Display Settings:

Format
Items per page
Sort by

Send to:

Choose Destination

Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 512

1.

Shigellosis

Shigellosis, or bacillary dysentery, is an intestinal infection caused by Shigella, a genus of enterobacteria. Shigella are potential food-borne pathogens that are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Salmonella infection

Salmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, Salmonella enterica, which has numerous serovars. Following intestinal colonization...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions that damage intestinal epithelial cells. The...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells

Many pathogenic bacteria can invade phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells and colonize them intracellularly, then become disseminated to other cells. Invasive bacteria induce their own uptake by non-phagocytic host cells (e.g. epithelial cells) using two mechanisms referred to as zipper...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

RHO GTPases Activate WASPs and WAVEs

WASP and WAVE proteins belong to the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein family, with recessive mutations in the founding member WASP being responsible for the X-linked recessive immunodeficieny known as the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome. WASP proteins include WASP and WASL (N-WASP). WAVE...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

MAP kinase activation in TLR cascade

The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, one of the most ancient and evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, is involved in many processes of immune responses. The MAP kinases cascade transduces signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus in response to a wide range...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection

Two major virulence factors of H. pylori are the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and the cag type-IV secretion system (T4SS) and its translocated effector protein, cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA). VacA binds to lipid rafts and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation

TRAF6 mediates NFkB activation via canonical phosphorylation of IKK complex by TAK1. TRAF6 and TAK1 also regulate MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome

Upon binding of their ligands, TLR7/8 and TLR9 recruit a cytoplasmic adaptor MyD88 and IRAKs, downstream of which the signaling pathways are divided to induce either inflammatory cytokines or type I IFNs.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade

RNA can serve as a danger signal, both in its double-stranded form (that is associated with viral infection), as well as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Specifically, guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich ssRNA oligonucleotides derived from human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), for example,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade

TLR5 is the receptor for flagellin, the protein that forms bacterial flagella. Unlike most other Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs), flagellin does not undergo any posttranslational modifications that would distinguish it from cellular proteins. However, flagellin is extremely...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane

Mammalian myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 (TIR)-domain containing adapter protein which plays crucial role in TLR signaling. All TLRs, with only one exception of TLR3, can initiate downstream signaling trough MyD88. In the MyD88 - dependent pathway,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade

Little is known about TLR10 ligands. It has been established that the receptor homodimerizes upon binding and signals in an MyD88-dependent manner (Hasan U et al 2005; Nyman T et al 2008). It may also heterodimerize with TLRs 1 and 2. It is expressed in a restricted fashion as a highly...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway

Specific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular viral replication is recognized by a family of cytosolic RNA helicases termed RIG-I-like...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Regulation of actin dynamics for phagocytic cup formation

The actin cytoskeleton is fundamental for phagocytosis and members of the Rho family GTPases RAC and CDC42 are involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation leading to pseudopod extension. Active RAC and CDC42 exert their action through the members of WASP family proteins (WASP/N-WASP/WAVE)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade

TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components. While TLR4 is trained onto Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide components, TLR2 - in combination with TLR6 - plays a major role in recognizing peptidoglycan wall products from Gram-positive bacteria, as well as Mycobacterial...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade

TLR1 is expressed by monocytes. TLR1 and TLR2 cotranslationally form heterodimeric complexes on the cell surface and in the cytosol. The TLR2:TLR1 complex recognizes Neisserial PorB and Mycobacterial triacylated lipoproteins and peptides, amongst others, triggering up-regulation of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade

TLR2 is involved in recognition of peptidoglycan from gram-positive bacteria, bacterial lipoproteins, mycoplasma lipoprotein and mycobacterial products. It is quite possible that recognition of at least some other TLR2 ligands may be assisted by additional accessory proteins, particularly...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane

The first known downstream component of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling is the adaptor MyD88. Another adapter MyD88-adaptor-like (Mal; also known as TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein or TIRAP) has also been described for TLR4 and TLR2 signaling. MyD88 comprises an N-terminal Death Domain...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade

CpG DNA is an unusual Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP). Cytosine methylation exists in mammalian but not bacterial cells, and most (but not all) CpG in the mammalian genome is methylated. Therefore, unmethylated CpG DNA may signal the presence of microbial infection. Evidence...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

Display Settings:

Format
Items per page
Sort by

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Refine your results

• What's this?

Find related data

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is temporarily unavailable.

Support Center