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Links from BioSystems

Items: 19

1.

Cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly

Iron-sulfur clusters containing 4 atoms of iron and 4 atoms of sulfur (4Fe-4S clusters) are assembled in the cytosol on a heterotetrameric scaffold composed of NUBP2 and NUBP1 subunits (reviewed in Lill et al. 2012, Rouault et al. 2012, Sharma et al. 2010, Lill and Muhlenhoff 2006)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Abacavir transport and metabolism

Abacavir is a nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor with antiretroviral activity, widely used in combination with other drugs to treat HIV-1 infection (Yuen et al. 2008). Its uptake across the plasma membrane is mediated by organic cation transporters SLC22A1, 2, and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins are localized in the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondria of mammalian cells (reviewed in Stemmler et al. 2010, Rouault 2012, Bandyopadhyay et al. 2008, Lill 2009, Lill et al. 2012). Fe-S protein biogenesis in the mitochondrial matrix involves the iron-sulfur...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Inositol phosphate metabolism

Inositol phosphates (IPs) are molecules involves in signalling processes in eukaryotes. myo-Inositol consists of a six-carbon cyclic alcohol with an axial 2-hydroxy and five equatorial hydroxyls. Mono-, di-, and triphosphorylation of the inositol ring generates a wide variety of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Pyrophosphate hydrolysis

Many biosynthetic reactions are coupled to the cleavage of ATP to yield AMP and pyrophosphate. These reactions are typically freely reversible when carried out with purified substrates and enzymes in vitro. In vivo, however, the pyrophosphate is rapdily and essentially irreversibly...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Metabolism of porphyrins

Porphyrins are heterocyclic macrocycles, consisting of four pyrrole subunits (tetrapyrrole) linked by four methine (=CH-) bridges. The extensive conjugated porphyrin macrocycle is chromatic and the name itself, porphyrin, is derived from the Greek word for purple. The aromatic character...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Metabolism of nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (NO), a multifunctional second messenger, is implicated in physiological functions in mammals that range from immune response and potentiation of synaptic transmission to dilation of blood vessels and muscle relaxation. NO is a highly active molecule that diffuses across...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Metabolism of carbohydrates

These pathways together are responsible for: 1) the extraction of energy and carbon skeletons for biosyntheses from dietary sugars and related molecules; 2) the short-term storage of glucose in the body (as glycogen) and its mobilization during a short fast; and 3) the synthesis of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Miscellaneous digestion events

Miscellaneous digestion events not appropriate in other areas of metabolism are described in this section (Yamada 2015).

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Response to metal ions

Though metals such as zinc, copper, and iron are required as cofactors for cellular enzymes they can also catalyze damaging metal substitution or unspecific redox reactions if they are not sequestered. The transcription factor MTF1 directs the major cellular response to zinc, cadmium,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide

Carbonic anhydrases reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide and directly produce bicarbonate and protons, bypassing the formation of carbonic acid (reviewed in Lindskog 1997, Breton 2001, Esbaugh and Tufts 2006, Boron 2010, Gilmour 2010). Carbonic anhydrase deprotonates...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

O2/CO2 exchange in erythrocytes

In capillaries of the lungs erythrocytes release carbon dioxide (CO2) and acquire oxygen (O2). In other tissues of the body the reverse reaction occurs (reviewed in Nikinmaa 1997, Jensen 2004).In the lungs, CO2 bound as carbamate to the N-terminus of hemoglobin (HbA) and protons bound...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Biological oxidations

All organisms are constantly exposed to foreign chemicals every day. These can be man-made (drugs, industrial chemicals) or natural (alkaloids, toxins from plants and animals). Uptake is usually via ingestion but inhalation and transdermal routes are also common.The very nature of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives

This group of reactions is responsible for: 1) the breakdown of amino acids; 2) the synthesis of urea from ammonia and amino groups generated by amino acid breakdown; 3) the synthesis of the ten amino acids that are not essential components of the human diet; and 4) the synthesis...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors

Vitamins are a diverse group of organic compounds, classified according to their solubility, either fat-soluble or water-soluble, that are either not synthesized or synthesized only in limited amounts by human cells. They are required in small amounts in the diet and have distinct...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Metabolism of nucleotides

Nucleotides and their derivatives are used for short-term energy storage (ATP, GTP), for intra- and extra-cellular signaling (cAMP; adenosine), as enzyme cofactors (NAD, FAD), and for the synthesis of DNA and RNA. Most dietary nucleotides are consumed by gut flora; the human body's...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport

The metabolism of pyruvate provides one source of acetyl-CoA which enters the citric acid (TCA, tricarboxylic acid) cycle to generate energy and the reducing equivalent NADH. These reducing equivalents are re-oxidized back to NAD+ in the electron transport chain (ETC), coupling this...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Integration of energy metabolism

Many hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insulin mediates the storage of excess nutrients, glucagon is involved in the mobilization...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins

Lipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphingolipids, eicosanoids, cholesterol, bile salts, steroid hormones, and fat-soluble...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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