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Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US) Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines; Rasmussen KM, Yaktine AL, editors. Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2009.

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Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines.

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CSupplementary Information on Composition and Components of Gestational Weight Gain

Tables C-1 through C-6 summarize literature and data that are referenced and/or support the discussion in Chapter 3, Composition and Components of Gestational Weight Gain: Physiology and Metabolism.


  1. Abrams B, Selvin S. Maternal weight gain pattern and birth weight. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1995;86(2):163–169. [PubMed: 7617344]
  2. Abrams B, Newman V, Key T, Parker J. Maternal weight gain and preterm delivery. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1989;74(4):577–583. [PubMed: 2797634]
  3. Abrams B, Carmichael S, Selvin S. Factors associated with the pattern of maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1995;86(2):170–176. [PubMed: 7617345]
  4. Amador N, Juarez JM, Guizar JM, Linares B. Quality of life in obese pregnant women: a longitudinal study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2008;198(2):203, e201–e205. [PubMed: 17981249]
  5. Bianco AT, Smilen SW, Davis Y, Lopez S, Lapinski R, Lockwood CJ. Pregnancy outcome and weight gain recommendations for the morbidly obese woman. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1998;91(1):97–102. [PubMed: 9464729]
  6. Bronstein MN, Mak RP, King JC. Unexpected relationship between fat mass and basal metabolic rate in pregnant women. British Journal of Nutrition. 1996;75(5):659–668. [PubMed: 8695594]
  7. Brown JE, Schloesser PT. Prepregnancy weight status, prenatal weight gain, and the outcome of term twin gestations. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1990;162(1):182–186. [PubMed: 2301490]
  8. Butte NF, Ellis KJ, Wong WW, Hopkinson JM, Smith EO. Composition of gestational weight gain impacts maternal fat retention and infant birth weight. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2003;189(5):1423–1432. [PubMed: 14634581]
  9. Carmichael S, Abrams B, Selvin S. The association of pattern of maternal weight gain with length of gestation and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. 1997;11(4):392–406. [PubMed: 9373862]
  10. Catalano PM, Roman NM, Tyzbir ED, Merritt AO, Driscoll P, Amini SB. Weight gain in women with gestational diabetes. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1993;81(4):523–528. [PubMed: 8459960]
  11. Catalano PM, Roman-Drago NM, Amini SB, Sims EA. Longitudinal changes in body composition and energy balance in lean women with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1998;179(1):156–165. [PubMed: 9704782]
  12. Cedergren M. Effects of gestational weight gain and body mass index on obstetric outcome in Sweden. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2006;93(3):269–274. [PubMed: 16626716]
  13. Claesson IM, Sydsjo G, Brynhildsen J, Cedergren M, Jeppsson A, Nystrom F, Sydsjo A, Josefsson A. Weight gain restriction for obese pregnant women: a case-control intervention study. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2008;115(1):44–50. [PubMed: 17970795]
  14. Cogswell ME, Serdula MK, Hungerford DW, Yip R. Gestational weight gain among average-weight and overweight women—what is excessive? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1995;172(2 Pt 1):705–712. [PubMed: 7856711]
  15. Diamant YZ, Metzger BE, Freinkel N, Shafrir E. Placental lipid and glycogen content in human and experimental diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1982;144(1):5–11. [PubMed: 7051832]
  16. Eddib A, Penvose-Yi J, Shelton JA, Yeh J. Triplet gestation outcomes in relation to maternal prepregnancy body mass index and weight gain. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 2007;20(7):515–519. [PubMed: 17674264]
  17. Ehrenberg HM, Huston-Presley L, Catalano PM. The influence of obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus on accretion and the distribution of adipose tissue in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2003;189(4):944–948. [PubMed: 14586331]
  18. Fenton TR, Thirsk JE. Twin pregnancy: the distribution of maternal weight gain of non-smoking normal weight women. Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique. 1994;85(1):37–40. [PubMed: 8180922]
  19. Forsum E, Lof M, Olausson H, Olhager E. Maternal body composition in relation to infant birth weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue. British Journal of Nutrition. 2006;96(2):408–414. [PubMed: 16923238]
  20. Gunderson EP, Abrams B, Selvin S. Does the pattern of postpartum weight change differ according to pregravid body size? International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 2001;25(6):853–862. [PubMed: 11439300]
  21. Hediger ML, Scholl TO, Belsky DH, Ances IG, Salmon RW. Patterns of weight gain in adolescent pregnancy: effects on birth weight and preterm delivery. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1989;74(1):6–12. [PubMed: 2733943]
  22. Hickey CA, Cliver SP, Goldenberg RL, Kohatsu J, Hoffman HJ. Prenatal weight gain, term birth weight, and fetal growth retardation among high-risk multiparous black and white women. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1993;81(4):529–535. [PubMed: 8459961]
  23. Hickey CA, Cliver SP, McNeal SF, Hoffman HJ, Goldenberg RL. Prenatal weight gain patterns and spontaneous preterm birth among nonobese black and white women. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1995;85(6):909–914. [PubMed: 7770259]
  24. Johnston CS, Kandell LA. Prepregnancy weight and rate of maternal weight gain in adolescents and young adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1992;92(12):1515–1517. [PubMed: 1452967]
  25. Kiel DW, Dodson EA, Artal R, Boehmer TK, Leet TL. Gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in obese women: how much is enough? Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007;110(4):752–758. [PubMed: 17906005]
  26. Kinnunen TI, Pasanen M, Aittasalo M, Fogelholm M, Hilakivi-Clarke L, Weiderpass E, Luoto R. Preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy—a controlled trial in primary health care. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;61(7):884–891. [PubMed: 17228348]
  27. Kopp-Hoolihan LE, van Loan MD, Wong WW, King JC. Longitudinal assessment of energy balance in well-nourished, pregnant women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;69(4):697–704. [PubMed: 10197571]
  28. Kramer MS, McLean FH, Eason EL, Usher RH. Maternal nutrition and spontaneous preterm birth. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1992;136(5):574–583. [PubMed: 1442721]
  29. Lantz ME, Chez RA, Rodriguez A, Porter KB. Maternal weight gain patterns and birth weight outcome in twin gestation. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996;87(4):551–556. [PubMed: 8602307]
  30. Lawton FG, Mason GC, Kelly KA, Ramsay IN, Morewood GA. Poor maternal weight gain between 28 and 32 weeks gestation may predict small-for-gestational-age infants. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 1988;95(9):884–887. [PubMed: 3191061]
  31. Lederman SA, Paxton A, Heymsfield SB, Wang J, Thornton J, Pierson RN Jr. Body fat and water changes during pregnancy in women with different body weight and weight gain. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1997;90(4 Pt 1):483–488. [PubMed: 9380301]
  32. Lof M, Forsum E. Hydration of fat-free mass in healthy women with special reference to the effect of pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004;80(4):960–965. [PubMed: 15447906]
  33. Loris P, Dewey KG, Poirier-Brode K. Weight gain and dietary intake of pregnant teenagers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1985;85(10):1296–1305. [PubMed: 4045071]
  34. Luke B, Leurgans S. Maternal weight gains in ideal twin outcomes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1996;96(2):178–181. [PubMed: 8557946]
  35. Luke B, Keith L, Johnson TR, Keith D. Pregravid weight, gestational weight gain and current weight of women delivered of twins. Journal of Perinatal Medicine. 1991;19(5):333–340. [PubMed: 1804943]
  36. Luke B, Minogue J, Abbey H. The association between maternal weight gain and the birth weight of twins. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine. 1992;1:267–276.
  37. Luke B, Bryan E, Sweetland C, Leurgans S, Keith L. Prenatal weight gain and the birthweight of triplets. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae. 1995;44(2):93–101. [PubMed: 8750773]
  38. Luke B, Hediger ML, Nugent C, Newman RB, Mauldin JG, Witter FR, O’Sullivan MJ. Body mass index—specific weight gains associated with optimal birth weights in twin pregnancies. Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2003;48(4):217–224. [PubMed: 12746982]
  39. Muscati SK, Gray-Donald K, Koski KG. Timing of weight gain during pregnancy: promoting fetal growth and minimizing maternal weight retention. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 1996;20(6):526–532. [PubMed: 8782728]
  40. Nohr EA, Vaeth M, Bech BH, Henriksen TB, Cnattingius S, Olsen J. Maternal obesity and neonatal mortality according to subtypes of preterm birth. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007;110(5):1083–1090. [PubMed: 17978123]
  41. Oken E, Taveras EM, Kleinman KP, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW. Gestational weight gain and child adiposity at age 3 years. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007;196(4):322, e321–328. [PMC free article: PMC1899090] [PubMed: 17403405]
  42. Okereke NC, Huston-Presley L, Amini SB, Kalhan S, Catalano PM. Longitudinal changes in energy expenditure and body composition in obese women with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2004;287(3):E472–E479. [PubMed: 15113705]
  43. Pederson AL, Worthington-Roberts B, Hickok DE. Weight gain patterns during twin gestation. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1989;89(5):642–646. [PubMed: 2723287]
  44. Pinar H, Sung CJ, Oyer CE, Singer DB. Reference values for singleton and twin placental weights. Pediatric Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 1996;16(6):901–907. [PubMed: 9025888]
  45. Pinar H, Stephens M, Singer DB, Boyd TK, Pflueger SM, Gang DL, Roberts DJ, Sung CJ. Triplet placentas: reference values for weights. Pediatric and Developmental Pathology. 2002;5(5):495–498. [PubMed: 12202997]
  46. Rees JM, Engelbert-Fenton KA, Gong EJ, Bach CM. Weight gain in adolescents during pregnancy: rate related to birth-weight outcome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1992;56(5):868–873. [PubMed: 1415005]
  47. Rosso P. A new chart to monitor weight gain during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1985;41(3):644–652. [PubMed: 3976565]
  48. Schieve LA, Cogswell ME, Scanlon KS. Maternal weight gain and preterm delivery: differential effects by body mass index. Epidemiology. 1999;10(2):141–147. [PubMed: 10069249]
  49. Schieve LA, Cogswell ME, Scanlon KS, Perry G, Ferre C, Blackmore-Prince C, Yu SM, Rosenberg D. Prepregnancy body mass index and pregnancy weight gain: associations with preterm delivery. The NMIHS Collaborative Study Group. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2000;96(2):194–200. [PubMed: 10908762]
  50. Scholl TO, Salmon RW, Miller LK, Vasilenko P 3rd, Furey CH, Christine M. Weight gain during adolescent pregnancy. Associated maternal characteristics and effects on birth weight. Journal of Adolescent Health Care. 1988;9(4):286–290. [PubMed: 3417502]
  51. Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Schall JI, Ances IG, Smith WK. Gestational weight gain, pregnancy outcome, and postpartum weight retention. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1995;86(3):423–427. [PubMed: 7651655]
  52. Segel JS, McAnarney ER. Adolescent pregnancy and subsequent obesity in African-American girls. Journal of Adolescent Health. 1994;15(6):491–494. [PubMed: 7811682]
  53. Siega-Riz AM, Adair LS, Hobel CJ. Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendations and pregnancy outcome in a predominantly Hispanic population. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1994;84(4):565–573. [PubMed: 8090394]
  54. Siega-Riz AM, Adair LS, Hobel CJ. Maternal underweight status and inadequate rate of weight gain during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery. Journal of Nutrition. 1996;126(1):146–153. [PubMed: 8558295]
  55. Soltani H, Fraser RB. A longitudinal study of maternal anthropometric changes in normal weight, overweight and obese women during pregnancy and postpartum. British Journal of Nutrition. 2000;84(1):95–101. [PubMed: 10961165]
  56. Stevens-Simon C, McAnarney ER. Determinants of weight gain in pregnant adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1992;92(11):1348–1351. [PubMed: 1430719]
  57. Stevens-Simon C, McAnarney ER, Roghmann KJ, Forbes GB. Composition of gestational weight gain in adolescent pregnancy. Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine. 1997;6(2):79–86. [PubMed: 9086421]
  58. Stotland NE, Cheng YW, Hopkins LM, Caughey AB. Gestational weight gain and adverse neonatal outcome among term infants. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2006;108(3 Pt 1):635–643. [PubMed: 16946225]
  59. Taffel SM, Keppel KG, Jones GK. Medical advice on maternal weight gain and actual weight gain. Results from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1993;678:293–305. [PubMed: 8494272]
  60. Takimoto H, Sugiyama T, Fukuoka H, Kato N, Yoshiike N. Maternal weight gain ranges for optimal fetal growth in Japanese women. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2006;92(3):272–278. [PubMed: 16458895]
  61. Tsukamoto H, Fukuoka H, Inoue K, Koyasu M, Nagai Y, Takimoto H. Restricting weight gain during pregnancy in Japan: a controversial factor in reducing perinatal complications. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology. 2007;133(1):53–59. [PubMed: 16934385]
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Copyright © 2009, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK32819


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