ArfGAP with RhoGAP domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, repeat 2ARAP proteins (also called centaurin delta) are phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent GTPase-activating proteins that modulate actin cytoskeleton remodeling by regulating ARF and RHO family members. They bind phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P2) binding. There are 3 mammalian ARAP proteins: ARAP1, ARAP2, and ARAP3. All ARAP proteins contain a N-terminal SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain, 5 PH domains, an ArfGAP domain, 2 ankyrin domain, A RhoGap domain, and a Ras-associating domain. This hierarchy contains the second PH domain in ARAP. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.