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Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 775

1.

Signaling by Interleukins

Interleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but are now known to be produced by many other cells throughout the body. They have pleiotropic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling

The Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta subunit, often referred to as the common beta (Bc). Both subunits contain extracellular...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Interleukin-2 signaling

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in vitro and was therefore named 'T cell growth factor' (TCGF). However, the generation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Interleukin receptor SHC signaling

Phosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor complex. These phosphorylated tyrosines subsequently bind SH2 signaling proteins such...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Signaling by Leptin

Leptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et al. 2013, Dunmore and Brown 2013, Cottrell and Mercer 2012, La Cava 2012, Marroqui...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling

The extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote differentiation, proliferation, cell motility, cell survivial, metabolism and transcription,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Signaling by SCF-KIT

Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival and differentiation of hematopoetic progenitors, melanocytes and germ cells.(Linnekin...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

RET signaling

The RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed primarily in urogenital precursor cells, spermatogonocytes, dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons and neural crest progenitors and derived cells. . It is essential for kidney genesis, spermatogonial self-renewal and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

MAPK family signaling cascades

The mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of conserved protein serine threonine kinases that respond to varied extracellular stimuli to activate intracellular processes including gene expression, metabolism, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, among others....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation

VEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. PKC alpha can intersect the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade at the level...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Downstream signal transduction

The role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of around 100 amino acids that can bind a phosphorylated tyrosine residue. These downstream...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

ARMS-mediated activation

ARMS (Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning/Kidins 220) is a 220kD tetraspanning adaptor protein which becomes rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by active Trk receptors. ARMS is another adaptor protein which is involved in the activation of Rap1 and the subsequent prolonged activation of the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Frs2-mediated activation

The adaptor protein Frs2 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2) can mediate the prolonged activation of the MAPK (ERK) cascade.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Prolonged ERK activation events

After NGF binding, activated Trk receptors provide multiple docking sites for adaptor proteins and enzymes. Two docking proteins, the Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning protein (ARMS/Kidins220) and Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (Frs2), target signaling molecules in response...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN

RIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT and RIN lack a typical prenylation motif (CAAX, XXCC, or CXC) required for the association...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

SOS-mediated signalling

SOS is recruited to the plasma membrane and mediates activation of Ras.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

SHC1 events in EGFR signaling

GRB2 can bind EGFR directly or through another SH2-containing protein, SHC1. This association leads to RAS activation.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

GRB2 events in EGFR signaling

Autophosphorylated EGFR tyrosine residues are docking sites for many downstream effectors in EGFR signaling. The adaptor protein GRB2 binds to phosphotyrosine residues in the C-tail of EGFR through its SH2 domain. GRB2 is constitutively associated with SOS, a guanine nucleotide exchange...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling

Mast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory and immediate allergic reactions. Activation through FCERI-bound antigen-specific IgE...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

RAF/MAP kinase cascade

The RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway regulates processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence and cell motility in response to growth factors, hormones and cytokines, among others. Binding of these stimuli to receptors in the plasma membrane promotes the GEF-mediated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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