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Items: 1 to 20 of 77

1.

Platelet activation

Platelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by adhesion to adhesive macromolecules, such as collagen and von Willebrand factor (vWF),...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Staphylococcus aureus infection

Staphylococcus aureus can cause multiple forms of infections ranging from superficial skin infections to food poisoning and life-threatening infections. The organism has several ways to divert the effectiveness of the immune system: secreting immune modulating proteins that inhibit...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Complement and coagulation cascades

The complement system is a proteolytic cascade in blood plasma and a mediator of innate immunity, a nonspecific defense mechanism against pathogens. There are three pathways of complement activation: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. All of these...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Signaling by BRAF and RAF fusions

In addition to the more prevalent point mutations, BRAF and RAF1 are also subject to activation as a result of translocation events that yield truncated or fusion products (Jones et al, 2008; Cin et al, 2011; Palanisamy et al, 2010; Ciampi et al, 2005; Stransky et al, 2014; Hutchinson...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF

While BRAF-specific inhibitors inhibit MAPK/ERK activation in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutant, paradoxical activation of ERK signaling has been observed after treatment of cells with inhibitor in the presence of WT BRAF (Wan et al, 2004; Garnett et al, 2005; Heidorn et al, 2010;...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Signaling by moderate kinase activity BRAF mutants

In addition to the highly prevalent and activating V600E BRAF mutations, numerous moderately activating and less common mutations have also been identified in human cancers (Forbes et al, 2015). Unlike the case for their highly activating counterparts, signaling through these mutant...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Signaling by high-kinase activity BRAF mutants

BRAF is mutated in about 8% of human cancers, with high prevalence in hairy cell leukemia, melanoma, papillary thyroid and ovarian carcinomas, colorectal cancer and a variety of other tumors (Davies et al, 2002; reviewed in Samatar and Poulikakos, 2014). Most BRAF mutations fall in...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Signaling by RAS mutants

Members of the RAS gene family were the first oncogenes to be identified, and mutations in RAS are present in ~20-30% of human cancers (reviewed in Prior et al, 2012). Mutations in the KRAS gene are the most prevalent, and are found with high frequency in colorectal cancer, non-small...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Regulation of TLR by endogenous ligand

Diverse molecules of host-cell origin may serve as endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (Erridge C 2010; Piccinini AM & Midwood KS 2010). These molecules are known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DAMPs are immunologically silent in healthy tissues but...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Integrin cell surface interactions

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a network of macro-molecules that underlies all epithelia and endothelia and that surrounds all connective tissue cells. This matrix provides the mechanical strength and also influences the behavior and differentiation state of cells in contact with...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Common Pathway of Fibrin Clot Formation

The common pathway consists of the cascade of activation events leading from the formation of activated factor X to the formation of active thrombin, the cleavage of fibrinogen by thrombin, and the formation of cleaved fibrin into a stable multimeric, cross-linked complex. Thrombin...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Platelet degranulation

Platelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules, dense granules and lysosomes. On activation platelets release a variety of proteins,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

p130Cas linkage to MAPK signaling for integrins

Integrin signaling is linked to the MAP kinase pathway by recruiting p130cas and Crk to the FAK/Src activation complex.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

GRB2:SOS provides linkage to MAPK signaling for Integrins

Integrin signaling is linked to the MAP kinase pathway by recruiting Grb2 to the FADK1/SRC activation complex.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

MAP2K and MAPK activation

Activated RAF proteins are restricted substrate kinases whose primary downstream targets are the two MAP2K proteins, MAPK2K1 and MAP2K2 (also known as MEK1 and MEK2) (reviewed in Roskoski, 2010, Roskoski, 2012a). Phosphorylation of the MAPK2K activation loop primes them to phosphorylate...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Oncogenic MAPK signaling

The importance of the RAS/RAF/MAPK cascade in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival is highlighted by the fact that components of the pathway are mutated with high frequency in a large number of human cancers. Activating mutations in RAS are found in approximately...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth

The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the nervous system. The role of NCAM in neural differentiation and synaptic plasticity...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Extracellular matrix organization

The extracellular matrix is a component of all mammalian tissues, a network consisting largely of the fibrous proteins collagen, elastin and associated-microfibrils, fibronectin and laminins embedded in a viscoelastic gel of anionic proteoglycan polymers. It performs many functions...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Signaling by SCF-KIT

Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival and differentiation of hematopoetic progenitors, melanocytes and germ cells.(Linnekin...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Signalling to RAS

Signalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation of MAPK found in NGF-treated cells.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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