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Links from Nucleotide

Items: 1 to 20 of 202

1.

Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation

Immunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided by antigen presenting cells (APC) and include T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2. Th1 cells...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation

Immunity to different classes of microorganisms is orchestrated by separate lineages of effector T helper (TH)-cells, which differentiate from naive CD4+ precursor cells in response to cues provided by antigen presenting cells (APC) and include T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2. Th1 cells...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
3.

Canonical and Non-canonical Notch signaling

This pathway is based on figure 1 of "Alteration of Notch signaling in skeletal development and disease" (see bibliography). In the NOTCH signaling pathway, mammals have 11 ligands (JAG, DLL, DLK, etc.) and 4 NOTCH receptors (NOTCH1,2,3,4). The pathway is activated by the interaction...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
4.

Notch-HLH transcription pathway

THE NOTCH-HLH TRANSCRIPTION PATHWAY: Notch signaling was first identified in Drosophila, where it has been studied in detail at the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cellular levels (reviewed in Justice, 2002; Bray, 2006; Schweisguth, 2004; Louvri, 2006). In Drosophila, Notch...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Generic Transcription Pathway

OVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION: Detailed studies of gene transcription regulation in a wide variety of eukaryotic systems has revealed the general principles and mechanisms by which cell- or tissue-specific regulation of differential gene transcription is mediated (reviewed...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Gene Expression

Gene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are processed. Most annotation is centered on the generation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by regulated...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

NOTCH2 intracellular domain regulates transcription

In the nucleus, NICD2 forms a complex with RBPJ (CBF1, CSL) and MAML (mastermind). NICD2:RBPJ:MAML complex activates transcription from RBPJ-binding promoter elements (RBEs) (Wu et al. 2000). Besides NICD2, RBPJ and MAML, NOTCH2 coactivator complex likely includes other proteins,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Signaling by NOTCH2

NOTCH2 is activated by binding Delta-like and Jagged ligands (DLL/JAG) expressed in trans on neighboring cells (Shimizu et al. 1999, Shimizu et al. 2000, Hicks et al. 2000, Ji et al. 2004). In trans ligand-receptor binding is followed by ADAM10 mediated (Gibb et al. 2010, Shimizu...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

NOTCH1 Intracellular Domain Regulates Transcription

NICD1 produced by activation of NOTCH1 in response to Delta and Jagged ligands (DLL/JAG) presented in trans, traffics to the nucleus where it acts as a transcription regulator. In the nucleus, NICD1 displaces the NCOR corepressor complex from RBPJ (CSL). When bound to the co-repressor...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Signaling by NOTCH1

NOTCH1 functions as both a transmembrane receptor presented on the cell surface and as a transcriptional regulator in the nucleus.NOTCH1 receptor presented on the plasma membrane is activated by a membrane bound ligand expressed in trans on the surface of a neighboring cell. In trans,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Pre-NOTCH Transcription and Translation

In humans, the NOTCH protein family has four members: NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3 and NOTCH4. NOTCH1 protein was identified first, as the product of a chromosome 9 gene translocated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia that was homologous to Drosophila Notch (Ellisen et al. 1991). At...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Pre-NOTCH Expression and Processing

In humans and other mammals the NOTCH gene family has four members, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3 and NOTCH4, encoded on four different chromosomes. Their transcription is developmentally regulated and tissue specific, but very little information exists on molecular mechanisms of transcriptional...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Signaling by NOTCH

The Notch Signaling Pathway (NSP) is a highly conserved pathway for cell-cell communication. NSP is involved in the regulation of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and specification. For example, it is utilised by continually renewing adult tissues such as blood, skin, and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Signal Transduction

Signal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such as hormones and growth factors, or reacting to other types of stimuli, such as light....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Constitutive Signaling by NOTCH1 HD+PEST Domain Mutants

When found in cis, HD and PEST domain mutations act synergistically, increasing NOTCH1 transcriptional activity up to ~40-fold, compared with up to ~10-fold and up to ~2-fold increase with HD mutations alone and PEST domain mutations alone, respectively (Weng et al. 2004). HD domain...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Signaling by NOTCH1 HD+PEST Domain Mutants in Cancer

Mutations in the heterodimerization domain (HD) and PEST domain of NOTCH1 are frequently found in cis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. While HD mutations alone result in up to ~10-fold increase in NOTCH1 transcriptional activity and PEST domain mutations alone result in up...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Constitutive Signaling by NOTCH1 PEST Domain Mutants

As NOTCH1 PEST domain is intracellular, NOTCH1 PEST domain mutants are expected to behave as the wild-type NOTCH1 with respect to ligand binding and proteolytic cleavage mediated activation of signaling. However, once the NICD1 fragment of NOTCH1 is released, PEST domain mutations...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Signaling by NOTCH1 PEST Domain Mutants in Cancer

NOTCH1 PEST domain mutations are frequently found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). PEST domain mutations interfere with ubiquitination-mediated NOTCH1 downregulation and result in prolonged half-life of the intracellular NOTCH1 fragment, NICD1, and increased NICD1 transcriptional...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Signaling by NOTCH1 in Cancer

Human NOTCH1 was cloned as a chromosome 9 gene, translocated to the T-cell beta receptor (TCBR) promoter on chromosome 7 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) (Ellisen et al. 1991). This translocation, present in only a small percentage of T-ALL patients, results in the overexpression...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Diseases of signal transduction

Signaling processes are central to human physiology (e.g., Pires-da Silva & Sommer 2003), and their disruption by either germ-line and somatic mutation can lead to serious disease. Here, the molecular consequences of mutations affecting visual signal transduction and signaling by...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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