HC subclass of RING (RING-HC) finger and its variantsRING finger is a specialized type of Zn-finger of 40 to 60 residues that binds two atoms of zinc. It is defined by the "cross-brace" motif that chelates zinc atoms by eight amino acid residues, typically Cys or His, arranged in a characteristic spacing. Canonical RING motifs have been categorized into two major subclasses, RING-HC (C3HC4-type) and RING-H2 (C3H2C3-type), according to their Cys/His content. There are also many variants of RING fingers. Some have a different Cys/His pattern. Some lack a single Cys or His residue at typical Zn ligand positions, especially, the fourth or eighth zinc ligand is prevalently exchanged for an Asp, which can chelate Zn in a RING finger as well. This family corresponds to HC subclass of RING (RING-HC) finger proteins that are characterized by containing C3HC4-type canonical RING-HC fingers or noncanonical RING-HC finger variants, including C4C4-, C3HC3D-, C2H2C4-, and C3HC5-type modified RING-HC fingers. The canonical RING-HC finger has been defined as C-X2-C-X(9-39)-C-X(1-3)-H-X(2-3)-C-X2-C-X(4-48)-C-X2-C. It binds two Zn ions in a unique "cross-brace" arrangement, which distinguishes it from tandem zinc fingers and other similar motifs. RING-HC finger can be found in a group of diverse proteins with a variety of cellular functions, including oncogenesis, development, viral replication, signal transduction, the cell cycle, and apoptosis. Many of them are ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) that serve as scaffolds for binding to ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s, also referred to as ubiquitin carrier proteins or UBCs) in close proximity to substrate proteins, which enables efficient transfer of ubiquitin from E2 to the substrates.