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Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 496

1.

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer, which are based on the presence or absence...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
2.

Melanoma

Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The only known environmental risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
3.

Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endometrial carcinoma are distinguished with respect to biology and clinical course. Type-I...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
4.

Endocrine resistance

Endocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, e.g. tamoxifen), estrogen synthesis inhibitors (e.g. aromatase inhibitors (AIs)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
5.

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of key molecular alterations in prostate-cancer cells implicates carcinogen defenses...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
6.

Glioma

Gliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (astrocytomas), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogliomas), mixtures of various glial cells...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
7.

Basal cell carcinoma

Cancer of the skin is the most common cancer in Caucasians and basal cell carcinomas (BCC) account for 90% of all skin cancers. The vast majority of BCC cases are sporadic, though there is a rare familial syndrome basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS, or Gorlin syndrome) that predisposes...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
8.

Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date include embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. ES cells are...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
9.

Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease that is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of clonal neoplastic cells and accumulation in the bone marrow of blasts with an impaired differentiation program. AML accounts for approximately 80% of all adult leukemias and remains the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
10.

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. CRC arises from the colorectal epithelium as a result of the accumulation of genetic alterations in defined oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes (TSG). Two major mechanisms of genomic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
11.

Pathways in cancer

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
12.

mTOR signaling pathway

The mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 contains mTOR, Raptor, PRAS40, Deptor, mLST8, Tel2 and Tti1. mTORC1 is activated by the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
13.

Non-small cell lung cancer

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heterogeneous group of cancers, consisting mainly of squamous cell (SCC), adeno (AC) and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
14.

Wnt signaling

Functional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling

Type
:
functional_set
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
BSID:
1084866
KEGG
: mmu_M00677
15.

EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance

EGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which activate down- stream pathways, are associated with cancers, especially lung cancer....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
16.

Chronic myeloid leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (CP), which is characterized by expansion of functionally normal myeloid cells, followed...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
17.

Wnt signaling pathway

Wnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, in many different species and organs. There are at least three different Wnt pathways:...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
18.

Proteoglycans in cancer

Many proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis and metastasis, affecting tumor progress. The four main types of proteoglycans include...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
19.

Melanogenesis

Cutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory control by multiple agents. The most important positive regulator of melanogenesis is...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
20.

Pancreatic cancer

Infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Normal duct epithelium progresses to infiltrating cancer through a series of histologically...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus

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