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Links from Nucleotide

Items: 1 to 20 of 207

1.

plasma membrane bounded cell projection

A prolongation or process extending from a cell and that is bounded by plasma membrane, e.g. a cilium, lamellipodium, or axon.

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1510198
GO
: GO:0120025
2.

vesicle-mediated transport in synapse

Any vesicle-mediated transport that occurs in a synapse

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1427954
GO
: GO:0099003
3.

intracellular vesicle

Any vesicle that is part of the intracellular region.

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1384516
GO
: GO:0097708
4.

cytoplasmic region

Any (proper) part of the cytoplasm of a single cell of sufficient size to still be considered cytoplasm"

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1347041
GO
: GO:0099568
5.

synaptic vesicle cycle

A biological process in which synaptic vesicles are loaded with neurotransmitters, move to the active zone, exocytose and are then recycled via endocytosis, ultimately leading to reloading with neurotransmitters.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1346977
GO
: GO:0099504
6.

ribonucleoprotein complex

A macromolecular complex containing both protein and RNA molecules. Synonyms: RNA-protein complex; RNP; protein-RNA complex; ribonucleoprotein;

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1319056
GO
: GO:1990904
7.

postsynapse

The part of a synapse that is part of the post-synaptic cell.

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1272068
GO
: GO:0098794
8.

MHC class II antigen presentation

Antigen presenting cells (APCs) such as B cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes/macrophages express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II) at their surface and present exogenous antigenic peptides to CD4+ T helper cells. CD4+ T cells play a central role...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Antigen Presentation: Folding, assembly and peptide loading of class I MHC

Unlike other glycoproteins, correct folding of MHC class I molecules is not sufficient to trigger their exit from the ER, they exit only after peptide loading. Described here is the process of antigen presentation which consists of the folding, assembly, and peptide loading of MHC...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules play an important role in cell mediated immunity by reporting on intracellular events such as viral infection, the presence of intracellular bacteria or tumor-associated antigens. They bind peptide fragments of these proteins...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Adaptive Immune System

Adaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with remarkable diversity tailored to recognize aspects of particular pathogens or antigens....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Immune System

Humans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first critical hours and days of exposure to a new pathogen, our innate immune system.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Assembly of Viral Components at the Budding Site

Following synthesis on membrane-bound ribosomes, the three viral integral membrane proteins, HA (hemagglutinin), NA (neuraminidase) and M2 (ion channel) enter the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where all three are folded and HA and NA are glycosylated. Subsequently HA is assembled...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Virus Assembly and Release

Influenza viruses assemble and bud from the apical plasma membrane of polarized cells e.g. lung epithelial cells of the infected host. This asymmetrical process (i.e. apical [Influenza virus] or basolateral [Marburg virus]) is thought to have an important role in viral pathogenesis...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Influenza Life Cycle

The virus particle initially associates with a human host cell by binding to sialic acid-containing receptors on the host cell surface. The bound virus is endocytosed by one of four distinct mechanisms. The low endosomal pH sets in motion a number of steps that lead to viral membrane...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Influenza Infection

For centuries influenza epidemics have plagued man, and influenza was probably the disease described by Hippocrates in 412 BC. Today it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with large segments of the human population affected every year. Many animal species can...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Infectious disease

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Disease

Biological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular viewpoint, human disease pathways have three mechanistic causes: the inclusion of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Calnexin/calreticulin cycle

The unfolded protein is recognized by a chaperon protein (calnexin or calreticulin) and the folding process starts. The binding of these protein requires a mono-glucosylated glycan (Caramelo JJ and Parodi AJ, 2008), but in certain cases can occur even in the absence of glycosylation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

N-glycan trimming in the ER and Calnexin/Calreticulin cycle

After being synthesized in the ER membrane the 14-sugars lipid-linked oligosaccharide is co-translationally transferred to an unfolded protein, as described in the previous steps. After this point the N-glycan is progressively trimmed of the three glucoses and some of the mannoses...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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