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Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 434

1.

Host Interactions of HIV factors

Like all viruses, HIV-1 must co-opt the host cell macromolecular transport and processing machinery. HIV-1 Vpr and Rev proteins play key roles in this co-optation. Efficient HIV-1 replication likewise requires evasion of APOBEC3G-mediated mutagenesis of reverse transcripts, a process...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

HIV Infection

The global pandemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has resulted in tens of millions of people infected by the virus and millions more affected. UNAIDS estimates around 40 million HIV/AIDS patients worldwide with 75% of them living in sub-Saharan Africa. The...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

The role of Nef in HIV-1 replication and disease pathogenesis

The HIV-1 Nef protein is a 27-kDa myristoylated protein that is abundantly produced during the early phase of viral replication cycle. It is highly conserved in all primate lentiviruses, suggesting that its function is essential for survival of these pathogens. The protein name "Nef"...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Nef-mediates down modulation of cell surface receptors by recruiting them to clathrin adapters

The maximal virulence of HIV-1 requires Nef, a virally encoded peripheral membrane protein. Nef binds to the adaptor protein (AP) complexes of coated vesicles, inducing an expansion of the endosomal compartment and altering the surface expression of cellular proteins including CD4...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Nef mediated downregulation of MHC class I complex cell surface expression

Down-regulation of MHC class I involves Nef-mediated connection in the endosomes between MHC-I's cytoplasmic tail and the phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein-1 (PACS-1)-dependent protein-sorting pathway. Down-regulation of MHC I protects HIV-infected cells from host CTL r...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Infectious disease

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Disease

Biological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular viewpoint, human disease pathways have three mechanistic causes: the inclusion of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

ER-Phagosome pathway

The other TAP-dependent cross-presentation mechanism in phagocytes is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-phagosome model. Desjardins proposed that ER is recruited to the cell surface, where it fuses with the plasma membrane, underneath phagocytic cups, to supply membrane for the formation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Antigen processing-Cross presentation

MHC class I molecules generally present peptide antigens derived from proteins synthesized by the cell itself to CD8+ T cells. However, in some circumstances, antigens from extracellular environment can be presented on MHC class I to stimulate CD8+ T cell immunity, a process termed...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Endosomal/Vacuolar pathway

Some antigens are cross-presented through a vacuolar mechanism that involves generation of antigenic peptides and their loading on to MHC-I molecules within the endosomal compartment in a proteasome and TAP-independent manner. Antigens within the endosome are processed by cathepsin...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Antigen Presentation: Folding, assembly and peptide loading of class I MHC

Unlike other glycoproteins, correct folding of MHC class I molecules is not sufficient to trigger their exit from the ER, they exit only after peptide loading. Described here is the process of antigen presentation which consists of the folding, assembly, and peptide loading of MHC...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Interferon alpha/beta signaling

Type I interferons (IFNs) are composed of various genes including IFN alpha (IFNA), beta (IFNB), omega, epsilon, and kappa. In humans the IFNA genes are composed of more than 13 subfamily genes, whereas there is only one IFNB gene. The large family of IFNA/B proteins all bind to a...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules play an important role in cell mediated immunity by reporting on intracellular events such as viral infection, the presence of intracellular bacteria or tumor-associated antigens. They bind peptide fragments of these proteins...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell

A number of receptors and cell adhesion molecules play a key role in modifying the response of cells of lymphoid origin (such as B-, T- and NK cells) to self and tumor antigens, as well as to pathogenic organisms.Molecules such as KIRs and LILRs form part of a crucial surveillance...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity

Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stress, such as infection with viruses, bacteria, or parasites or malignant transformation....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Interferon Signaling

Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that play a central role in initiating immune responses, especially antiviral and antitumor effects. There are three types of IFNs:Type I (IFN-alpha, -beta and others, such as omega, epsilon, and kappa), Type II (IFN-gamma) and Type III (IFN-lamda)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Viral carcinogenesis

There is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Viral myocarditis

Myocarditis is a cardiac disease associated with inflammation and injury of the myocardium. It results from various etiologies, both noninfectious and infectious, but coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is still considered the dominant etiological agent. Myocarditis may be caused by direct cytopathic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
125138
KEGG
: hsa05416
19.

Endocytosis

Endocytosis is a mechanism for cells to remove ligands, nutrients, and plasma membrane (PM) proteins, and lipids from the cell surface, bringing them into the cell interior. Transmembrane proteins entering through clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE) have sequences in their cytoplasmic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Graft-versus-host disease

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a lethal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) where immunocompetent donor T cells attack the genetically disparate host cells. GVHD pathophysiology can be summerized in a three-step process. Step 1 involves the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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