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Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 65

1.

Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 27-hydroxycholesterol

In the body, 27-hydroxycholesterol is synthesized in multiple tissues, exported to the liver, and converted there to bile acids and bile salts. This pathway is only a minor source of bile acids and bile salts, but may play a significant role particularly in the mobilization of cholesterol...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol

In the liver, synthesis of bile acids and bile salts is initiated with the conversion of cholesterol to 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol and of 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol to 4-cholesten-7alpha-ol-3-one. The pathway then branches: hydroxylation of 4-cholesten-7alpha-ol-3-one to 4-cholesten-7alpha,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 24-hydroxycholesterol

In the body, 24-hydroxycholesterol is synthesized in the brain, exported to the liver, and converted there to bile acids and bile salts. This pathway is only a minor source of bile acids and bile salts, but appears to be critical for the disposal of excess cholesterol from the brain...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts

In a healthy adult human, about 500 mg of cholesterol is converted to bile salts daily (Russell 2003). The major pathway for bile salt synthesis in the liver begins with the conversion of cholesterol to 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol. Bile salt synthesis can also begin with the synthesis...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Bile acid and bile salt metabolism

In a healthy adult human, about 500 mg of cholesterol is converted to bile salts daily. Newly synthesized bile salts are secreted into the bile and released into the small intestine where they emulsify dietary fats (Russell 2003). About 95% of the bile salts in the intestine are recovered...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Bile acid biosynthesis, cholesterol => cholate/chenodeoxycholate

Pathway module; Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; Sterol biosynthesis

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Primary bile acid biosynthesis

Bile acids are steroid carboxylic acids derived from cholesterol in vertebrates. The primary bile acids, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, are synthesized in the liver and conjugated with taurine or glycine before secretion via bile into the intestine. The conversion from cholesterol...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Endogenous sterols

A number of CYPs take part in cholesterol biosynthesis and elimination, thus playing an important role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. Under normal physiological conditions, cholesterol intake (diet or synthesized de novo from acetyl CoA) equals cholesterol elimination (degraded...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Recycling of bile acids and salts

Of the 20-40 grams of bile salts released daily by the liver, all but approximately 0.5 grams are reabsorbed from the intestine, returned to the liver, and re-used. This recycling involves a series of transport processes: uptake by enterocytes mediated by ASBT (SLC10A2), traversal...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Sterols are 12-hydroxylated by CYP8B1

Cytochrome P450 8B1 (CYP8B1, sterol 12-alpha- hydroxylase) has a broad substrate specificity including a number of 7-alpha- hydroxylated C27 steroids. It is also involved in bile acid synthesis and is responsible for the balance between the formation of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)

The bioactive prostaglandin (PG) signalling molecules, including PGA2, PGE2, PGF2a, and PGI2 (prostacyclin) are synthesised from arachidonic acid and its products by various prostaglandin synthase type enzymes. Prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) is the starting point for the synthesis of Thromboxanes...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type

The P450 isozyme system is the major phase 1 biotransforming system in man, accounting for more than 90% of drug biotransformations. This system has huge catalytic versatility and a broad substrate specificity, acting upon xenobiotica and endogenous compounds. It is also called the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

RXR and RAR heterodimerization with other nuclear receptor

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Steroid hormone biosynthesis

Steroid hormones derived from cholesterol are a class of biologically active compounds in vertebrates. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 compound, to the first C21 steroid, pregnenolone, which is converted by a bifunctional...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Eicosanoids

Arachidonic acid is metabolized via three major enzymatic pathways: cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450. The cytochrome P450 pathway metabolites are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Import of palmitoyl-CoA into the mitochondrial matrix

The mitochondrial carnitine system catalyzes the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix where they undergo beta oxidation. This transport system consists of the malonyl-CoA sensitive carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) localized in the mitochondrial...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Nicotinamide salvaging

Nicotinamide (NAM) levels are modulated by the action of three enzymes involved in nicotinamide salvaging. They are nicotinamide deaminase, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase. These enzymes are poorly characterized in humans, depsite their...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

RORA activates gene expression

As inferred from mouse, RORA binds ROR elements (ROREs) in DNA and recruits the coactivators PPARGC1A (PGC-1alpha) and p300 (EP300, a histone acetylase) to activate transcription.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

YAP1- and WWTR1 (TAZ)-stimulated gene expression

YAP1 and WWTR1 (TAZ) are transcriptional co-activators, both homologues of the Drosophila Yorkie protein. They both interact with members of the TEAD family of transcription factors, and WWTR1 interacts as well with TBX5 and RUNX2, to promote gene expression. Their transcriptional...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

RA biosynthesis pathway

The major activated retinoid, all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is produced by the dehydrogenation of all-trans-retinol (atROL) by members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) gene families (Das et al. 2014, Napoli 2012).

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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