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Items: 1 to 20 of 26

1.

Thyroid hormone synthesis

Thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are essential for normal development, growth and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates, and synthesized in the thyroid gland. The functional unit of the thyroid gland is the follicle, delimited by a monolayer of thyrocytes....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

HTLV-I infection

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle where proteins are folded with the help of lumenal chaperones. Newly synthesized peptides enter the ER via the sec61 pore and are glycosylated. Correctly folded proteins are packaged into transport vesicles that shuttle them...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Phagosome

Phagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is formed when the specific receptors on the phagocyte surface recognize ligands on...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

MHC class II antigen presentation

Antigen presenting cells (APCs) such as B cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes/macrophages express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II) at their surface and present exogenous antigenic peptides to CD4+ T helper cells. CD4+ T cells play a central role...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Antigen Presentation: Folding, assembly and peptide loading of class I MHC

Unlike other glycoproteins, correct folding of MHC class I molecules is not sufficient to trigger their exit from the ER, they exit only after peptide loading. Described here is the process of antigen presentation which consists of the folding, assembly, and peptide loading of MHC...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Antigen processing and presentation

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules play an important role in cell mediated immunity by reporting on intracellular events such as viral infection, the presence of intracellular bacteria or tumor-associated antigens. They bind peptide fragments of these proteins...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Adaptive Immune System

Adaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with remarkable diversity tailored to recognize aspects of particular pathogens or antigens....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Assembly of Viral Components at the Budding Site

Following synthesis on membrane-bound ribosomes, the three viral integral membrane proteins, HA (hemagglutinin), NA (neuraminidase) and M2 (ion channel) enter the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where all three are folded and HA and NA are glycosylated. Subsequently HA is assembled...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Virus Assembly and Release

Influenza viruses assemble and bud from the apical plasma membrane of polarized cells e.g. lung epithelial cells of the infected host. This asymmetrical process (i.e. apical [Influenza virus] or basolateral [Marburg virus]) is thought to have an important role in viral pathogenesis...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Influenza Life Cycle

The virus particle initially associates with a human host cell by binding to sialic acid-containing receptors on the host cell surface. The bound virus is endocytosed by one of four distinct mechanisms. The low endosomal pH sets in motion a number of steps that lead to viral membrane...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Calnexin/calreticulin cycle

The unfolded protein is recognized by a chaperon protein (calnexin or calreticulin) and the folding process starts. The binding of these protein requires a mono-glucosylated glycan (Caramelo JJ and Parodi AJ, 2008), but in certain cases can occur even in the absence of glycosylation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Thyroid hormone synthesis

Thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are essential for normal development, growth and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates, and synthesized in the thyroid gland. The functional unit of the thyroid gland is the follicle, delimited by a monolayer of thyrocytes....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
15.

HTLV-I infection

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
16.

Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle where proteins are folded with the help of lumenal chaperones. Newly synthesized peptides enter the ER via the sec61 pore and are glycosylated. Correctly folded proteins are packaged into transport vesicles that shuttle them...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
17.

Phagosome

Phagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is formed when the specific receptors on the phagocyte surface recognize ligands on...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
153859
KEGG
: ko04145
18.

Metabolism of proteins

Protein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Influenza Infection

For centuries influenza epidemics have plagued man, and influenza was probably the disease described by Hippocrates in 412 BC. Today it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with large segments of the human population affected every year. Many animal species can...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

N-glycan trimming in the ER and Calnexin/Calreticulin cycle

After being synthesized in the ER membrane the 14-sugars lipid-linked oligosaccharide is co-translationally transferred to an unfolded protein, as described in the previous steps. After this point the N-glycan is progressively trimmed of the three glucoses and some of the mannoses...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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