Pleckstrin homology domain-containing family G member 5 and 6 pleckstrin homology (PH) domain
PLEKHG5 has a RhoGEF DH/double-homology domain in tandem with a PH domain which is involved in phospholipid binding. PLEKHG5 activates the nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB1) signaling pathway. Mutations in PLEKHG5 are associated with autosomal recessive distal spinal muscular atrophy. PLEKHG6 (also called MyoGEF) has no known function to date. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.