cholecystokinin receptors and related proteins, member of the class A family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
This group represents four G-protein coupled receptors that are members of the RFamide receptor family, including cholecystokinin receptors (CCK-AR and CCK-BR), orexin receptors (OXR), neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR), and pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide receptor (QRFPR). These RFamide receptors are activated by their endogenous peptide ligands that share a common C-terminal arginine (R) and an amidated phenylanine (F) motif. CCK-AR (type A, alimentary; also known as CCK1R) is found abundantly on pancreatic acinar cells and binds only sulfated CCK-peptides with very high affinity, whereas CCK-BR (type B, brain; also known as CCK2R), the predominant form in the brain and stomach, binds CCK or gastrin and discriminates poorly between sulfated and non-sulfated peptides. CCK is implicated in regulation of digestion, appetite control, and body weight, and is involved in neurogenesis via CCK-AR. There is some evidence to support that CCK and gastrin, via their receptors, are involved in promoting cancer development and progression, acting as growth and invasion factors. Orexins (OXs; also referred to as hypocretins) are neuropeptide hormones that regulate the sleep-wake cycle and potently influence homeostatic systems regulating appetite and feeding behavior or modulating emotional responses such as anxiety or panic. OXs are synthesized as prepro-orexin (PPO) in the hypothalamus and then proteolytically cleaved into two forms of isoforms: orexin-A (OX-A) and orexin-B (OX-B). OXA is a 33 amino-acid peptide with N-terminal pyroglutamyl residue and two intramolecular disulfide bonds, whereas OXB is a 28 amino-acid linear peptide with no disulfide bonds. OX-A binds orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) with high-affinity, but also binds with somewhat low-affinity to OX2R, and signals primarily to Gq coupling, whereas OX-B shows a strong preference for the orexin receptor 2 (OX2R) and signals through Gq or Gi/o coupling. The 26RFa, also known as QRFP (Pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide), is a 26-amino acid residue peptide that exerts similar orexigenic activity including the regulation of feeding behavior in mammals. It is the ligand for G-protein coupled receptor 103 (GPR103), which is predominantly expressed in paraventricular (PVN) and ventromedial (VMH) nuclei of the hypothalamus. GPR103 shares significant protein sequence homology with orexin receptors (OX1R and OX2R), which have recently shown to produce a neuroprotective effect in Alzheimer's disease by forming a functional heterodimer with GPR103. Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) is a mammalian octapeptide that has been implicated in a wide range of physiological functions in the brain including pain sensitivity, insulin release, food intake, memory, blood pressure, and opioid-induced tolerance and hyperalgesia. The effects of NPFF are mediated through neuropeptide FF1 and FF2 receptors (NPFF1-R and NPFF2-R) which are predominantly expressed in the brain. NPFF induces pro-nociceptive effects, mainly through the NPFF1-R, and anti-nociceptive effects, mainly through the NPFF2-R.