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Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 259

1.

Salivary secretion

Saliva has manifold functions in maintaining the integrity of the oral tissues, in protecting teeth from caries, in the tasting and ingestion of food, in speech and in the tolerance of tenures, for example. Salivary secretion occurs in response to stimulation by neurotransmitters...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
2.

Pancreatic secretion

The pancreas performs both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine pancreas consists of two parts, the acinar and duct cells. The primary functions of pancreatic acinar cells are to synthesize and secrete digestive enzymes. Stimulation of the cell by secretagogues such as...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
3.

Gastric acid secretion

Gastric acid is a key factor in normal upper gastrointestinal functions, including protein digestion and calcium and iron absorption, as well as providing some protection against bacterial infections. The principal stimulants of acid secretion at the level of the parietal cell are...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
4.

Renin secretion

The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is synthesized, stored in, and released into circulation by the juxtaglomerular...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
5.

Thyroid hormone synthesis

Thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are essential for normal development, growth and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates, and synthesized in the thyroid gland. The functional unit of the thyroid gland is the follicle, delimited by a monolayer of thyrocytes....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
6.

Insulin secretion

Pancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. Glucose-induced insulin secretion and its potentiation constitute the principal mechanism...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
7.

Vascular smooth muscle contraction

The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regulate the blood flow and pressure. The principal mechanisms that regulate the contractile...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
8.

cGMP-PKG signaling pathway

Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated intracellular cGMP level exerts its physiological action through two forms of cGMP-dependent...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
9.

Gap junction

Gap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels', each containing six connexins, contributed by each neighboring cell. These channels...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
10.

Circadian entrainment

Circadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhythms are synchronized to environmental cues. In mammals, a master clock is located...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
11.

Endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption

Calcium (Ca2+) is essential for numerous physiological functions including intracellular signalling processes, neuronal excitability, muscle contraction and bone formation. Therefore, its homeostasis is finely maintained through the coordination of intestinal absorption, renal reabsorption,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
12.

Aldosterone synthesis and secretion

Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized in and secreted from the outer layer of the adrenal cortex, the zona glomerulosa. Aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of systemic blood pressure through the absorption of sodium and water. Angiotensin II (Ang II), potassium...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
13.

GnRH signaling pathway

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnRHR is coupled to Gq/11 proteins to activate phospholipase C which transmits its signal...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
14.

Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels

The TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron cell bodies including their peripheral and central...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
15.

Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes

Cardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, and alpha-1C). In the human heart the beta-1-AR is the pre- dominate receptor. Acute...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
16.

Estrogen signaling pathway

Estrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. Estrogen mediates its cellular actions through two signaling pathways classified as...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
17.

Long-term depression

Cerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and Purkinje cells (PCs) induced by the conjunctive activation of PFs and climbing fiber...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
18.

Platelet activation

Platelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by adhesion to adhesive macromolecules, such as collagen and von Willebrand factor (vWF),...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
19.

Bile secretion

Bile is a vital secretion, essential for digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Moreover, bile is an important route of elimination for excess cholesterol and many waste product, bilirubin, drugs and toxic compounds. Bile secretion depends...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus
20.

Calcium signaling pathway

Ca2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this external source of signal Ca2+ by activating various entry channels with widely different...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Mus musculus

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