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Items: 1 to 20 of 353

1.

GPCR downstream signaling

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it has become clear that this greatly oversimplifies the complexities of GPCR signaling...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Signaling by GPCR

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors in humans, accounting for more than 1% of the protein-coding capacity of the human...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

GPCR ligand binding

There are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all physiological processes (Frederiksson 2003). GPCRs are receptors for a diverse range...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)

Rhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and thus, can be subdivided into 19 subfamilies (Subfamily A1-19) based on a phylogenetic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

G alpha (i) signalling events

The classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinases.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Signal Transduction

Signal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such as hormones and growth factors, or reacting to other types of stimuli, such as light....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

G alpha (q) signalling events

The classic signalling route for G alpha (q) is activation of phospholipase C beta thereby triggering phosphoinositide hydrolysis, calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation. This provides a path to calcium-regulated kinases and phosphatases, GEFs, MAP kinase cassettes and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Olfactory Signaling Pathway

Mammalian Olfactory Receptor (OR) genes were discoved in rats by Linda Buck and Richard Axel, who predicted that odorants would be detected by a large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are selectively expressed in the olfactory epithelium. This prediction was based...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

G alpha (s) signalling events

The general function of the G alpha (s) subunit (Gs) is to activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn produces cAMP, leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (often referred to collectively as Protein Kinase A). The signal from the ligand-stimulated GPCR is amplified...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Olfactory transduction

Within the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be transmitted to the brain. Odorant molecules bind to a receptor protein (R) coupled to...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK

Gastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Gastrin has two biologically active peptide...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Peptide ligand-binding receptors

These receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

G alpha (12/13) signalling events

The G12/13 family is probably the least well characterized subtype, partly because G12/13 coupling is difficult to determine when compared with the other subtypes which predominantly rely on assay technologies that measure intracellular calcium. The G12/13 family are best known for...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Chemokine signaling pathway

Inflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for the cell trafficking and thus are vital for protective host response. In addition, chemokines...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation

Platelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the platelet membrane (Ruggeri 2002). Intracellular signaling reactions then enhance the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

NRAGE signals death through JNK

Once bound by either NGF or proNGF, p75NTR interacts with NRAGE, thus leading to phosphorylation and activation of JUN Kinase (JNK). JNK controls apoptosis in two ways: it induces transcription of pro-apoptotic genes, and directly activates the cell death machinery. Only NGF-bound...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Cell death signalling via NRAGE, NRIF and NADE

p75NTR is a key regulator of neuronal apoptosis, both during development and after injury. Apoptosis is triggered by binding of either mature neurotrophin or proneurotrophin (proNGF, proBDNF). ProNGF is at least 10 times more potent than mature NGF in inducing apoptosis. TRKA signalling...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Signalling by NGF

Neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in minute amounts, by a variety of tissues. They signal through two types of receptors:...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Rho GTPase cycle

The cycling of Rho GTPases is tightly controlled by three classes of protein. These are (1) guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors or GDIs, which maintain Rho proteins in an inactive state in the cytoplasm, (2) guanine nucleotide exchange factors or GEFs, which destabilize the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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