This family consists of several bacterial and phage Ail/Lom-like proteins. The Yersinia enterocolitica Ail protein is a known virulence factor. Proteins in this family are predicted to consist of eight transmembrane beta-sheets and four cell surface-exposed loops. It is thought that Ail directly promotes invasion and loop 2 contains an active site, perhaps a receptor-binding domain. The phage protein Lom is expressed during lysogeny, and encode host-cell envelope proteins. Lom is found in the bacterial outer membrane, and is homologous to virulence proteins of two other enterobacterial genera. It has been suggested that lysogeny may generally have a role in bacterial survival in animal hosts, and perhaps in pathogenesis.