Release Notes For GenBank Release 128

GBREL.TXT          Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                         February 15 2002

               NCBI-GenBank Flat File Release 128.0

                    Distribution Release Notes

 15465325 loci, 17089143893 bases, from 15465325 reported sequences

  This document describes the format and content of the flat files that
comprise releases of the GenBank database. If you have any questions or
comments about GenBank or this document, please contact NCBI via email
at info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or:

   GenBank
   National Center for Biotechnology Information
   National Library of Medicine, 38A, 8N805
   8600 Rockville Pike
   Bethesda, MD  20894
   USA
   Phone:  (301) 496-2475
   Fax:    (301) 480-9241

==========================================================================
TABLE OF CONTENTS
==========================================================================

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Release 128.0
1.2 Cutoff Date
1.3 Important Changes in Release 128.0
1.4 Upcoming Changes
1.5 Request for Direct Submission of Sequence Data
1.6 Organization of This Document

2. ORGANIZATION OF DATA FILES

2.1 Overview
2.2 Files
     2.2.1 File Descriptions
     2.2.5 File Sizes
     2.2.6 Per-Division Statistics 
     2.2.7 Selected Per-Organism Statistics 
     2.2.8 Growth of GenBank

3. FILE FORMATS

3.1 File Header Information
3.2 Directory Files
     3.2.1 Short Directory File
3.3 Index Files
     3.3.1 Accession Number Index File
     3.3.2 Keyword Phrase Index File
     3.3.3 Author Name Index File
     3.3.4 Journal Citation Index File
     3.3.5 Gene Name Index
3.4 Sequence Entry Files
     3.4.1 File Organization
     3.4.2  Entry Organization
     3.4.3 Sample Sequence Data File
     3.4.4 LOCUS Format
     3.4.5 DEFINITION Format
          3.4.5.1 DEFINITION Format for NLM Entries
     3.4.6 ACCESSION Format
     3.4.7 VERSION Format
     3.4.8 KEYWORDS Format
     3.4.9 SEGMENT Format
     3.4.10 SOURCE Format
     3.4.11 REFERENCE Format
     3.4.12 FEATURES Format
          3.4.12.1 Feature Key Names
          3.4.12.2 Feature Location
          3.4.12.3  Feature Qualifiers
          3.4.12.4 Cross-Reference Information
          3.4.12.5 Feature Table Examples
     3.4.13 ORIGIN Format
     3.4.14 SEQUENCE Format

4. ALTERNATE RELEASES

5. KNOWN PROBLEMS OF THE GENBANK DATABASE

5.1 Incorrect Gene Symbols in Entries and Index

6. GENBANK ADMINISTRATION 

6.1 Registered Trademark Notice
6.2 Citing GenBank
6.3 GenBank Distribution Formats and Media
6.4 Other Methods of Accessing GenBank Data
6.5 Request for Corrections and Comments
6.6 Credits and Acknowledgments
6.7 Disclaimer

==========================================================================

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Release 128.0

  The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National
Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health (NIH) is responsible
for producing and distributing the GenBank Sequence Database.  NCBI handles
all GenBank direct submissions and authors are advised to use the address
below.  Submitters are encouraged to use the free Sequin software package
for sending sequence data, or the newly developed World Wide Web submission
form.  See Section 1.5 below for details.

*****************************************************************************

The address for direct submissions to GenBank is:

       GenBank Submissions
       National Center for Biotechnology Information
       Bldg 38A, Rm. 8N-803
       8600 Rockville Pike
       Bethesda, MD 20894

       E-MAIL:  gb-sub@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Updates and changes to existing GenBank records:

       E-MAIL:  update@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

URL for the new GenBank submission tool - BankIt - on the World Wide Web:

       http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/

(see Section 1.5 for additional details about submitting data to GenBank.)

*****************************************************************************

  GenBank Release 128.0 is a release of sequence data by NCBI in the GenBank
flat file format.  GenBank is a component of a tri-partite, international
collaboration of sequence databases in the U.S., Europe, and Japan.  The
collaborating databases in Europe are the European Molecular Biology Laboratory
(EMBL) at Hinxton Hall, UK, and the DNA Database of Japan (DDBJ) in Mishima,
Japan. Sequence data is also incorporated from the Genome Sequence Data Base
(GSDB), Santa Fe, NM.  Patent sequences are incorporated through arrangements
with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and via the collaborating
international databases from other international patent offices.  The database
is converted to various output formats, including the Flat File and Abstract
Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1) versions.  The ASN.1 and Flat File forms of the data
are available at NCBI's anonymous FTP server: ftp.ncbi.nih.gov .

1.2 Cutoff Date

  This full release, 128.0, incorporates data available to the collaborating
databases as of February 13, 2002.  For more recent data, users are advised to:

  o Download the GenBank Update files by anonymous FTP to 'ftp.ncbi.nih.gov':

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/ncbi-asn1 (ASN.1 format)
	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank   (flatfile format)

    Mirrors of the GenBank FTP site at the NCBI are available from the San Diego
    Supercomputer Center and the University of Indiana:

	ftp://genbank.sdsc.edu/pub
	ftp://bio-mirror.net/biomirror/genbank/

    Some users who experience slow FTP transfers of large files (entire releases,
    the GenBank Cumulative Update, etc) might realize an improvement in transfer
    rates from these alternate sites when traffic at the NCBI is high.

  o Use the Network-Entrez or Web-Entrez applications to query interactively
    the Entrez: Nucleotides database (see Section 6.4 of this document).

  o Use the NCBI 'query' email server to search the GenBank Updates. Instructions
    regarding the use of the e-mail server can be obtained by sending an email
    message with the word 'help' in it to:  query@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

1.3 Important Changes in Release 128.0

1.3.1 Organizational changes

  Due to database growth, the BCT division is now being split into 5 pieces.

  Due to database growth, the EST division is now being split into 148 pieces.

  Due to database growth, the GSS division is now being split into 49 pieces.

  Due to database growth, the HTG division is now being split into 29 pieces.

  Due to database growth, the INV division is now being split into 5 pieces.

  Due to database growth, the PAT division is now being split into 4 pieces.

  Due to database growth, the PRI division is now being split into 17 pieces.

1.3.2 GSS File Header Problem

  GSS sequences at GenBank are maintained in one of two different systems,
depending on their origin. One recent change to release processing involves
the parallelization of the dumps from those systems. Because the second dump
(for example) has no prior knowledge of exactly how many GSS files will be
dumped from the first, it doesn't know how to number it's own output files.
There is thus a discrepancy between the filenames and file headers of eight
GSS flatfiles in Release 128.0. Consider the gbgss42.seq file:

GBGSS1.SEQ           Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                          February 15 2002

                 NCBI-GenBank Flat File Release 128

                           GSS Sequences (Part 1)

  Here, the part number in the header is "1", though the file has been
renamed as "42" based on the files dumped from the other system. We will
work to resolve this discrepancy in future releases, but the priority is
admittedly much lower than many other tasks.

1.4 Upcoming Changes

1.4.1 New CONSRTM linetype for references.

  In order to capture the names of consortia and other groups that are involved
in large-scale sequencing projects, a new linetype called CONSRTM will become
legal in the REFERENCE block of the GenBank flatfile format as of June, 2002 .

  Consider, for example, the literature citation associated with PubMed
identifier 11237011 :

  Nature 2001 Feb 15;409(6822):860-921
  Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.

In addition to the very long list of author names, a consortium is associated
with this publication:

  International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium

  With the addition of a CONSRTM linetype, collective names like this will
have a dedicated location in the flatfile format. Records which currently
attempt to force consortium names into the last entry of the AUTHORS line
will be updated to utilize the new linetype.

  Note that multiple consortia for a REFERENCE may exist, in which case
they will be separated by a semi-colon. It is also possible that references
with a CONSRTM linetype will not have any individual AUTHORS at all.

1.4.2 New REFERENCE type for on-line journals

  Agreement was reached at the May 1999 collaborative DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank
meeting that an effort should be made to accomodate references which are
published only on-line. Until specifications for such references are
available from library organizations, GenBank will present them in the
following manner, starting with GenBank Release 129.0 in April 2002 :

	REFERENCE   1  (bases 1 to 2858)
	  AUTHORS   Smith, J.
	  TITLE     Cloning and expression of a phospholipase gene
	  JOURNAL   Online Publication
	  REMARK    Online-Journal-name; Article Identifier; URL

1.4.3 Selenocysteine representation

  Selenocysteine residues within the protein translations of coding
region features have been represented in GenBank via the letter 'X'
and a /transl_except qualifier. At the May 1999 DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank
collaborative meeting, it was learned that IUPAC plans to adopt the
letter 'U' for selenocysteine.

  DDBJ, EMBL, and GenBank will thus use this new amino acid abbreviation
for its /translation qualifiers. Although a timetable for its appearance
has not been finalized, we are mentioning this now because the introduction
of a new residue abbreviation is a fairly fundamental change.

  Details about the use of 'U' will be made available via these release
notes and the GenBank newsgroup as they become available.

1.5 Request for Direct Submission of Sequence Data

  A successful GenBank requires that sequence data enter the database as
soon as possible after publication, that the annotations be as complete as
possible, and that the sequence and annotation data be accurate. All
three of these requirements are best met if authors of sequence data
submit their data directly to GenBank in a usable form. It is especially
important that these submissions be in computer-readable form.

  GenBank must rely on direct author submission of data to ensure that
it achieves its goals of completeness, accuracy, and timeliness. To
assist researchers in entering their own sequence data, GenBank
provides a WWW submission tool called BankIt, as well as a stand-alone
software package called Sequin. BankIt and Sequin are both easy-to-use
programs that enable authors to enter a sequence, annotate it, and
submit it to GenBank.  Through the international collaboration of DNA
sequence databases, GenBank submissions are forwarded daily for inclusion
in the EMBL and DDBJ databases.

  SEQUIN.  Sequin is an interactive, graphically-oriented program based
on screen forms and controlled vocabularies that guides you through the
process of entering your sequence and providing biological and
bibliographic annotation.  Sequin is designed to simplify the sequence submission
process, and to provide increased data handling capabilities to accomodate
very long sequences, complex annotations, and robust error checking.  E-mail
the completed submission file to : gb-sub@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  Sequin is provided for Macintosh, PC/Windows, UNIX and VMS computers.
It is available by annonymous ftp from ftp.ncbi.nih.gov; login as
anonymous and use your e-mail address as the password. It is located in
the sequin directory. Or direct your web browser to this URL:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/sequin

  BANKIT.  BankIt provides a simple forms approach for submitting your
sequence and descriptive information to GenBank.  Your submission will
be submitted directly to GenBank via the World Wide Web, and
immediately forwarded for inclusion in the EMBL and DDBJ databases.
BankIt may be used with Netscape, Internet Explorer, and other common
WWW clients. You can access BankIt from GenBank's home page:   

	http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/

  AUTHORIN.  Authorin sequence submissions are no longer accepted by
GenBank, and the Authorin application is no longer distributed by NCBI.  

  If you have questions about GenBank submissions or any of the data
submission tools, contact NCBI at: info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or 301-496-2475.

1.6 Organization of This Document

  The second section describes the contents of GenBank releases. The third
section illustrates the formats of the flat files.  The fourth section
describes other versions of the data, the fifth section identifies known prob-
lems, and the sixth contains administrative details.

2. ORGANIZATION OF DATA FILES

2.1 Overview

  GenBank releases consist of a set of ASCII text files, most of which
contain sequence data. A few supplemental "index" files are also supplied,
containing comprehensive lists of author names, journal citations,
gene names, and keywords, along with the accession numbers of the records
in which they can be found (see Section 3.3). The line-lengths of
these files is variable.

2.2 Files

  This GenBank flat file release consists of 296 files. The lists
that follow describe each of the files included in the distribution.
Their sizes and base pair content are also summarized.

2.2.1 File Descriptions

1.  gbrel.txt	- Release notes (this document).
2.  gbsdr.txt 	- Short directory of the data bank.
3.  gbacc.idx 	- Index of the entries according to accession number.
4.  gbkey.idx 	- Index of the entries according to keyword phrase.
5.  gbaut1.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 1.
6.  gbaut2.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 2.
7.  gbaut3.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 3.
8.  gbaut4.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 4.
9.  gbaut5.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 5.
10. gbaut6.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 6.
11. gbaut7.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 7.
12. gbaut8.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 8.
13. gbaut9.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 9.
14. gbaut10.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 10.
15. gbaut11.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 11.
16. gbjou.idx 	- Index of the entries according to journal citation.
17. gbgen.idx 	- Index of the entries according to gene names.
18. gbsec.idx	- Index of the entries according to secondary accession number.
19. gbpri1.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 1.
20. gbpri2.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 2.
21. gbpri3.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 3.
22. gbpri4.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 4.
23. gbpri5.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 5.
24. gbpri6.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 6.
25. gbpri7.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 7.
26. gbpri8.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 8.
27. gbpri9.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 9.
28. gbpri10.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 10.
29. gbpri11.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 11.
30. gbpri12.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 12.
31. gbpri13.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 13.
32. gbpri14.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 14.
33. gbpri15.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 15.
34. gbpri16.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 16.
35. gbpri17.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 17.
36. gbrod1.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 1.
37. gbrod2.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 2.
38. gbmam.seq 	- Other mammalian sequence entries.
39. gbvrt.seq 	- Other vertebrate sequence entries.
40. gbinv1.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 1.
41. gbinv2.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 2.
42. gbinv3.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 3.
43. gbinv4.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 4.
44. gbinv5.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 5.
45. gbpln1.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 1.
46. gbpln2.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 2.
47. gbpln3.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 3.
48. gbpln4.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 4.
49. gbpln5.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 5.
50. gbbct1.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 1.
51. gbbct2.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 2.
52. gbbct3.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 3.
53. gbbct4.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 4.
54. gbbct5.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 5.
55. gbvrl1.seq 	- Viral sequence entries, part 1.
56. gbvrl2.seq 	- Viral sequence entries, part 2.
57. gbphg.seq 	- Phage sequence entries.
58. gbsyn.seq 	- Synthetic and chimeric sequence entries.
59. gbuna.seq 	- Unannotated sequence entries.
60. gbest1.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 1.
61. gbest2.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 2.
62. gbest3.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 3.
63. gbest4.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 4.
64. gbest5.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 5.
65. gbest6.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 6.
66. gbest7.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 7.
67. gbest8.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 8.
68. gbest9.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 9.
69. gbest10.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 10.
70. gbest11.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 11.
71. gbest12.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 12.
72. gbest13.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 13.
73. gbest14.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 14.
74. gbest15.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 15.
75. gbest16.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 16.
76. gbest17.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 17.
77. gbest18.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 18.
78. gbest19.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 19.
79. gbest20.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 20.
80. gbest21.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 21.
81. gbest22.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 22.
82. gbest23.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 23.
83. gbest24.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 24.
84. gbest25.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 25.
85. gbest26.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 26.
86. gbest27.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 27.
87. gbest28.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 28.
88. gbest29.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 29.
89. gbest30.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 30.
90. gbest31.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 31.
91. gbest32.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 32.
92. gbest33.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 33.
93. gbest34.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 34.
94. gbest35.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 35.
95. gbest36.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 36.
96. gbest37.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 37.
97. gbest38.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 38.
98. gbest39.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 39.
99. gbest40.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 40.
100. gbest41.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 41.
101. gbest42.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 42.
102. gbest43.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 43.
103. gbest44.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 44.
104. gbest45.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 45.
105. gbest46.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 46.
106. gbest47.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 47.
107. gbest48.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 48.
108. gbest49.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 49.
109. gbest50.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 50.
110. gbest51.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 51.
111. gbest52.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 52.
112. gbest53.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 53.
113. gbest54.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 54.
114. gbest55.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 55.
115. gbest56.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 56.
116. gbest57.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 57.
117. gbest58.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 58.
118. gbest59.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 59.
119. gbest60.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 60.
120. gbest61.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 61.
121. gbest62.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 62.
122. gbest63.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 63.
123. gbest64.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 64.
124. gbest65.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 65.
125. gbest66.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 66.
126. gbest67.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 67.
127. gbest68.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 68.
128. gbest69.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 69.
129. gbest70.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 70.
130. gbest71.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 71.
131. gbest72.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 72.
132. gbest73.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 73.
133. gbest74.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 74.
134. gbest75.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 75.
135. gbest76.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 76.
136. gbest77.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 77.
137. gbest78.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 78.
138. gbest79.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 79.
139. gbest80.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 80.
140. gbest81.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 81.
141. gbest82.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 82.
142. gbest83.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 83.
143. gbest84.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 84.
144. gbest85.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 85.
145. gbest86.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 86.
146. gbest87.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 87.
147. gbest88.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 88.
148. gbest89.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 89
149. gbest90.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 90.
150. gbest91.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 91.
151. gbest92.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 92.
152. gbest93.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 93.
153. gbest94.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 94.
154. gbest95.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 95.
155. gbest96.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 96.
156. gbest97.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 97.
157. gbest98.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 98.
158. gbest99.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 99.
159. gbest100.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 100.
160. gbest101.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 101.
161. gbest102.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 102.
162. gbest103.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 103.
163. gbest104.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 104.
164. gbest105.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 105.
165. gbest106.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 106.
166. gbest107.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 107.
167. gbest108.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 108.
168. gbest109.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 109.
169. gbest110.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 110.
170. gbest111.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 111.
171. gbest112.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 112.
172. gbest113.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 113.
173. gbest114.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 114.
174. gbest115.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 115.
175. gbest116.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 116.
176. gbest117.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 117.
177. gbest118.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 118.
178. gbest119.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 119.
179. gbest120.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 120.
180. gbest121.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 121.
181. gbest122.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 122.
182. gbest123.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 123.
183. gbest124.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 124.
184. gbest125.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 125.
185. gbest126.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 126.
186. gbest127.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 127.
187. gbest128.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 128.
188. gbest129.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 129.
189. gbest130.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 130.
190. gbest131.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 131.
191. gbest132.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 132.
192. gbest133.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 133.
193. gbest134.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 134.
194. gbest135.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 135.
195. gbest136.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 136.
196. gbest137.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 137.
197. gbest138.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 138.
198. gbest139.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 139.
199. gbest140.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 140.
200. gbest141.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 141.
201. gbest142.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 142.
202. gbest143.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 143.
203. gbest144.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 144.
204. gbest145.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 145.
205. gbest146.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 146.
206. gbest147.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 147.
207. gbest148.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 148.
208. gbpat1.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 1.
209. gbpat2.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 2.
210. gbpat3.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 3.
211. gbpat4.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 4.
212. gbsts1.seq  - STS (sequence tagged site) sequence entries, part 1.
213. gbsts2.seq  - STS (sequence tagged site) sequence entries, part 2.
214. gbgss1.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 1.
215. gbgss2.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 2.
216. gbgss3.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 3.
217. gbgss4.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 4.
218. gbgss5.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 5.
219. gbgss6.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 6.
220. gbgss7.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 7.
221. gbgss8.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 8.
222. gbgss9.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 9.
223. gbgss10.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 10.
224. gbgss11.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 11.
225. gbgss12.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 12.
226. gbgss13.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 13.
227. gbgss14.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 14.
228. gbgss15.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 15.
229. gbgss16.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 16.
230. gbgss17.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 17.
231. gbgss18.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 18.
232. gbgss19.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 19.
233. gbgss20.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 20.
234. gbgss21.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 21.
235. gbgss22.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 22.
236. gbgss23.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 23.
237. gbgss24.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 24.
238. gbgss25.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 25.
239. gbgss26.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 26.
240. gbgss27.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 27.
241. gbgss28.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 28.
242. gbgss29.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 29.
243. gbgss30.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 30.
244. gbgss31.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 31.
245. gbgss32.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 32.
246. gbgss33.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 33.
247. gbgss34.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 34.
248. gbgss35.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 35.
249. gbgss36.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 36.
250. gbgss37.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 37.
251. gbgss38.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 38.
252. gbgss39.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 39.
253. gbgss40.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 40.
254. gbgss41.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 41.
255. gbgss42.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 42.
256. gbgss43.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 43.
257. gbgss44.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 44.
258. gbgss45.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 45.
259. gbgss46.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 46.
260. gbgss47.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 47.
261. gbgss48.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 48.
262. gbgss49.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 49.
263. gbhtg1.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 1.
264. gbhtg2.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 2.
265. gbhtg3.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 3.
266. gbhtg4.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 4.
267. gbhtg5.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 5.
268. gbhtg6.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 6.
269. gbhtg7.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 7.
270. gbhtg8.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 8.
271. gbhtg9.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 9.
272. gbhtg10.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 10.
273. gbhtg11.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 11.
274. gbhtg12.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 12.
275. gbhtg13.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 13.
276. gbhtg14.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 14.
277. gbhtg15.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 15.
278. gbhtg16.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 16.
279. gbhtg17.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 17.
280. gbhtg18.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 18.
281. gbhtg19.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 19.
282. gbhtg20.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 20.
283. gbhtg21.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 21.
284. gbhtg22.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 22.
285. gbhtg23.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 23.
286. gbhtg24.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 24.
287. gbhtg25.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 25.
288. gbhtg26.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 26.
289. gbhtg27.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 27.
290. gbhtg28.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 28.
291. gbhtg29.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 29.
292. gbhtc.seq	 - HTC (high throughput cDNA sequencing) entries.

  Three supplemental files provide the accession numbers of GenBank entries
that are new, updated, or deleted since the previous release:

a.  gbchg.txt	- Entries updated since the previous release.
b.  gbdel.txt	- Entries deleted since the previous release.
c.  gbnew.txt	- Entries new since the previous release.

  An experimental file called gbcon.seq provides an alternative representation
for complex sequences, such as "segmented sets" and complete-genomes that have
been split into pieces. The GenBank README describes the experimental CON
division of GenBank in more detail:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank/README.genbank

2.2.5 File Sizes

  Uncompressed, the Release 128.0 flatfiles require roughly 60912 MB
(sequence files only) or 67461 MB (including the 'index' files).  The
following table contains the approximate sizes of the individual files
in this release.  Since minor changes to some of the files might have
occurred after these release notes were written, these sizes should not
be used to determine file integrity; they are provided as an aid to
planning only.

File Size      File Name

503028032      gbacc.idx
500951913      gbaut1.idx
502136273      gbaut10.idx
164626388      gbaut11.idx
500006384      gbaut2.idx
510947593      gbaut3.idx
510474961      gbaut4.idx
510690860      gbaut5.idx
502261399      gbaut6.idx
500000333      gbaut7.idx
511169705      gbaut8.idx
507239986      gbaut9.idx
250021441      gbbct1.seq
250031422      gbbct2.seq
250014724      gbbct3.seq
250000019      gbbct4.seq
 13444091      gbbct5.seq
  3293677      gbchg.txt
   893586      gbdel.txt
230690037      gbest1.seq
230690322      gbest10.seq
230687530      gbest100.seq
229270649      gbest101.seq
228390754      gbest102.seq
230688159      gbest103.seq
230688118      gbest104.seq
230689018      gbest105.seq
230689070      gbest106.seq
230690281      gbest107.seq
230687464      gbest108.seq
230690677      gbest109.seq
230688112      gbest11.seq
230688734      gbest110.seq
230690061      gbest111.seq
230689354      gbest112.seq
230690093      gbest113.seq
230689750      gbest114.seq
230688480      gbest115.seq
230688094      gbest116.seq
230688972      gbest117.seq
230688067      gbest118.seq
230689931      gbest119.seq
230688144      gbest12.seq
230688058      gbest120.seq
230689174      gbest121.seq
230690364      gbest122.seq
230688008      gbest123.seq
230688508      gbest124.seq
230687508      gbest125.seq
230689374      gbest126.seq
230690375      gbest127.seq
230691809      gbest128.seq
230690931      gbest129.seq
230688366      gbest13.seq
230689007      gbest130.seq
230689666      gbest131.seq
230689849      gbest132.seq
230690313      gbest133.seq
230689839      gbest134.seq
230687774      gbest135.seq
230688899      gbest136.seq
230689330      gbest137.seq
230688620      gbest138.seq
230687936      gbest139.seq
230687682      gbest14.seq
230688130      gbest140.seq
230690718      gbest141.seq
230689557      gbest142.seq
230688538      gbest143.seq
230688275      gbest144.seq
230688050      gbest145.seq
229750170      gbest146.seq
230690658      gbest147.seq
 97015926      gbest148.seq
230690332      gbest15.seq
230688116      gbest16.seq
230689655      gbest17.seq
230688691      gbest18.seq
230687504      gbest19.seq
229418642      gbest2.seq
230689805      gbest20.seq
230689674      gbest21.seq
230687847      gbest22.seq
230688441      gbest23.seq
230688091      gbest24.seq
230688562      gbest25.seq
230688389      gbest26.seq
230689275      gbest27.seq
230689978      gbest28.seq
230689116      gbest29.seq
230188207      gbest3.seq
230687923      gbest30.seq
230687792      gbest31.seq
226651946      gbest32.seq
190222890      gbest33.seq
190205567      gbest34.seq
217211544      gbest35.seq
215631433      gbest36.seq
215365314      gbest37.seq
216365979      gbest38.seq
230689220      gbest39.seq
230690230      gbest4.seq
230687541      gbest40.seq
219886265      gbest41.seq
230687841      gbest42.seq
230689780      gbest43.seq
230689586      gbest44.seq
230688823      gbest45.seq
230690591      gbest46.seq
230689087      gbest47.seq
230689792      gbest48.seq
230691559      gbest49.seq
163473882      gbest5.seq
230689282      gbest50.seq
230690442      gbest51.seq
230689638      gbest52.seq
230690049      gbest53.seq
228798595      gbest54.seq
230688741      gbest55.seq
224218201      gbest56.seq
209063377      gbest57.seq
208379866      gbest58.seq
208125327      gbest59.seq
179767388      gbest6.seq
208597355      gbest60.seq
209824136      gbest61.seq
208866968      gbest62.seq
207598357      gbest63.seq
209201711      gbest64.seq
209614696      gbest65.seq
204989467      gbest66.seq
206513872      gbest67.seq
207167584      gbest68.seq
207961954      gbest69.seq
230689722      gbest7.seq
216651071      gbest70.seq
230693096      gbest71.seq
230691420      gbest72.seq
229390506      gbest73.seq
214070493      gbest74.seq
212416568      gbest75.seq
215698751      gbest76.seq
230689841      gbest77.seq
230689702      gbest78.seq
230690399      gbest79.seq
230688657      gbest8.seq
230689574      gbest80.seq
230688660      gbest81.seq
230688518      gbest82.seq
230689501      gbest83.seq
230688253      gbest84.seq
230687460      gbest85.seq
230690175      gbest86.seq
230687680      gbest87.seq
230688191      gbest88.seq
230687782      gbest89.seq
230688188      gbest9.seq
230687577      gbest90.seq
230687443      gbest91.seq
230690160      gbest92.seq
230689920      gbest93.seq
230689987      gbest94.seq
230688929      gbest95.seq
230688811      gbest96.seq
230688177      gbest97.seq
230689974      gbest98.seq
230689046      gbest99.seq
 19735959      gbgen.idx
209716717      gbgss1.seq
209716070      gbgss10.seq
209718549      gbgss11.seq
209718879      gbgss12.seq
209718693      gbgss13.seq
209717934      gbgss14.seq
209716179      gbgss15.seq
209716064      gbgss16.seq
209718052      gbgss17.seq
209716786      gbgss18.seq
209718779      gbgss19.seq
209718057      gbgss2.seq
209717443      gbgss20.seq
209716354      gbgss21.seq
209718903      gbgss22.seq
209718622      gbgss23.seq
209717362      gbgss24.seq
209719281      gbgss25.seq
209718654      gbgss26.seq
209719115      gbgss27.seq
209718593      gbgss28.seq
209717972      gbgss29.seq
209716784      gbgss3.seq
209719761      gbgss30.seq
209717424      gbgss31.seq
209716996      gbgss32.seq
209718798      gbgss33.seq
209717061      gbgss34.seq
209716238      gbgss35.seq
209716121      gbgss36.seq
209719079      gbgss37.seq
209718379      gbgss38.seq
209717543      gbgss39.seq
209718571      gbgss4.seq
209718730      gbgss40.seq
 65783562      gbgss41.seq
250001498      gbgss42.seq
250000221      gbgss43.seq
250000457      gbgss44.seq
250003168      gbgss45.seq
250001954      gbgss46.seq
250003886      gbgss47.seq
250000606      gbgss48.seq
147301947      gbgss49.seq
209717588      gbgss5.seq
209716419      gbgss6.seq
209716108      gbgss7.seq
209718069      gbgss8.seq
209717581      gbgss9.seq
165442561      gbhtc.seq
250038384      gbhtg1.seq
250140491      gbhtg10.seq
250103098      gbhtg11.seq
250038563      gbhtg12.seq
250077851      gbhtg13.seq
250179904      gbhtg14.seq
250007204      gbhtg15.seq
250199170      gbhtg16.seq
250013570      gbhtg17.seq
250009818      gbhtg18.seq
250033550      gbhtg19.seq
250124877      gbhtg2.seq
250032103      gbhtg20.seq
250035987      gbhtg21.seq
250168930      gbhtg22.seq
250150184      gbhtg23.seq
250206954      gbhtg24.seq
250035034      gbhtg25.seq
250262540      gbhtg26.seq
250103058      gbhtg27.seq
250015327      gbhtg28.seq
160011306      gbhtg29.seq
250020074      gbhtg3.seq
250052665      gbhtg4.seq
250086877      gbhtg5.seq
250170104      gbhtg6.seq
250026353      gbhtg7.seq
250035862      gbhtg8.seq
250065325      gbhtg9.seq
250008117      gbinv1.seq
250001784      gbinv2.seq
250003807      gbinv3.seq
250012883      gbinv4.seq
 26904264      gbinv5.seq
453756864      gbjou.idx
351419643      gbkey.idx
118790497      gbmam.seq
  8485591      gbnew.txt
250000175      gbpat1.seq
250000378      gbpat2.seq
250001419      gbpat3.seq
124156711      gbpat4.seq
 15716669      gbphg.seq
250001418      gbpln1.seq
250012831      gbpln2.seq
250005019      gbpln3.seq
250005737      gbpln4.seq
112842117      gbpln5.seq
250077820      gbpri1.seq
250056179      gbpri10.seq
250053901      gbpri11.seq
250062874      gbpri12.seq
250003479      gbpri13.seq
250086593      gbpri14.seq
250000258      gbpri15.seq
250039739      gbpri16.seq
204083128      gbpri17.seq
250000860      gbpri2.seq
250270208      gbpri3.seq
250062520      gbpri4.seq
250095605      gbpri5.seq
250042996      gbpri6.seq
250253269      gbpri7.seq
250000427      gbpri8.seq
250037790      gbpri9.seq
   117290      gbrel.txt
250004339      gbrod1.seq
184283761      gbrod2.seq
189873783      gbsdr.txt
  1250302      gbsec.idx
250001633      gbsts1.seq
 62093730      gbsts2.seq
 30191966      gbsyn.seq
  1398529      gbuna.seq
250019922      gbvrl1.seq
244658220      gbvrl2.seq
229048956      gbvrt.seq

2.2.6 Per-Division Statistics 

  The following table provides a per-division breakdown of the number of
sequence entries and the total number of bases of DNA/RNA in each sequence
data file:

Division     Entries    Bases

BCT1         17242      104071994
BCT2         52487      91393322
BCT3         20528      104856169
BCT4         37599      92689137
BCT5         3730       4426581
EST1         68773      26545772
EST10        77013      29996474
EST100       77033      34990963
EST101       74684      27804508
EST102       75850      26009599
EST103       74039      40898647
EST104       67090      33623126
EST105       79355      49787247
EST106       79983      45577166
EST107       72776      46221674
EST108       69776      42848034
EST109       73629      47922721
EST11        76719      29103405
EST110       68502      44627304
EST111       73700      44972504
EST112       78106      45215877
EST113       72416      49600071
EST114       75501      48235014
EST115       76942      47725432
EST116       77890      33089726
EST117       79195      32449744
EST118       80491      47558856
EST119       75481      42827614
EST12        77229      30857259
EST120       65236      35578181
EST121       74061      38281720
EST122       69453      40315995
EST123       66319      36037050
EST124       72211      43886464
EST125       73025      44566980
EST126       68168      39418185
EST127       74587      41867891
EST128       70772      43556913
EST129       63508      39618100
EST13        78138      30133781
EST130       79783      43185981
EST131       102661     57082382
EST132       74703      41404170
EST133       67392      39039601
EST134       66828      30592673
EST135       60071      29602855
EST136       59125      30494467
EST137       59663      29820593
EST138       63697      33372514
EST139       80585      54981601
EST14        79481      31822567
EST140       116334     42246443
EST141       91121      29733706
EST142       70696      25081244
EST143       74110      27911612
EST144       74663      26456199
EST145       80528      27353661
EST146       74137      27022486
EST147       69189      29646830
EST148       35364      12001122
EST15        73208      31055434
EST16        75596      33138099
EST17        84891      34429825
EST18        79637      32466903
EST19        81638      34023381
EST2         75204      28875252
EST20        72715      29321846
EST21        72847      33764015
EST22        77425      30802536
EST23        76704      31766758
EST24        76070      34734853
EST25        73330      31022731
EST26        76046      31276342
EST27        80508      35928277
EST28        76624      40468509
EST29        78673      60095263
EST3         74151      30100582
EST30        99197      50278882
EST31        97124      49876651
EST32        93856      38507656
EST33        69110      18487599
EST34        68793      18389981
EST35        61062      18721398
EST36        43485      11901119
EST37        43105      11855880
EST38        42998      11379353
EST39        82699      34317495
EST4         74697      28214378
EST40        96891      44019364
EST41        89763      46968904
EST42        105708     54203166
EST43        85535      42860190
EST44        75101      31671550
EST45        69354      30813413
EST46        71257      30966817
EST47        74450      31163754
EST48        83096      32947027
EST49        71564      27923488
EST5         48481      15353219
EST50        64850      29438953
EST51        74890      32330963
EST52        75126      35290306
EST53        76754      33643709
EST54        74037      25797829
EST55        82105      33265906
EST56        65899      27659140
EST57        40026      11327042
EST58        40160      11707889
EST59        40358      12583870
EST6         56216      18205851
EST60        40555      12246236
EST61        40502      12640322
EST62        40501      12771876
EST63        40465      12243926
EST64        40187      12312420
EST65        40411      12391517
EST66        41239      12035889
EST67        41193      12715752
EST68        41122      13024805
EST69        41009      13066590
EST7         74824      29474752
EST70        44253      12186889
EST71        42580      21971207
EST72        41376      23755231
EST73        43556      17890426
EST74        50376      23037210
EST75        51586      21401089
EST76        52332      21672410
EST77        76035      32612749
EST78        74319      29411857
EST79        74728      32420523
EST8         76875      30892865
EST80        76966      46165582
EST81        78843      41620314
EST82        76405      39408857
EST83        79931      39307899
EST84        70976      41719013
EST85        74469      32545080
EST86        75715      40256795
EST87        71346      36227435
EST88        78291      50877043
EST89        66459      34566373
EST9         78093      30163272
EST90        72665      37353322
EST91        74368      44678751
EST92        73592      43510787
EST93        71389      42665224
EST94        74941      40473315
EST95        70604      30886595
EST96        68137      32283364
EST97        66054      38361547
EST98        71065      38104436
EST99        70351      45603191
GSS1         83918      35975679
GSS10        67041      35932300
GSS11        70549      39766169
GSS12        61926      32288225
GSS13        68349      35567650
GSS14        68314      34821526
GSS15        66057      29680046
GSS16        64214      31916988
GSS17        72723      43572457
GSS18        65742      30771500
GSS19        57839      26820112
GSS2         83761      36209938
GSS20        52349      27224807
GSS21        53009      25506424
GSS22        53986      22989085
GSS23        59503      37868797
GSS24        57330      26718550
GSS25        53419      25353865
GSS26        64419      41420470
GSS27        60990      24464171
GSS28        53785      23471017
GSS29        60048      29464934
GSS3         83098      38771424
GSS30        62223      30369358
GSS31        64393      35944030
GSS32        81902      36229684
GSS33        69563      37337789
GSS34        66457      41743590
GSS35        67159      38262618
GSS36        74203      37279326
GSS37        70350      37501031
GSS38        75986      42720264
GSS39        86251      57274127
GSS4         75069      38543613
GSS40        85760      55777394
GSS41        22981      8444025
GSS42        84274      64354451
GSS43        81028      60806665
GSS44        81985      65777341
GSS45        76624      63792540
GSS46        74611      63003406
GSS47        66556      64690504
GSS48        86816      54794965
GSS49        58049      25747842
GSS5         72255      38637828
GSS6         70394      35252299
GSS7         72357      36317746
GSS8         71871      36770690
GSS9         68948      34193619
HTC          23939      31235411
HTG1         1283       191510182
HTG10        1264       188731872
HTG11        1166       190360964
HTG12        1166       190510376
HTG13        1403       188466301
HTG14        1402       189362499
HTG15        1218       190679702
HTG16        1344       184626557
HTG17        1428       185329881
HTG18        1489       185790209
HTG19        1774       182544926
HTG2         1271       189948485
HTG20        2443       173460655
HTG21        1771       184433809
HTG22        1421       185387220
HTG23        2123       183435702
HTG24        2299       183364963
HTG25        1163       192545029
HTG26        1008       194739043
HTG27        1092       192534630
HTG28        1294       191930596
HTG29        819        121492689
HTG3         3131       187805154
HTG4         2247       189222930
HTG5         2173       190035573
HTG6         1259       189231803
HTG7         1286       188303878
HTG8         1210       189332326
HTG9         1229       188780229
INV1         7438       179215934
INV2         6913       162577928
INV3         64855      86348689
INV4         35556      115459906
INV5         1245       15700540
MAM          37265      38227357
PAT1         222251     70340007
PAT2         147675     83820987
PAT3         105472     111053915
PAT4         96769      30322830
PHG          1881       6011354
PLN1         26783      133494380
PLN2         75492      80189807
PLN3         23174      127682117
PLN4         58285      90739049
PLN5         18245      47704735
PRI1         10377      160958621
PRI10        1593       177748519
PRI11        1648       179602952
PRI12        2140       183492382
PRI13        7364       175502489
PRI14        20302      149866738
PRI15        28870      137233689
PRI16        39082      126550917
PRI17        50278      79158292
PRI2         1382       173947094
PRI3         1292       183296370
PRI4         1179       174700498
PRI5         1194       179407620
PRI6         1250       173887791
PRI7         1383       176652929
PRI8         15836      163029149
PRI9         34085      127603946
ROD1         30463      137589141
ROD2         47518      64387722
STS1         86663      35196064
STS2         26561      9499402
SYN          6717       12439694
UNA          667        330581
VRL1         75102      62945401
VRL2         72123      66779068
VRT          69342      72832825

2.2.7 Selected Per-Organism Statistics 

  The following table provides the number of entries and bases of DNA/RNA for
the twenty most sequenced organisms in Release 128.0 (chloroplast and mitochon-
drial sequences not included):

Entries      Bases   Species

5230974 8242537293   Homo sapiens
3535771 2619042515   Mus musculus
402487  1058062734   Rattus norvegicus
328165   666672794   Drosophila melanogaster
209574   367443679   Oryza sativa
224766   279095020   Arabidopsis thaliana
196851   221097337   Caenorhabditis elegans
189066   165746672   Tetraodon nigroviridis
160327   150223453   Pan troglodytes
199339   132154949   Brassica oleracea
237369   120533407   Bos taurus
195458   114913763   Danio rerio
233551   106834331   Glycine max
200940   102692364   Xenopus laevis
208338    93920641   Zea mays
160455    83402180   Lycopersicon esculentum
140819    72490418   Medicago truncatula
80590     72104802   Entamoeba histolytica
106882    66276523   Hordeum vulgare
112505    64355181   Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

2.2.8 Growth of GenBank

  The following table lists the number of bases and the number of sequence
records in each release of GenBank, beginning with Release 3 in 1982.
From 1982 to the present, the number of bases in GenBank has doubled
approximately every 14 months.

Release      Date     Base Pairs   Entries

    3    Dec 1982         680338       606
   14    Nov 1983        2274029      2427
   20    May 1984        3002088      3665
   24    Sep 1984        3323270      4135
   25    Oct 1984        3368765      4175
   26    Nov 1984        3689752      4393
   32    May 1985        4211931      4954
   36    Sep 1985        5204420      5700
   40    Feb 1986        5925429      6642
   42    May 1986        6765476      7416
   44    Aug 1986        8442357      8823
   46    Nov 1986        9615371      9978
   48    Feb 1987       10961380     10913
   50    May 1987       13048473     12534
   52    Aug 1987       14855145     14020
   53    Sep 1987       15514776     14584
   54    Dec 1987       16752872     15465
   55    Mar 1988       19156002     17047
   56    Jun 1988       20795279     18226
   57    Sep 1988       22019698     19044
   57.1  Oct 1988       23800000     20579
   58    Dec 1988       24690876     21248
   59    Mar 1989       26382491     22479
   60    Jun 1989       31808784     26317
   61    Sep 1989       34762585     28791
   62    Dec 1989       37183950     31229
   63    Mar 1990       40127752     33377
   64    Jun 1990       42495893     35100
   65    Sep 1990       49179285     39533
   66    Dec 1990       51306092     41057
   67    Mar 1991       55169276     43903
   68    Jun 1991       65868799     51418
   69    Sep 1991       71947426     55627
   70    Dec 1991       77337678     58952
   71    Mar 1992       83894652     65100
   72    Jun 1992       92160761     71280
   73    Sep 1992      101008486     78608
   74    Dec 1992      120242234     97084
   75    Feb 1993      126212259    106684
   76    Apr 1993      129968355    111911
   77    Jun 1993      138904393    120134
   78    Aug 1993      147215633    131328
   79    Oct 1993      157152442    143492
   80    Dec 1993      163802597    150744
   81    Feb 1994      173261500    162946
   82    Apr 1994      180589455    169896
   83    Jun 1994      191393939    182753
   84    Aug 1994      201815802    196703
   85    Oct 1994      217102462    215273
   86    Dec 1994      230485928    237775
   87    Feb 1995      248499214    269478
   88    Apr 1995      286094556    352414
   89    Jun 1995      318624568    425211
   90    Aug 1995      353713490    492483
   91    Oct 1995      384939485    555694
   92    Dec 1995      425860958    620765
   93    Feb 1996      463758833    685693
   94    Apr 1996      499127741    744295
   95    Jun 1996      551750920    835487
   96    Aug 1996      602072354    920588
   97    Oct 1996      651972984    1021211
   98    Dec 1996      730552938    1114581
   99    Feb 1997      786898138    1192505
   100   Apr 1997      842864309    1274747
   101   Jun 1997      966993087    1491069
   102   Aug 1997     1053474516    1610848
   103   Oct 1997     1160300687    1765847
   104   Dec 1997     1258290513    1891953
   105   Feb 1998     1372368913    2042325
   106   Apr 1998     1502542306    2209232
   107   Jun 1998     1622041465    2355928
   108   Aug 1998     1797137713    2532359
   109   Oct 1998     2008761784    2837897
   110   Dec 1998     2162067871    3043729
   111   Apr 1999     2569578208    3525418
   112   Jun 1999     2974791993    4028171
   113   Aug 1999     3400237391    4610118
   114   Oct 1999     3841163011    4864570
   115   Dec 1999     4653932745    5354511
   116   Feb 2000     5805414935    5691170
   117   Apr 2000     7376080723    6215002
   118   Jun 2000     8604221980    7077491
   119   Aug 2000     9545724824    8214339
   120   Oct 2000    10335692655    9102634
   121   Dec 2000    11101066288    10106023
   122   Feb 2001    11720120326    10896781
   123   Apr 2001    12418544023    11545572
   124   Jun 2001    12973707065    12243766
   125   Aug 2001    13543364296    12813516
   126   Oct 2001    14396883064    13602262
   127   Dec 2001    15849921438    14976310
   128   Feb 2002    17089143893    15465325

3. FILE FORMATS

  The flat file examples included in this section, while not always from the
current release, are usually fairly recent.  Any differences compared to the
actual records are the result of updates to the entries involved.

3.1 File Header Information

  With the exception of the index files, each of the 296 files of a
GenBank release begins with the same header, except for the first line,
which contains the file name, and the sixth line, which contains the
title of the file. The first line of the file contains the file name
in character positions 1 to 9 and the full database name (Genetic Sequence
Data Bank) starting in column 22. The brief names of the files in this
release are listed in section 2.2.

  The second line contains the date of the current release in the form
`day month year', beginning in position 27. The fourth line contains
the current GenBank release number. The release number appears in
positions 48 to 52 and consists of three numbers separated by a decimal
point. The number to the left of the decimal is the major release
number. The digit to the right of the decimal indicates the version of
the major release; it is zero for the first version. The sixth line
contains a title for the file. The eighth line lists the number of
entries (loci), number of bases (or base pairs), and number of reports
of sequences (equal to number of entries in this case). These numbers are
right-justified at fixed positions. The number of entries appears in
positions 1 to 8, the number of bases in positions 16 to 26, and the
number of reports in positions 40 to 47. The third, fifth, seventh, and
ninth lines are blank.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
GBBCT1.SEQ           Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                          15 February 2002

                NCBI-GenBank Flat File Release 128.0

                        Bacterial Sequences (Part 1)

   37811 loci,    97585608 bases, from    37811 reported sequences

---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 1. Sample File Header


3.2 Directory Files

3.2.1 Short Directory File

  The short directory file contains brief descriptions of all of the
sequence entries contained in this release. These descriptions are in
fifteen groups, one group for each of the fifteen sequence entry
data files. The first record at the beginning of a group of entries
contains the name of the group in uppercase characters, beginning in
position 21. The organism groups are PRIMATE, RODENT, OTHER MAMMAL,
OTHER VERTEBRATE, INVERTEBRATE, PLANT, BACTERIAL, STRUCTURAL RNA, VIRAL,
PHAGE, SYNTHETIC, UNANNOTATED, EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAG, PATENT, or
SEQUENCE TAGGED SITE.  The second record is blank.

  Each record in the short directory contains the sequence entry name
(LOCUS) in the first 12 positions, followed by a brief definition of
the sequence beginning in column 13. The definition is truncated (at
the end of a word) to leave room at the right margin for at least one
space, the sequence length, and the letters `bp'. The length of the
sequence is printed right-justified to column 77, followed by the
letters `bp' in columns 78 and 79. The next-to-last record for a group
has `ZZZZZZZZZZ' in its first ten positions (where the entry name
would normally appear). The last record is a blank line. An example of
the short directory file format, showing the descriptions of the last
entries in the Other Vertebrate sequence data file and the first
entries of the Invertebrate sequence data file, is reproduced below:

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
ZEFWNT1G3   B.rerio wnt-1 gene (exon 3) for wnt-1 protein.                266bp
ZEFWNT1G4   B.rerio wnt-1 gene (exon 4) for wnt-1 protein.                647bp
ZEFZF54     Zebrafish homeotic gene ZF-54.                                246bp
ZEFZFEN     Zebrafish engrailed-like homeobox sequence.                   327bp
ZZZZZZZZZZ
 
                    INVERTEBRATE

AAHAV33A    Acanthocheilonema viteae pepsin-inhibitor-like-protein       1048bp
ACAAC01     Acanthamoeba castelani gene encoding actin I.                1571bp
ACAACTPH    Acanthamoeba castellanii actophorin mRNA, complete cds.       671bp
ACAMHCA     A.castellanii non-muscle myosin heavy chain gene, partial    5894bp
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
Example 2. Short Directory File


3.3 Index Files

There are six files containing indices to the entries in this release:

  Accession number index file (Accession and Version)
  Secondary accession number index file
  Keyword phrase index file
  Author name index file
  Journal citation index file
  Gene name index file

  The index keys (accession numbers, keywords, authors, journals, and
gene symbols.) of an index are sorted alphabetically. All index keys
appear in uppercase characters even though they appear in mixed case
in the sequence entries. Following each index key, the identifiers of the
sequence entries containing that key are listed (LOCUS name,
division abbreviation, and primary accession number). The division
abbreviations are:

 1. PRI - primate sequences
 2. ROD - rodent sequences
 3. MAM - other mammalian sequences
 4. VRT - other vertebrate sequences
 5. INV - invertebrate sequences
 6. PLN - plant, fungal, and algal sequences
 7. BCT - bacterial sequences
 8. VRL - viral sequences
 9. PHG - bacteriophage sequences
10. SYN - synthetic sequences
11. UNA - unannotated sequences
12. EST - EST sequences (expressed sequence tags) 
13. PAT - patent sequences
14. STS - STS sequences (sequence tagged sites) 
15. GSS - GSS sequences (genome survey sequences) 
16. HTG - HTGS sequences (high throughput genomic sequences) 
17. HTC - HTC sequences (high throughput cDNA sequences) 

  A line-oriented, TAB-delimited format is utilized for the gbaut.idx,
gbgen.idx,  gbjou.idx, gbkey.idx, and gbsec.idx indexes. Each index
key is presented on its own line, and is followed by a
LOCUS/Division/Accession triplet for every record containing the key:

Indexed-Term 
        LOCUS-name1 Div-code1 Accession1 
        LOCUS-name2 Div-code2 Accession2 
        LOCUS-name3 Div-code3 Accession3 
        .... 

  Here is an example of the format, in which TAB characters are displayed 
as ^I, and carriage-returns/newlines as $ : 

(H+,K+)-ATPASE BETA-SUBUNIT$ 
^IRATHKATPB^IROD^IM55655$ 
^IMUSATP4B1^IROD^IM64685$ 
^IMUSATP4B2^IROD^IM64686$ 
^IMUSATP4B3^IROD^IM64687$ 
^IMUSATP4B4^IROD^IM64688$ 
^IDOGATPASEB^IMAM^IM76486$ 

When viewed by a file browser such as 'less' or 'more' : 

(H+,K+)-ATPASE BETA-SUBUNIT 
        RATHKATPB ROD M55655 
        MUSATP4B1 ROD M64685 
        MUSATP4B2 ROD M64686 
        MUSATP4B3 ROD M64687 
        MUSATP4B4 ROD M64688 
        DOGATPASEB MAM M76486 

  Note that the index keys can be distinguished from LOCUS/DIV/ACCESSION 
by the fact that they do not start with a TAB character. So one can 
extract just the terms via simple text-processing: 

        perl -ne 'print unless /^\s+/' < gbkey.idx > terms.gbkey

  The format of the primary accession number index file is slightly
different, with each indexed key (Accession.Version) present on
the same line as the LOCUS/Division/Accession triplet:

Accession1.Version1 Locus-name1 Div-code1 Accession1 
Accession2.Version2 Locus-name2 Div-code2 Accession2 
.... 

  Here is an example of the format, in which TAB characters are displayed 
as ^I, and carriage-returns/newlines as $ : 

AC000102.1^IAC000102^IPRI^IAC000102$ 
AC000103.1^IAC000103^IPLN^IAC000103$ 
AC000104.1^IF19P19^IPLN^IAC000104$ 
AC000105.40^IAC000105^IPRI^IAC000105$ 
AC000106.1^IF7G19^IPLN^IAC000106$ 
AC000107.1^IAC000107^IPLN^IAC000107$ 
AC000108.1^IAC000108^IBCT^IAC000108$ 
AC000109.1^IHSAC000109^IPRI^IAC000109$ 
AC000110.1^IHSAC000110^IPRI^IAC000110$ 

When viewed by a file browser such as 'less' or 'more' : 

AC000102.1 AC000102 PRI AC000102 
AC000103.1 AC000103 PLN AC000103 
AC000104.1 F19P19 PLN AC000104 
AC000105.40 AC000105 PRI AC000105 
AC000106.1 F7G19 PLN AC000106 
AC000107.1 AC000107 PLN AC000107 
AC000108.1 AC000108 BCT AC000108 
AC000109.1 HSAC000109 PRI AC000109 
AC000110.1 HSAC000110 PRI AC000110 

3.3.1 Accession Number Index File - gbacc.idx

  Accession numbers are unique six character or eight-character alphanumeric
identifiers of GenBank database entries. The six-character accession
number format consists of a single uppercase letter, followed by 5 digits.
The eight-character accession number format consists of two uppercase
letters, followed by 6 digits.  Accessions provide an unchanging identifier
for the data with which they are associated, and we encourage you to cite
accession numbers whenever you refer to data from GenBank.

  GenBank entries can have both 'primary' and 'secondary' accessions
associated with them (see Section 3.5.6). Only primary accessions are present
in the gbacc.idx index.

3.3.2 Keyword Phrase Index File - gbkey.idx

  Keyword phrases consist of names for gene products and other
characteristics of sequence entries.

3.3.3 Author Name Index File - gbaut*.idx

The author name index files list all of the author names that appear
in the references within sequence records.

3.3.4 Journal Citation Index File - gbjou.idx

  The journal citation index file lists all of the citations that appear
in the references within sequence records.. All citations are truncated
to 80 characters.

3.3.5 Gene Name Index - gbgen.idx

  The /gene qualifiers of many GenBank entries contain values other than
official gene symbols, such as the product or the standard name of the gene.
Hence, NCBI has chosen to build an index (gbgen.idx) more like a keyword index
for this field, using both the GenBank /gene qualifier and the 'Gene.locus'
fields from the NCBI internal database as keys.

3.4 Sequence Entry Files

  GenBank releases contain one or more sequence entry data files, one
for each "division" of GenBank.

3.4.1 File Organization

  Each of these files has the same format and consists of two parts:
header information (described in section 3.1) and sequence entries for
that division (described in the following sections).

3.4.2  Entry Organization

  In the second portion of a sequence entry file (containing the
sequence entries for that division), each record (line) consists of
two parts. The first part is found in positions 1 to 10 and may
contain:

1. A keyword, beginning in column 1 of the record (e.g., REFERENCE is
a keyword).

2. A subkeyword beginning in column 3, with columns 1 and 2 blank
(e.g., AUTHORS is a subkeyword of REFERENCE). Or a subkeyword beginning
in column 4, with columns 1, 2, and 3 blank (e.g., PUBMED is a
subkeyword of REFERENCE).

3. Blank characters, indicating that this record is a continuation of
the information under the keyword or subkeyword above it.

4. A code, beginning in column 6, indicating the nature of an entry
(feature key) in the FEATURES table; these codes are described in
Section 3.4.12.1 below.

5. A number, ending in column 9 of the record. This number occurs in
the portion of the entry describing the actual nucleotide sequence and
designates the numbering of sequence positions.

6. Two slashes (//) in positions 1 and 2, marking the end of an entry.

  The second part of each sequence entry record contains the information
appropriate to its keyword, in positions 13 to 80 for keywords and
positions 11 to 80 for the sequence.

  The following is a brief description of each entry field. Detailed
information about each field may be found in Sections 3.4.4 to 3.4.14.

LOCUS	- A short mnemonic name for the entry, chosen to suggest the
sequence's definition. Mandatory keyword/exactly one record.

DEFINITION	- A concise description of the sequence. Mandatory
keyword/one or more records.

ACCESSION	- The primary accession number is a unique, unchanging
code assigned to each entry. (Please use this code when citing
information from GenBank.) Mandatory keyword/one or more records.

VERSION		- A compound identifier consisting of the primary
accession number and a numeric version number associated with the
current version of the sequence data in the record. This is followed
by an integer key (a "GI") assigned to the sequence by NCBI.
Mandatory keyword/exactly one record.

NID		- An alternative method of presenting the NCBI GI
identifier (described above). The NID is obsolete and was removed
from the GenBank flatfile format in December 1999.

KEYWORDS	- Short phrases describing gene products and other
information about an entry. Mandatory keyword in all annotated
entries/one or more records.

SEGMENT	- Information on the order in which this entry appears in a
series of discontinuous sequences from the same molecule. Optional
keyword (only in segmented entries)/exactly one record.

SOURCE	- Common name of the organism or the name most frequently used
in the literature. Mandatory keyword in all annotated entries/one or
more records/includes one subkeyword.

   ORGANISM	- Formal scientific name of the organism (first line)
and taxonomic classification levels (second and subsequent lines).
Mandatory subkeyword in all annotated entries/two or more records.

REFERENCE	- Citations for all articles containing data reported
in this entry. Includes four subkeywords and may repeat. Mandatory
keyword/one or more records.

   AUTHORS	- Lists the authors of the citation. Mandatory
subkeyword/one or more records.

   TITLE	- Full title of citation. Optional subkeyword (present
in all but unpublished citations)/one or more records.

   JOURNAL	- Lists the journal name, volume, year, and page
numbers of the citation. Mandatory subkeyword/one or more records.

   MEDLINE	- Provides the Medline unique identifier for a
citation. Optional subkeyword/one record.

    PUBMED 	- Provides the PubMed unique identifier for a
citation. Optional subkeyword/one record.

   REMARK	- Specifies the relevance of a citation to an
entry. Optional subkeyword/one or more records.

COMMENT	- Cross-references to other sequence entries, comparisons to
other collections, notes of changes in LOCUS names, and other remarks.
Optional keyword/one or more records/may include blank records.

FEATURES	- Table containing information on portions of the
sequence that code for proteins and RNA molecules and information on
experimentally determined sites of biological significance. Optional
keyword/one or more records.

BASE COUNT	- Summary of the number of occurrences of each base
code in the sequence. Mandatory keyword/exactly one record.

ORIGIN	- Specification of how the first base of the reported sequence
is operationally located within the genome. Where possible, this
includes its location within a larger genetic map. Mandatory
keyword/exactly one record.

	- The ORIGIN line is followed by sequence data (multiple records).

// 	- Entry termination symbol. Mandatory at the end of an
entry/exactly one record.

3.4.3 Sample Sequence Data File

  An example of a complete sequence entry file follows. (This example
has only two entries.) Note that in this example, as throughout the
data bank, numbers in square brackets indicate items in the REFERENCE
list. For example, in ACARR58S, [1] refers to the paper by Mackay, et
al.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
GBSMP.SEQ          Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                         15 December 1992

                 GenBank Flat File Release 74.0

                     Structural RNA Sequences

      2 loci,       236 bases, from     2 reported sequences

LOCUS       AAURRA        118 bp ss-rRNA            RNA       16-JUN-1986
DEFINITION  A.auricula-judae (mushroom) 5S ribosomal RNA.
ACCESSION   K03160
VERSION     K03160.1  GI:173593
KEYWORDS    5S ribosomal RNA; ribosomal RNA.
SOURCE      A.auricula-judae (mushroom) ribosomal RNA.
  ORGANISM  Auricularia auricula-judae
            Eukaryota; Fungi; Eumycota; Basidiomycotina; Phragmobasidiomycetes;
            Heterobasidiomycetidae; Auriculariales; Auriculariaceae.
REFERENCE   1  (bases 1 to 118)
  AUTHORS   Huysmans,E., Dams,E., Vandenberghe,A. and De Wachter,R.
  TITLE     The nucleotide sequences of the 5S rRNAs of four mushrooms and
            their use in studying the phylogenetic position of basidiomycetes
            among the eukaryotes
  JOURNAL   Nucleic Acids Res. 11, 2871-2880 (1983)
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     rRNA            1..118
                     /note="5S ribosomal RNA"
BASE COUNT       27 a     34 c     34 g     23 t
ORIGIN      5' end of mature rRNA.
        1 atccacggcc ataggactct gaaagcactg catcccgtcc gatctgcaaa gttaaccaga
       61 gtaccgccca gttagtacca cggtggggga ccacgcggga atcctgggtg ctgtggtt
//
LOCUS       ABCRRAA       118 bp ss-rRNA            RNA       15-SEP-1990
DEFINITION  Acetobacter sp. (strain MB 58) 5S ribosomal RNA, complete sequence.
ACCESSION   M34766
VERSION     M34766.1  GI:173603
KEYWORDS    5S ribosomal RNA.
SOURCE      Acetobacter sp. (strain MB 58) rRNA.
  ORGANISM  Acetobacter sp.
            Prokaryotae; Gracilicutes; Scotobacteria; Aerobic rods and cocci;
            Azotobacteraceae.
REFERENCE   1  (bases 1 to 118)
  AUTHORS   Bulygina,E.S., Galchenko,V.F., Govorukhina,N.I., Netrusov,A.I.,
            Nikitin,D.I., Trotsenko,Y.A. and Chumakov,K.M.
  TITLE     Taxonomic studies of methylotrophic bacteria by 5S ribosomal RNA
            sequencing
  JOURNAL   J. Gen. Microbiol. 136, 441-446 (1990)
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     rRNA            1..118
                     /note="5S ribosomal RNA"
BASE COUNT       27 a     40 c     32 g     17 t      2 others
ORIGIN      
        1 gatctggtgg ccatggcggg agcaaatcag ccgatcccat cccgaactcg gccgtcaaat
       61 gccccagcgc ccatgatact ctgcctcaag gcacggaaaa gtcggtcgcc gccagayy
//
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 9. Sample Sequence Data File


3.4.4 LOCUS Format

  The items of information contained in the LOCUS record are always
found in fixed positions. The locus name (or entry name), which is
always sixteen characters or less, begins in position 13. The locus name
is designed to help group entries with similar sequences: the first
three characters usually designate the organism; the fourth and fifth
characters can be used to show other group designations, such as gene
product; for segmented entries the last character is one of a series
of sequential integers.

  The number of bases or base pairs in the sequence ends in position 40.
The letters `bp' are in positions 42 to 43. Positions 45 to 47 provide
the number of strands of the sequence. Positions 48 to 53 indicate the
type of molecule sequenced. Topology of the molecule is indicated in
positions 56 to 63.

  GenBank sequence entries are divided among many different
'divisions'. Each entry's division is specified by a three-letter code
in positions 65 to 67. See Section 3.3 for an explanation of division
codes.

  Positions 69 to 79 of the record contain the date the entry was
entered or underwent any substantial revisions, such as the addition
of newly published data, in the form dd-MMM-yyyy.

The detailed format for the LOCUS line format is as follows:

Positions  Contents
---------  --------
01-05      'LOCUS'
06-12      spaces
13-28      Locus name
29-29      space
30-40      Length of sequence, right-justified
41-41      space
42-43      bp
44-44      space
45-47      spaces, ss- (single-stranded), ds- (double-stranded), or
           ms- (mixed-stranded)
48-53      NA, DNA, RNA, tRNA (transfer RNA), rRNA (ribosomal RNA), 
           mRNA (messenger RNA), uRNA (small nuclear RNA), snRNA,
           snoRNA. Left justified.
54-55      space
56-63      'linear' followed by two spaces, or 'circular'
64-64      space
65-67      The division code (see Section 3.3)
68-68      space
69-79      Date, in the form dd-MMM-yyyy (e.g., 15-MAR-1991)

  Although each of these data values can be found at column-specific
positions, we encourage those who parse the contents of the LOCUS
line to use a token-based approach. This will prevent the need for
software changes if the spacing of the data values ever has to be
modified.

3.4.5 DEFINITION Format

  The DEFINITION record gives a brief description of the sequence,
proceeding from general to specific. It starts with the common name of
the source organism, then gives the criteria by which this sequence is
distinguished from the remainder of the source genome, such as the
gene name and what it codes for, or the protein name and mRNA, or some
description of the sequence's function (if the sequence is
non-coding). If the sequence has a coding region, the description may
be followed by a completeness qualifier, such as cds (complete coding
sequence). There is no limit on the number of lines that may be part
of the DEFINITION.  The last line must end with a period.

3.4.5.1 DEFINITION Format for NLM Entries

  The DEFINITION line for entries derived from journal-scanning at the NLM is
an automatically generated descriptive summary that accompanies each DNA and
protein sequence. It contains information derived from fields in a database 
that summarize the most important attributes of the sequence.  The DEFINITION
lines are designed to supplement the accession number and the sequence itself
as a means of uniquely and completely specifying DNA and protein sequences. The
following are examples of NLM DEFINITION lines:

NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase [swine, mRNA, 1 gene, 1585 nt]

94 kda fiber cell beaded-filament structural protein [rats, lens, mRNA
Partial, 1 gene, 1873 nt]

inhibin alpha {promoter and exons} [mice, Genomic, 1 gene, 1102 nt, segment
1 of 2]

cefEF, cefG=acetyl coenzyme A:deacetylcephalosporin C o-acetyltransferase
[Acremonium chrysogenum, Genomic, 2 genes, 2639 nt]

myogenic factor 3, qmf3=helix-loop-helix protein [Japanese quails,
embryo, Peptide Partial, 246 aa]


  The first part of the definition line contains information describing
the genes and proteins represented by the molecular sequences.  This can
be gene locus names, protein names and descriptions that replace or augment
actual names.  Gene and gene product are linked by "=".  Any special
identifying terms are presented within brackets, such as: {promoter},
{N-terminal}, {EC 2.13.2.4}, {alternatively spliced}, or {3' region}.

  The second part of the definition line is delimited by square brackets, '[]',
and provides details about the molecule type and length.  The biological
source, i.e., genus and species or common name as cited by the author.
Developmental stage, tissue type and strain are included if available.
The molecule types include: Genomic, mRNA, Peptide. and Other Genomic
Material. Genomic molecules are assumed to be partial sequence unless
"Complete" is specified, whereas mRNA and peptide molecules are assumed
to be complete unless "Partial" is noted.

3.4.6 ACCESSION Format

  This field contains a series of six-character and/or eight-character
identifiers called 'accession numbers'. The six-character accession
number format consists of a single uppercase letter, followed by 5 digits.
The eight-character accession number format consists of two uppercase
letters, followed by 6 digits. The 'primary', or first, of the accession
numbers occupies positions 13 to 18 (6-character format) or positions
13 to 20 (8-character format). Subsequent 'secondary' accession numbers
(if present) are separated from the primary, and from each other, by a
single space. In some cases, multiple lines of secondary accession
numbers might be present, starting at position 13.

  The primary accession number of a GenBank entry provides a stable identifier
for the biological object that the entry represents. Accessions do not change
when the underlying sequence data or associated features change.

  Secondary accession numbers arise for a number of reasons. For example, a
single accession number may initially be assigned to a sequence described in
a publication. If it is later discovered that the sequence must be entered
into the database as multiple entries, each entry would receive a new primary
accession number, and the original accession number would appear as a secondary
accession number on each of the new entries.

3.4.7 VERSION Format

  This line contains two types of identifiers for a GenBank database entry:
a compound accession number and an NCBI GI identifier. 

LOCUS       AF181452     1294 bp    DNA             PLN       12-OCT-1999
DEFINITION  Hordeum vulgare dehydrin (Dhn2) gene, complete cds.
ACCESSION   AF181452
VERSION     AF181452.1  GI:6017929
            ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^
            Compound    NCBI GI
            Accession   Identifier
            Number

  A compound accession number consists of two parts: a stable, unchanging
primary-accession number portion (see Section 3.4.6 for a description of
accession numbers), and a sequentially increasing numeric version number.
The accession and version numbers are separated by a period. The initial
version number assigned to a new sequence is one. Compound accessions are
often referred to as "Accession.Version" .

  An accession number allows one to retrieve the same biological object in the
database, regardless of any changes that are made to the entry over time. But
those changes can include changes to the sequence data itself, which is of
fundamental importance to many database users. So a numeric version number is
associated with the sequence data in every database entry. If an entry (for
example, AF181452) undergoes two sequence changes, its compound accession
number on the VERSION line would start as AF181452.1 . After the first sequence
change this would become: AF181452.2 . And after the second change: AF181452.3 .

  The NCBI GI identifier of the VERSION line also serves as a method for
identifying the sequence data that has existed for a database entry over
time. GI identifiers are numeric values of one or more digits. Since they
are integer keys, they are less human-friendly than the Accession.Version
system described above. Returning to our example for AF181452, it was
initially assigned GI 6017929. If the sequence changes, a new integer GI will
be assigned, perhaps 7345003 . And after the second sequence change, perhaps
the GI would become 10456892 .

  Why are both these methods for identifying the version of the sequence
associated with a database entry in use? For two reasons:

- Some data sources processed by NCBI for incorporation into its Entrez
  sequence retrieval system do not version their own sequences.

- GIs provide a uniform, integer identifier system for every sequence
  NCBI has processed. Some products and systems derived from (or reliant
  upon) NCBI products and services prefer to use these integer identifiers
  because they can all be processed in the same manner.

GenBank Releases contain only the most recent versions of all sequences
in the database. However, older versions can be obtained via GI-based or
Accession.Version-based queries with NCBI's web-Entrez and network-Entrez
applications. A sequence revision history web page is also available:

	  http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/htbin-post/Entrez/girevhist

NOTE: All the version numbers for the compound Accession.Version identifier
system were initialized to a value of one in February 1999, when that
system was introduced.

3.4.8 KEYWORDS Format

  The KEYWORDS field does not appear in unannotated entries, but is
required in all annotated entries. Keywords are separated by
semicolons; a "keyword" may be a single word or a phrase consisting of
several words. Each line in the keywords field ends in a semicolon;
the last line ends with a period. If no keywords are included in the
entry, the KEYWORDS record contains only a period.

3.4.9 SEGMENT Format

  The SEGMENT keyword is used when two (or more) entries of known
relative orientation are separated by a short (<10 kb) stretch of DNA.
It is limited to one line of the form `n of m', where `n' is the
segment number of the current entry and `m' is the total number of
segments.

3.4.10 SOURCE Format

  The SOURCE field consists of two parts. The first part is found after
the SOURCE keyword and contains free-format information including an
abbreviated form of the organism name followed by a molecule type;
multiple lines are allowed, but the last line must end with a period.
The second part consists of information found after the ORGANISM
subkeyword. The formal scientific name for the source organism (genus
and species, where appropriate) is found on the same line as ORGANISM.
The records following the ORGANISM line list the taxonomic
classification levels, separated by semicolons and ending with a
period.

3.4.11 REFERENCE Format

  The REFERENCE field consists of five parts: the keyword REFERENCE, and
the subkeywords AUTHORS, TITLE (optional), JOURNAL, MEDLINE (optional),
PUBMED (optional), and REMARK (optional).

  The REFERENCE line contains the number of the particular reference and
(in parentheses) the range of bases in the sequence entry reported in
this citation. Additional prose notes may also be found within the
parentheses. The numbering of the references does not reflect
publication dates or priorities.

  The AUTHORS line lists the authors in the order in which they appear
in the cited article. Last names are separated from initials by a
comma (no space); there is no comma before the final `and'. The list
of authors ends with a period.  The TITLE line is an optional field,
although it appears in the majority of entries. It does not appear in
unpublished sequence data entries that have been deposited directly
into the GenBank data bank, the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library,
or the DNA Data Bank of Japan. The TITLE field does not end with a
period.

  The JOURNAL line gives the appropriate literature citation for the
sequence in the entry. The word `Unpublished' will appear after the
JOURNAL subkeyword if the data did not appear in the scientific
literature, but was directly deposited into the data bank. For
published sequences the JOURNAL line gives the Thesis, Journal, or
Book citation, including the year of publication, the specific
citation, or In press.

  The MEDLINE line provides the National Library of Medicine's Medline
unique identifier for a citation (if known). Medline UIs are 8 digit
numbers.

  The PUBMED line provides the PubMed unique identifier for a citation
(if known). PUBMED ids are numeric, and are record identifiers for article
abstracts in the PubMed database :

       http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed

  Citations in PubMed that do not fall within Medline's scope will have only
a PUBMED identifier. Similarly, citations that *are* in Medline's scope but
which have not yet been assigned Medline UIs will have only a PUBMED identifier.
If a citation is present in both the PubMed and Medline databases, both a
MEDLINE and a PUBMED line will be present.

  The REMARK line is a textual comment that specifies the relevance
of the citation to the entry.

3.4.12 FEATURES Format

  GenBank releases use a feature table format designed jointly by
GenBank, the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library, and the DNA Data
Bank of Japan. This format is in use by all three databases. The
most complete and accurate Feature Table documentation can be found
on the Web at:

	http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/collab/FT/index.html

  Any discrepancy between the abbreviated feature table description
of these release notes and the complete documentation on the Web
should be resolved in favor of the version at the above URL.

  The Feature Table specification is also available as a printed
document: `The DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank Feature Table: Definition'. Contact
GenBank at the address shown on the first page of these Release Notes
if you would like a copy.

  The feature table contains information about genes and gene products,
as well as regions of biological significance reported in the
sequence. The feature table contains information on regions of the
sequence that code for proteins and RNA molecules. It also enumerates
differences between different reports of the same sequence, and
provides cross-references to other data collections, as described in
more detail below.

  The first line of the feature table is a header that includes the
keyword `FEATURES' and the column header `Location/Qualifier.' Each
feature consists of a descriptor line containing a feature key and a
location (see sections below for details). If the location does not
fit on this line, a continuation line may follow. If further
information about the feature is required, one or more lines
containing feature qualifiers may follow the descriptor line.

  The feature key begins in column 6 and may be no more than 15
characters in length. The location begins in column 22. Feature
qualifiers begin on subsequent lines at column 22. Location,
qualifier, and continuation lines may extend from column 22 to 80.

  Feature tables are required, due to the mandatory presence of the
source feature. The sections below provide a brief introduction to
the feature table format.

3.4.12.1 Feature Key Names

  The first column of the feature descriptor line contains the feature
key. It starts at column 6 and can continue to column 20. The list of
valid feature keys is shown below.

  Remember, the most definitive documentation for the feature table can
be found at:

	http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/collab/FT/index.html

allele		Obsolete; see variation feature key
attenuator	Sequence related to transcription termination
C_region	Span of the C immunological feature
CAAT_signal	`CAAT box' in eukaryotic promoters
CDS		Sequence coding for amino acids in protein (includes
		stop codon)
conflict	Independent sequence determinations differ
D-loop      	Displacement loop
D_segment	Span of the D immunological feature
enhancer	Cis-acting enhancer of promoter function
exon		Region that codes for part of spliced mRNA
gene            Region that defines a functional gene, possibly
                including upstream (promotor, enhancer, etc)
		and downstream control elements, and for which
		a name has been assigned.
GC_signal	`GC box' in eukaryotic promoters
iDNA		Intervening DNA eliminated by recombination
intron		Transcribed region excised by mRNA splicing
J_region	Span of the J immunological feature
LTR		Long terminal repeat
mat_peptide	Mature peptide coding region (does not include stop codon)
misc_binding	Miscellaneous binding site
misc_difference	Miscellaneous difference feature
misc_feature	Region of biological significance that cannot be described
		by any other feature
misc_recomb	Miscellaneous recombination feature
misc_RNA	Miscellaneous transcript feature not defined by other RNA keys
misc_signal	Miscellaneous signal
misc_structure	Miscellaneous DNA or RNA structure
modified_base	The indicated base is a modified nucleotide
mRNA		Messenger RNA
mutation 	Obsolete: see variation feature key
N_region	Span of the N immunological feature
old_sequence	Presented sequence revises a previous version
polyA_signal	Signal for cleavage & polyadenylation
polyA_site	Site at which polyadenine is added to mRNA
precursor_RNA	Any RNA species that is not yet the mature RNA product
prim_transcript	Primary (unprocessed) transcript
primer		Primer binding region used with PCR
primer_bind	Non-covalent primer binding site
promoter	A region involved in transcription initiation
protein_bind	Non-covalent protein binding site on DNA or RNA
RBS		Ribosome binding site
rep_origin	Replication origin for duplex DNA
repeat_region	Sequence containing repeated subsequences
repeat_unit	One repeated unit of a repeat_region
rRNA		Ribosomal RNA
S_region	Span of the S immunological feature
satellite	Satellite repeated sequence
scRNA		Small cytoplasmic RNA
sig_peptide	Signal peptide coding region
snRNA		Small nuclear RNA
source		Biological source of the sequence data represented by
		a GenBank record. Mandatory feature, one or more per record.
		For organisms that have been incorporated within the
		NCBI taxonomy database, an associated /db_xref="taxon:NNNN"
		qualifier will be present (where NNNNN is the numeric
		identifier assigned to the organism within the NCBI taxonomy
		database).
stem_loop	Hair-pin loop structure in DNA or RNA
STS		Sequence Tagged Site; operationally unique sequence that
		identifies the combination of primer spans used in a PCR assay
TATA_signal	`TATA box' in eukaryotic promoters
terminator	Sequence causing transcription termination
transit_peptide	Transit peptide coding region
transposon	Transposable element (TN)
tRNA 		Transfer RNA
unsure		Authors are unsure about the sequence in this region
V_region	Span of the V immunological feature
variation 	A related population contains stable mutation
- (hyphen)	Placeholder
-10_signal	`Pribnow box' in prokaryotic promoters
-35_signal	`-35 box' in prokaryotic promoters
3'clip		3'-most region of a precursor transcript removed in processing
3'UTR		3' untranslated region (trailer)
5'clip		5'-most region of a precursor transcript removed in processing
5'UTR		5' untranslated region (leader)


3.4.12.2 Feature Location

  The second column of the feature descriptor line designates the
location of the feature in the sequence. The location descriptor
begins at position 22. Several conventions are used to indicate
sequence location.

  Base numbers in location descriptors refer to numbering in the entry,
which is not necessarily the same as the numbering scheme used in the
published report. The first base in the presented sequence is numbered
base 1. Sequences are presented in the 5 to 3 direction.

Location descriptors can be one of the following:

1. A single base;

2. A contiguous span of bases;

3. A site between two bases;

4. A single base chosen from a range of bases;

5. A single base chosen from among two or more specified bases;

6. A joining of sequence spans;

7. A reference to an entry other than the one to which the feature
belongs (i.e., a remote entry), followed by a location descriptor
referring to the remote sequence;

  A site between two residues, such as an endonuclease cleavage site, is
indicated by listing the two bases separated by a carat (e.g., 23^24).

  A single residue chosen from a range of residues is indicated by the
number of the first and last bases in the range separated by a single
period (e.g., 23.79). The symbols < and > indicate that the end point
of the range is beyond the specified base number.

  A contiguous span of bases is indicated by the number of the first and
last bases in the range separated by two periods (e.g., 23..79). The
symbols < and > indicate that the end point of the range is beyond the
specified base number. Starting and ending positions can be indicated
by base number or by one of the operators described below.

  Operators are prefixes that specify what must be done to the indicated
sequence to locate the feature. The following are the operators
available, along with their most common format and a description.

complement (location): The feature is complementary to the location
indicated. Complementary strands are read 5 to 3.

join (location, location, .. location): The indicated elements should
be placed end to end to form one contiguous sequence.

order (location, location, .. location): The elements are found in the
specified order in the 5 to 3 direction, but nothing is implied about
the rationality of joining them.

3.4.12.3  Feature Qualifiers

  Qualifiers provide additional information about features. They take
the form of a slash (/) followed by a qualifier name and, if
applicable, an equal sign (=) and a qualifier value. Feature
qualifiers begin at column 22.

Qualifiers convey many types of information. Their values can,
therefore, take several forms:

1. Free text;
2. Controlled vocabulary or enumerated values;
3. Citations or reference numbers;
4. Sequences;
5. Feature labels.

  Text qualifier values must be enclosed in double quotation marks. The
text can consist of any printable characters (ASCII values 32-126
decimal). If the text string includes double quotation marks, each set
must be `escaped' by placing a double quotation mark in front of it
(e.g., /note="This is an example of ""escaped"" quotation marks").

  Some qualifiers require values selected from a limited set of choices.
For example, the `/direction' qualifier has only three values `left,'
`right,' or `both.' These are called controlled vocabulary qualifier
values. Controlled qualifier values are not case sensitive; they can
be entered in any combination of upper- and lowercase without changing
their meaning.

  Citation or published reference numbers for the entry should be
enclosed in square brackets ([]) to distinguish them from other
numbers.

  A literal sequence of bases (e.g., "atgcatt") should be enclosed in
quotation marks. Literal sequences are distinguished from free text by
context. Qualifiers that take free text as their values do not take
literal sequences, and vice versa.

  The `/label=' qualifier takes a feature label as its qualifier.
Although feature labels are optional, they allow unambiguous
references to the feature. The feature label identifies a feature
within an entry; when combined with the accession number and the name
of the data bank from which it came, it is a unique tag for that
feature. Feature labels must be unique within an entry, but can be the
same as a feature label in another entry. Feature labels are not case
sensitive; they can be entered in any combination of upper-and
lowercase without changing their meaning.

The following is a partial list of feature qualifiers.

/anticodon	Location of the anticodon of tRNA and the amino acid
		for which it codes

/bound_moiety	Moiety bound

/citation	Reference to a citation providing the claim of or
		evidence for a feature

/codon		Specifies a codon that is different from any found in the
		reference genetic code

/codon_start	Indicates the first base of the first complete codon
		in a CDS (as 1 or 2 or 3)

/cons_splice	Identifies intron splice sites that do not conform to
		the 5'-GT... AG-3' splice site consensus

/db_xref	A database cross-reference; pointer to related information
		in another database. A description of all cross-references
		can be found at:

		http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/collab/db_xref.html

/direction	Direction of DNA replication

/EC_number	Enzyme Commission number for the enzyme product of the
		sequence

/evidence	Value indicating the nature of supporting evidence

/frequency	Frequency of the occurrence of a feature

/function	Function attributed to a sequence

/gene		Symbol of the gene corresponding to a sequence region (usable
		with all features)

/label		A label used to permanently identify a feature

/map		Map position of the feature in free-format text

/mod_base	Abbreviation for a modified nucleotide base

/note		Any comment or additional information

/number		A number indicating the order of genetic elements
		(e.g., exons or introns) in the 5 to 3 direction

/organism	Name of the organism that is the source of the
		sequence data in the record. 

/partial	Differentiates between complete regions and partial ones

/phenotype	Phenotype conferred by the feature

/product	Name of a product encoded by a coding region (CDS)
		feature

/pseudo		Indicates that this feature is a non-functional
		version of the element named by the feature key

/rpt_family	Type of repeated sequence; Alu or Kpn, for example

/rpt_type	Organization of repeated sequence

/rpt_unit	Identity of repeat unit that constitutes a repeat_region

/standard_name	Accepted standard name for this feature

/transl_except	Translational exception: single codon, the translation
		of which does not conform to the reference genetic code

/translation	Amino acid translation of a coding region

/type		Name of a strain if different from that in the SOURCE field

/usedin		Indicates that feature is used in a compound feature
		in another entry

3.4.12.4 Cross-Reference Information

  One type of information in the feature table lists cross-references to
the annual compilation of transfer RNA sequences in Nucleic Acids
Research, which has kindly been sent to us on CD-ROM by Dr. Sprinzl.
Each tRNA entry of the feature table contains a /note= qualifier that
includes a reference such as `(NAR: 1234)' to identify code 1234 in
the NAR compilation. When such a cross-reference appears in an entry
that contains a gene coding for a transfer RNA molecule, it refers to
the code in the tRNA gene compilation. Similar cross-references in
entries containing mature transfer RNA sequences refer to the
companion compilation of tRNA sequences published by D.H. Gauss and M.
Sprinzl in Nucleic Acids Research.

3.4.12.5 Feature Table Examples

  In the first example a number of key names, feature locations, and
qualifiers are illustrated, taken from different sequences. The first
table entry is a coding region consisting of a simple span of bases
and including a /gene qualifier. In the second table entry, an NAR
cross-reference is given (see the previous section for a discussion of
these cross-references). The third and fourth table entries use the
symbols `<`and `>' to indicate that the beginning or end of the
feature is beyond the range of the presented sequence. In the fifth
table entry, the symbol `^' indicates that the feature is between
bases.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
     CDS             5..1261
                     /product="alpha-1-antitrypsin precursor"
                     /map="14q32.1"
                     /gene="PI"
     tRNA            1..87
                     /note="Leu-tRNA-CAA (NAR: 1057)"
                     /anticodon=(pos:35..37,aa:Leu)
     mRNA            1..>66
                     /note="alpha-1-acid glycoprotein mRNA"
     transposon      <1..267
                     /note="insertion element IS5"
     misc_recomb     105^106
                     /note="B.subtilis DNA end/IS5 DNA start"
     conflict        258
                     /replace="t"
                     /citation=[2]
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 10. Feature Table Entries


The next example shows the representation for a CDS that spans more
than one entry.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
LOCUS       HUMPGAMM1    3688 bp ds-DNA             PRI       15-OCT-1990
DEFINITION  Human phosphoglycerate mutase (muscle specific isozyme) (PGAM-M)
            gene, 5' end.
ACCESSION   M55673 M25818 M27095
KEYWORDS    phosphoglycerate mutase.
SEGMENT     1 of 2
  .
  .
  .
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     CAAT_signal     1751..1755
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     TATA_signal     1791..1799
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     exon            1820..2274
                     /number=1
                     /EC_number="5.4.2.1"
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     intron          2275..2377
                     /number=1
                     /gene="PGAM2"
     exon            2378..2558
                     /number=2
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
  .
  .
  .
//
LOCUS       HUMPGAMM2     677 bp ds-DNA             PRI       15-OCT-1990
DEFINITION  Human phosphoglycerate mutase (muscle specific isozyme) (PGAM-M),
            exon 3.
ACCESSION   M55674 M25818 M27096
KEYWORDS    phosphoglycerate mutase.
SEGMENT     2 of 2
  .
  .
  .
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     exon            255..457
                     /number=3
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     intron          order(M55673:2559..>3688,<1..254)
                     /number=2
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     mRNA            join(M55673:1820..2274,M55673:2378..2558,255..457)
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     CDS             join(M55673:1861..2274,M55673:2378..2558,255..421)
                     /note="muscle-specific isozyme"
                     /gene="PGAM2"
                     /product="phosphoglycerate mutase"
                     /codon_start=1
                     /translation="MATHRLVMVRHGESTWNQENRFCGWFDAELSEKGTEEAKRGAKA
                     IKDAKMEFDICYTSVLKRAIRTLWAILDGTDQMWLPVVRTWRLNERHYGGLTGLNKAE
                     TAAKHGEEQVKIWRRSFDIPPPPMDEKHPYYNSISKERRYAGLKPGELPTCESLKDTI
                     ARALPFWNEEIVPQIKAGKRVLIAAHGNSLRGIVKHLEGMSDQAIMELNLPTGIPIVY
                     ELNKELKPTKPMQFLGDEETVRKAMEAVAAQGKAK"
  .
  .
  .
//
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 11. Joining Sequences


3.4.13 ORIGIN Format

  The ORIGIN record may be left blank, may appear as `Unreported.' or
may give a local pointer to the sequence start, usually involving an
experimentally determined restriction cleavage site or the genetic
locus (if available). The ORIGIN record ends in a period if it
contains data, but does not include the period if the record is left
empty (in contrast to the KEYWORDS field which contains a period
rather than being left blank).

3.4.14 SEQUENCE Format

  The nucleotide sequence for an entry is found in the records following
the ORIGIN record. The sequence is reported in the 5 to 3 direction.
There are sixty bases per record, listed in groups of ten bases
followed by a blank, starting at position 11 of each record. The
number of the first nucleotide in the record is given in columns 4 to
9 (right justified) of the record.


4. ALTERNATE RELEASES

  NCBI is supplying sequence data in the GenBank flat file format to
maintain compatibility with existing software which require that
particular format.  Although we have made every effort to ensure
that these data are presented in the traditional flat file format,
if you encounter any problems in using these data with software which
is based upon the flat file format, please contact us at:

              info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  The flat file is just one of many possible report formats that can be
generated from the richer representation supported by the ASN.1 form of the
data.  Developers of new software tools should consider using the ASN.1 form
directly to take advantage of those features.  Documentation and a Software
Developer's Toolkit for ASN.1 are available through NCBI.  You may call NCBI
at (301)496-2475, or subscribe to a developers' electronic newsgroup by
sending your name, address, affiliation, and e-mail address to:

              bits-request@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  The Software Developer's Toolkit and PostScript documentation for UNIX,
VMS, Ultrix, AIX, MacOS, DOS, and Microsoft Windows systems is available
in a compressed UNIX tar file by anonymous ftp from 'ftp.ncbi.nih.gov',
in the toolbox/ncbi_tools directory. The file is 'ncbi.tar.Z'.


5. KNOWN PROBLEMS OF THE GENBANK DATABASE

5.1 Incorrect Gene Symbols in Entries and Index

  The /gene qualifier for many GenBank entries contains values other than the
official gene symbol, such as the product or the standard name of the gene. The
gene symbol index (gbgen.idx) is created from the data in the /gene qualifier
and therefore may contain data other than official gene symbols.


6. GENBANK ADMINISTRATION 

  The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), National Library
of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, is responsible for the production
and distribution of the NIH GenBank Sequence Database.  NCBI distributes
GenBank sequence data by anonymous FTP, e-mail servers and other
network services.  For more information, you may contact NCBI at the
e-mail address:  info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov  or by phone: 301-496-2475.

6.1 Registered Trademark Notice

  GenBank (R) is a registered trademark of the U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services for the Genetic Sequence Data Bank.

6.2 Citing GenBank

  If you have used GenBank in your research, we would appreciate it if
you would include a reference to GenBank in all publications related
to that research.

  When citing data in GenBank, it is appropriate to give the sequence
name, primary accession number, and the publication in which the
sequence first appeared.  If the data are unpublished, we urge you to
contact the group which submitted the data to GenBank to see if there
is a recent publication or if they have determined any revisions or
extensions of the data.

  It is also appropriate to list a reference for GenBank itself.  The
following publication, which describes the GenBank database, should
be cited:

    Benson D.A., Karsch-Mizrachi I., Lipman D.J., Ostell J., Rapp B.A., 
    Wheeler D.L.  GenBank. Nucl. Acids Res. 28(1):15-18 (2000)

  The following statement is an example of how you may cite GenBank
data.  It cites the sequence, its primary accession number, the group
who determined the sequence, and GenBank.  The numbers in parentheses
refer to the GenBank citation above and to the REFERENCE in the
GenBank sequence entry.

`We scanned the GenBank (1) database for sequence similarities and
found one sequence (2), GenBank accession number J01016, which showed
significant similarity...'

  (1) Benson, D.A. et al. Nucl. Acids Res. 28(1):15-18 (2000)
  (2) Nellen, W. and Gallwitz, D. J. Mol. Biol. 159, 1-18 (1982)

6.3 GenBank Distribution Formats and Media

  Complete flat file releases of the GenBank database are available via
NCBI's anonymous ftp server:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov

  Each release is cumulative, incorporating all previous GenBank data.
No retrieval software is provided. GenBank distribution via CD-ROM
ceased as of GenBank Release 106.0 (April, 1998).

  Mirrors of the GenBank FTP site at the NCBI are available from the
San Diego Supercomputer Center and the University of Indiana:

	ftp://genbank.sdsc.edu/pub
	ftp://bio-mirror.net/biomirror/genbank/

6.4 Other Methods of Accessing GenBank Data

  Entrez is a molecular biology database system that presents an integrated
view of DNA and protein sequence data, 3D structure data, complete genomes,
and associated MEDLINE entries. The system is produced by the National
Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and is available only via
the Internet (using the Web-Entrez and Network-Entrez applications).

  Accessing Entrez is easy: if you have a World Wide Web browser, such as
Netscape or Internet-Explorer, simply point your browser to:

	 http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/

  The Web version of Entrez has all the capabilities of the network version,
but with the visual style of the World Wide Web. If you prefer the "look and
feel" of Network-Entrez, you may download Network-Entrez from the NCBI's
FTP server:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/

Versions are available for PC/Windows, Macintosh and several Unix variants.

  For information about Network-Entrez, Web-Entrez or any other NCBI
services, you may contact NCBI by e-mail at info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or by
phone at 301-496-2475.

6.5 Request for Corrections and Comments

  We welcome your suggestions for improvements to GenBank. We are
especially interested to learn of errors or inconsistencies in the
data.  BankIt or Sequin can be used to submit revisions to previous
submissions.  In addition, suggestions and corrections can be sent by
electronic mail to:  update@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.  Please be certain to
indicate the GenBank release number (e.g., Release 128.0) and the
primary accession number of the entry to which your comments apply; it
is helpful if you also give the entry name and the current contents of
any data field for which you are recommending a change.

6.6  Credits and Acknowledgments

Credits -

GenBank Release Coordination	
	Mark Cavanaugh

GenBank Submission Coordination	
	Ilene Mizrachi

GenBank Annotation Staff
	Tanya Barrett, Lori Black, Larissa Brown, Larry Chlumsky, Karen
	Clark, Irene Fang, Michael Fetchko, Belinda Jackson, Anjanette
	Johnston, Dione Kampa, Pierre Ledoux, Richard McVeigh, Leonie 
	Misquitta, Ilene Mizrachi, DeAnne Olsen Cravaritis, Quy Phung, 
	David Rasko, Leigh Riley, Paola Roncaglia, Gert Roosen, Susan 
	Schafer, Suh-suh Wang, Jane Weisemann, Steven Wilhite, and 
	Linda Yankie

Data Management and Preparation
	Vladimir Alekseyev, Serge Bazhin, Anton Butanaev, Mark Cavanaugh,
	Hsiu-Chuan Chen, Jonathan Kans, Michael Kimelman, Jim Ostell,
	Joel Plotkin, Karl Sirotkin, Vladimir Soussov, Elena Starchenko,
	Tatiana Tatusov, Carolyn Tolstoshev, Jane Weisemann, Eugene Yaschenko

Database Administration
	Helen Epting, Slava Khotomliansky, Tony Stearman

User Support
        Nancy Allmang, Medha Bhagwat, Peter Cooper, Susan Dombrowski, 
        Renata Geer, Dawn Lipshultz, Eugenia Posey-Marcos, Scott McGinnis,
        Vyvy Pham, Barbara Rapp, Monica Romiti, Tao Tao, Rose Marie Woodsmall, 		
	David Wheeler 

Project Direction
	David Lipman


Acknowledgments - 

  Contractor support for GenBank production and distribution has been
provided by Management Systems Designers, Inc., ComputerCraft Corporation,
and The KEVRIC Company, Inc.

6.7 Disclaimer

  The United States Government makes no representations or warranties
regarding the content or accuracy of the information.  The United States
Government also makes no representations or warranties of merchantability
or fitness for a particular purpose or that the use of the sequences will
not infringe any patent, copyright, trademark, or other rights.  The
United States Government accepts no responsibility for any consequence
of the receipt or use of the information.

  For additional information about GenBank releases, please contact
NCBI by e-mail at info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, by phone at (301) 496-2475,
or by mail at:

  GenBank
  National Library of Medicine
  Bldg. 38A Rm. 8N-809
  8600 Rockville Pike
  Bethesda, MD 20894
  FAX: (301) 480-9241
Support Center