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1.

Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis

Shear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress of atherosclerosis. Sustained laminar flow with high shear stress upregulates expressions...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Endocrine resistance

Endocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, e.g. tamoxifen), estrogen synthesis inhibitors (e.g. aromatase inhibitors (AIs)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and under certain pathologic condition such as huperglycemia. Some of the best chemically...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Estrogen signaling pathway

Estrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. Estrogen mediates its cellular actions through two signaling pathways classified as...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Proteoglycans in cancer

Many proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis and metastasis, affecting tumor progress. The four main types of proteoglycans include...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Bladder cancer

The urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carcinoma are bladder carcinomas, and urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

GnRH signaling pathway

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnRHR is coupled to Gq/11 proteins to activate phospholipase C which transmits its signal...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Leukocyte transendothelial migration

Leukocyte migaration from the blood into tissues is vital for immune surveillance and inflammation. During this diapedesis of leukocytes, the leukocytes bind to endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAM) and then migrate across the vascular endothelium. A leukocyte adherent to CAMs...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling

Interleukin-4 (IL4) is a principal regulatory cytokine during the immune response, crucially important in allergy and asthma (Nelms et al. 1999). When resting T cells are antigen-activated and expand in response to Interleukin-2 (IL2), they can differentiate as Type 1 (Th1) or Type...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

EPH-ephrin mediated repulsion of cells

Despite high-affinity multimeric interaction between EPHs and ephrins (EFNs), the cellular response to EPH-EFN engagement is usually repulsion between the two cells and signal termination. These repulsive responses induce an EPH receptor-expressing cell to retract from an ephrin-expressing...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Collagen degradation

Collagen fibril diameter and spatial organisation are dependent on the species, tissue type and stage of development (Parry 1988). The lengths of collagen fibrils in mature tissues are largely unknown but in tendon can be measured in millimetres (Craig et al. 1989). Collagen fibrils...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), previously known as matrixins, are classically known to be involved in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. However, recent high throughput proteomics analyses have revealed that ~80% of MMP substrates are non-ECM proteins including...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) transport and uptake by Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs)

The family of Insulin like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs) share 50% amino acid identity with conserved N terminal and C terminal regions responsible for binding Insulin like Growth Factors I and II (IGF I and IGF II). Most circulating IGFs are in complexes with IGFBPs, which...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Pathways in cancer

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis

Shear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress of atherosclerosis. Sustained laminar flow with high shear stress upregulates expressions...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
16.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling

Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) are the key factors stimulating gonadotropin release from the pituitary. GnRHs are decapeptides that act via G-protein coupled receptors (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors, GnRH-R). To date, several molecular forms of GnRH and GnRH-R have...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
17.

Photodynamic therapy-induced AP-1 survival signaling.

Photodynamic therapy may induce an acute stress response mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), its downstream MAPKs that target c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, MAPK8) and p38MAPK, and the transcription factors of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) famil...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
18.

Photodynamic therapy-induced NF-kB survival signaling

Photodynamic therapy may induce a pro-inflammatory and angiogenic response mediated by NF-?B.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
19.

Lung fibrosis

Lung fibrosis pathway linked to events (molecular initiating event, key events and associative events) in a putative Adverse Outcome Pathway for lung fibrosis.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
20.

Endocrine resistance

Endocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, e.g. tamoxifen), estrogen synthesis inhibitors (e.g. aromatase inhibitors (AIs)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem

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