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Items: 1 to 20 of 132

1.

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer, which are based on the presence or absence...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Rap1 signaling pathway

Rap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an active GTP-bound conformation. A variety of extracellular signals control this cycle...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Ras signaling pathway

The Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras proteins transduce signals from extracellular growth factors by cycling between inactive...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Hippo signaling pathway

Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor Salvador and LATS1 and LATS2. In response to high cell densities, activated LATS1/2...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

PI3K-Akt signaling pathway

The phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, translation, proliferation, growth, and survival. The binding of growth factors to their...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Melanoma

Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The only known environmental risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

MAPK signaling pathway

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals express at least four distinctly regulated groups of MAPKs, extracellular signal-related...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Signaling by FGFR2 IIIa TM

A soluble truncated form of FGFR2 is aberrantly expressed in an Apert Syndrome mouse model and inhibits FGFR signaling in vitro and in vivo. This variant, termed FGFR IIIa TM, arises from an misspliced transcript that fuses exon 7 to exon 10 and that escapes nonsense-mediated decay....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

PI5P, PP2A and IER3 Regulate PI3K/AKT Signaling

Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PI5P) may modulate PI3K/AKT signaling in several ways. PI5P is used as a substrate for production of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, PI(4,5)P2 (Rameh et al. 1997, Clarke et al. 2008, Clarke et al. 2010, Clarke and Irvine 2013, Clarke et al....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

PI-3K cascade:FGFR4

The ability of growth factors to protect from apoptosis is primarily due to the activation of the AKT survival pathway. P-I-3-kinase dependent activation of PDK leads to the activation of AKT which in turn affects the activity or expression of pro-apoptotic factors, which contribute...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR4

The exact role of SHC1 in FGFR signaling remains unclear. Numerous studies have shown that the p46 and p52 isoforms of SHC1 are phosphorylated in response to FGF stimulation, but direct interaction with the receptor has not been demonstrated. Co-precipitation of p46 and p52 with...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Phospholipase C-mediated cascade; FGFR4

Phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) is a substrate of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and other receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. It is known that the src homology region 2 (SH2 domain) of PLC-gamma and of other signaling molecules (such as GTPase-activating protein...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

FRS-mediated FGFR4 signaling

The FRS family of scaffolding adaptor proteins has two members, FRS2 (also known as FRS2 alpha) and FRS3 (also known as FRS2beta or SNT-2). Activation of FGFR tyrosine kinase allows FRS proteins to become phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and then bind to the adaptor GRB2 and the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

PI-3K cascade:FGFR3

The ability of growth factors to protect from apoptosis is primarily due to the activation of the AKT survival pathway. P-I-3-kinase dependent activation of PDK leads to the activation of AKT which in turn affects the activity or expression of pro-apoptotic factors, which contribute...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR3

The exact role of SHC1 in FGFR signaling remains unclear. Numerous studies have shown that the p46 and p52 isoforms of SHC1 are phosphorylated in response to FGF stimulation, but direct interaction with the receptor has not been demonstrated. Co-precipitation of p46 and p52 with...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Phospholipase C-mediated cascade; FGFR3

Phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) is a substrate of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and other receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. It is known that the src homology region 2 (SH2 domain) of PLC-gamma and of other signaling molecules (such as GTPase-activating protein...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

FRS-mediated FGFR3 signaling

The FRS family of scaffolding adaptor proteins has two members, FRS2 (also known as FRS2 alpha) and FRS3 (also known as FRS2beta or SNT-2). Activation of FGFR tyrosine kinase allows FRS proteins to become phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and then bind to the adaptor GRB2 and the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

FGFR3c ligand binding and activation

This pathway depicts the binding of an experimentally-verified range of ligands to FGFR3c. While binding affinities may vary considerably within this set, the ligands listed have been established to bring about receptor activation at their reported physiological concentrations.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

FGFR3b ligand binding and activation

This pathway depicts the binding of an experimentally-verified range of ligands to FGFR3b. While binding affinities may vary considerably within this set, the ligands listed have been established to bring about receptor activation at their reported physiological concentrations.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

PI-3K cascade:FGFR2

The ability of growth factors to protect from apoptosis is primarily due to the activation of the AKT survival pathway. P-I-3-kinase dependent activation of PDK leads to the activation of AKT which in turn affects the activity or expression of pro-apoptotic factors, which contribute...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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