Display Settings:

Format
Items per page
Sort by

Send to:

Choose Destination

Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 86

1.

Mannose type O-glycan biosynthesis

Biosynthesis of mammalian O-mannosyl glycans is initiated by the transfer of mannose from mannose-P-Dol to serine or threonine residue, followed by extensions with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and galactose (Gal) to generate core M1, M2 and M3 glycans. Core M1 and M2 glycans can then...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Cysteine and methionine metabolism

Cysteine and methionine are sulfur-containing amino acids. Cysteine is synthesized from serine through different pathways in different organism groups. In bacteria and plants, cysteine is converted from serine (via acetylserine) by transfer of hydrogen sulfide [MD:M00021]. In animals,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Sulfur metabolism

Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Nitrogen metabolism

The biological process of the nitrogen cycle is a complex interplay among many microorganisms catalyzing different reactions, where nitrogen is found in various oxidation states ranging from +5 in nitrate to -3 in ammonia. The core nitrogen cycle involves four reduction pathways and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis

Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks:...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Biotin metabolism

Biotin (vitamin H or vitamin B7) is the essential cofactor of biotin-dependent carboxylases, such as pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Mammals cannot synthesize biotin, while in bacteria, fungi, and plants it is synthesized from pimelate thioester through different...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis

Cell surface proteins can be attached to the cell membrane via the glycolipid structure called glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Hundreds of GPI-anchored proteins have been identified in many eukaryotes ranging from protozoa and fungi to mammals. All protein-linked GPI anchors...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - heparan sulfate / heparin

Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin (Hep) are glycosaminoglycans with repeating disaccharide units that consist of alternating residues of alpha-D-glucosamine (GlcN) and uronic acid, the latter being either beta-D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) or alpha-L-iduronic acid (IdoA). In these sugar...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - keratan sulfate

Keratan sulfate (KS) is a glycosaminoglycan with the basic disaccharide unit of N-acetyllactosamine, Gal(b1-4)GlcNAc(b1-3), with sulfate esters at C-6 of GlcNAc and Gal residues. There are two types of KS distinguished by the protein linkage: type I for N-linked via the N-glycan core...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - chondroitin sulfate / dermatan sulfate

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharide chains consisting of repeating disaccharide units and form proteglycans by covalently attaching to their core proteins. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan with the disaccharide unit of beta-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Other types of O-glycan biosynthesis

O-linked glycosylation is the attachment of monosaccharides to the hydroxyl groups of amino acids, mostly serine and threonine, and is found in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria. O-glycans exhibit diverse types of modifications where the innermost monosaccharide is N-acetylgalactosamine...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis

O-glycans are a class of glycans that modify serine or threonine residues of proteins. Biosynthesis of O-glycans starts from the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to serine or threonine. The first GalNAc may be extended with sugars including galactose, N-acetylglucosamine,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

N-Glycan biosynthesis

N-glycans or asparagine-linked glycans are major constituents of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. N-glycans are covalently attached to asparagine with the consensus sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr by an N-glycosidic bond, GlcNAc b1- Asn. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins on the cytoplasmic face...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism

Natural products containing carbon-phosphorous bonds, so-called C-P compounds, are derivatives of phosphonate and phosphinate with substitution of alkyl group for hydrogen of phosphorus-hydrogen bonds. C-P compounds have been found in many organisms, but only protists and bacteria,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism

Serine is derived from 3-phospho-D-glycerate, an intermediate of glycolysis [MD:M00020], and glycine is derived from serine. Threonine is an essential amino acid, which animals cannot synthesize. In bacteria and plants, threonine is derived from aspartate [MD:M00018].

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Steroid hormone biosynthesis

Steroid hormones derived from cholesterol are a class of biologically active compounds in vertebrates. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 compound, to the first C21 steroid, pregnenolone, which is converted by a bifunctional...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis

Ubiquinone (UQ), also called coenzyme Q, and plastoquinone (PQ) are electron carriers in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis, respectively. The quinoid nucleus of ubiquinone is derived from the shikimate pathway; 4-hydroxybenzoate is directly formed from chorismate in bacteria,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Primary bile acid biosynthesis

Bile acids are steroid carboxylic acids derived from cholesterol in vertebrates. The primary bile acids, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, are synthesized in the liver and conjugated with taurine or glycine before secretion via bile into the intestine. The conversion from cholesterol...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Pentose phosphate pathway

The pentose phosphate pathway is a process of glucose turnover that produces NADPH as reducing equivalents and pentoses as essential parts of nucleotides. There are two different phases in the pathway. One is irreversible oxidative phase in which glucose-6P is converted to ribulose-5P...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)

The citrate cycle (TCA cycle, Krebs cycle) is an important aerobic pathway for the final steps of the oxidation of carbohydrates and fatty acids. The cycle starts with acetyl-CoA, the activated form of acetate, derived from glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation for carbohydrates and from...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

Display Settings:

Format
Items per page
Sort by

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Refine your results

• What's this?

Find related data

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...
Support Center