCF 204  Tetrahymena pyrif...
Feature 1                                              #  ##                                  
NP_033153 253 VLNATWlVNSAAHLYgyrpydkniqsRENILVSLGavGEGFHNYHHTFPfdysas--eyrwhiNFTTFFIDCMaalGLAY 330  house mouse
AAY55583  229 VINLGNlVHSSHFIWsihk---gfkpTDSNSIFLIt-KSYWPQYHYLLPrdyqsge-ygnyasGIGSSMIRVFaalDWAK 303  fruit fly
AAN39698  203 TINQIFlVNSIGHRWgnrpydknikaVENLAVSLMstGECFHNYHHVFPfdykase-lgmtkfNAATMFINFFawlGWAY 281  oblique banded le...
24211439  222 NLNVTFlVNSAAHIWgnkpydksilpAQNLLVSFLasGEGFHNYHHVFPwdyrtae-lgnnflNLTTLFIDFCawfGWAY 300  cabbage looper
XP_396573 227 SLHATFiVNSFAHMWgnrpynrrvkpTENPTVSFFalGEGWHNYHHSFPwdykaae-lgayglNPTTGFIELMalvGLAY 305  honey bee
10726866  287 TLNVAFfVNSVAHMYgnkpydknlmsTEAPIVSLLamGEGWHNYHHVFPwdyktge-fgnyslNITTGFIDFCawlGLAK 365  fruit fly
AAL35330  229 ALHVTYfINSLAHKYgtrpydktiqpVETWFVSLLslGEGWHNYHHAYPwdykaa--eigmplNSTASLIRLCaslGLAY 306  European corn borer
7294783   228 SLNLIWtVNSSAHMHgmrpydknicpVDQGFLIFFrvGEGYHNYHHVFPwdyksae-lgkysqDVTTKFIEFMaylGWAY 306  fruit fly
NP_703456 517 TLHATWsINSASHSFghrpynidikpTNNIFTSIValGEGCHNYHHVFPycyamnenfyilsiNPTKYLINFFyylGLVW 596  Plasmodium falcip...
2204075   205 ILHTTWcVNSVCHMFgtrpyndailpTENLLVSIFalGEGWHNWHHEYPrdwraae-nkwtkiNATSLFIQFFellGQTD 283  Tetrahymena pyrif...
Feature 1        
NP_033153 331 DRK 333  house mouse
AAY55583  304 DLK 306  fruit fly
AAN39698  282 DLK 284  oblique banded leafroller
24211439  301 DLK 303  cabbage looper
XP_396573 306 DLK 308  honey bee
10726866  366 GRK 368  fruit fly
AAL35330  307 DLK 309  European corn borer
7294783   307 DLK 309  fruit fly
NP_703456 597 DLK 599  Plasmodium falciparum 3D7
2204075   284 TNG 286  Tetrahymena pyriformis

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