Release Notes For GenBank Release 137

GBREL.TXT          Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                        August 15 2003

               NCBI-GenBank Flat File Release 137.0

                    Distribution Release Notes

 27213748 loci, 33865022251 bases, from 27213748 reported sequences

 This document describes the format and content of the flat files that
comprise releases of the GenBank database. If you have any questions or
comments about GenBank or this document, please contact NCBI via email
at info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or:

   GenBank
   National Center for Biotechnology Information
   National Library of Medicine, 38A, 8N805
   8600 Rockville Pike
   Bethesda, MD  20894
   USA
   Phone:  (301) 496-2475
   Fax:    (301) 480-9241

==========================================================================
TABLE OF CONTENTS
==========================================================================

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Release 137.0
1.2 Cutoff Date
1.3 Important Changes in Release 137.0
1.4 Upcoming Changes
1.5 Request for Direct Submission of Sequence Data
1.6 Organization of This Document

2. ORGANIZATION OF DATA FILES

2.1 Overview
2.2 Files
     2.2.1 File Descriptions
     2.2.5 File Sizes
     2.2.6 Per-Division Statistics 
     2.2.7 Selected Per-Organism Statistics 
     2.2.8 Growth of GenBank

3. FILE FORMATS

3.1 File Header Information
3.2 Directory Files
     3.2.1 Short Directory File
3.3 Index Files
     3.3.1 Accession Number Index File
     3.3.2 Keyword Phrase Index File
     3.3.3 Author Name Index File
     3.3.4 Journal Citation Index File
     3.3.5 Gene Name Index
3.4 Sequence Entry Files
     3.4.1 File Organization
     3.4.2  Entry Organization
     3.4.3 Sample Sequence Data File
     3.4.4 LOCUS Format
     3.4.5 DEFINITION Format
          3.4.5.1 DEFINITION Format for NLM Entries
     3.4.6 ACCESSION Format
     3.4.7 VERSION Format
     3.4.8 KEYWORDS Format
     3.4.9 SEGMENT Format
     3.4.10 SOURCE Format
     3.4.11 REFERENCE Format
     3.4.12 FEATURES Format
          3.4.12.1 Feature Key Names
          3.4.12.2 Feature Location
          3.4.12.3  Feature Qualifiers
          3.4.12.4 Cross-Reference Information
          3.4.12.5 Feature Table Examples
     3.4.13 ORIGIN Format
     3.4.14 SEQUENCE Format

4. ALTERNATE RELEASES

5. KNOWN PROBLEMS OF THE GENBANK DATABASE

5.1 Incorrect Gene Symbols in Entries and Index

6. GENBANK ADMINISTRATION 

6.1 Registered Trademark Notice
6.2 Citing GenBank
6.3 GenBank Distribution Formats and Media
6.4 Other Methods of Accessing GenBank Data
6.5 Request for Corrections and Comments
6.6 Credits and Acknowledgments
6.7 Disclaimer

==========================================================================

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Release 137.0

  The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National
Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health (NIH) is responsible
for producing and distributing the GenBank Sequence Database.  NCBI handles
all GenBank direct submissions and authors are advised to use the address
below.  Submitters are encouraged to use the free Sequin software package
for sending sequence data, or the newly developed World Wide Web submission
form.  See Section 1.5 below for details.

*****************************************************************************

The address for direct submissions to GenBank is:

       GenBank Submissions
       National Center for Biotechnology Information
       Bldg 38A, Rm. 8N-803
       8600 Rockville Pike
       Bethesda, MD 20894

       E-MAIL:  gb-sub@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Updates and changes to existing GenBank records:

       E-MAIL:  update@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

URL for the new GenBank submission tool - BankIt - on the World Wide Web:

       http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/

(see Section 1.5 for additional details about submitting data to GenBank.)

*****************************************************************************

  GenBank Release 137.0 is a release of sequence data by NCBI in the GenBank
flatfile format.  GenBank is a component of a tri-partite, international
collaboration of sequence databases in the U.S., Europe, and Japan.  The
collaborating databases in Europe are the European Molecular Biology Laboratory
(EMBL) at Hinxton Hall, UK, and the DNA Database of Japan (DDBJ) in Mishima,
Japan.  Patent sequences are incorporated through arrangements with the
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and via the collaborating international
databases from other international patent offices.  The database is converted
to various output formats, including the Flat File and Abstract Syntax Notation 1
(ASN.1) versions.  The ASN.1 and Flat File forms of the data are available at
NCBI's anonymous FTP server: ftp.ncbi.nih.gov .

1.2 Cutoff Date

  This full release, 137.0, incorporates data available to the collaborating
databases as of August 18, 2003.  For more recent data, users are advised to:

  o Download GenBank Incremental Update (GIU) files by anonymous FTP from NCBI:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/ncbi-asn1/daily-nc (ASN.1 format)
	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank/daily-nc   (flatfile format)

    Mirrors of the GenBank FTP site at the NCBI are available from the San Diego
    Supercomputer Center and the University of Indiana:

	ftp://genbank.sdsc.edu/pub
	ftp://bio-mirror.net/biomirror/genbank/

    Some users who experience slow FTP transfers of large files might realize
    an improvement in transfer rates from these alternate sites when traffic at
    the NCBI is high.

  o Use the interactive Network-Entrez or Web-Entrez applications to query
    the 'Entrez: Nucleotides' database (see Section 6.4 of this document).

1.3 Important Changes in Release 137.0

1.3.1 Organizational changes

  The total number of sequence data files increased by 24 with this release:

  - the BCT division is now comprised of 8   files (+1)
  - the EST division is now comprised of 270 files (+11)
  - the GSS division is now comprised of 84  files (+7)
  - the PAT division is now comprised of 10  files (+2)
  - the PLN division is now comprised of 9   files (+1)
  - the PRI division is now comprised of 26  files (+1)
  - the ROD division is now comprised of 9   files (+1)

1.3.2 GSS File Header Problem

  GSS sequences at GenBank are maintained in one of two different systems,
depending on their origin. One recent change to release processing involves
the parallelization of the dumps from those systems. Because the second dump
(for example) has no prior knowledge of exactly how many GSS files will be
dumped from the first, it doesn't know how to number it's own output files.

  There is thus a discrepancy between the filenames and file headers of eleven
GSS flatfiles in Release 137.0. Consider the gbgss74.seq file:

GBGSS1.SEQ           Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                           August 15 2003

                NCBI-GenBank Flat File Release 137.0

                           GSS Sequences (Part 1)

   86694 loci,    65544743 bases, from    86694 reported sequences

  Here, the filename and part number in the header is "1", though the file
has been renamed as "74" based on the files dumped from the other system.

  We will work to resolve this discrepancy in future releases, but the
priority is certainly much lower than many other tasks.

1.4 Upcoming Changes

1.4.1 **Sequence Length Limitation To Be Removed In June 2004**

  At the May 2003 collaborative meeting among representatives of GenBank,
EMBL, and DDBJ, it was decided that the 350 kilobase limit on the sequence
length of database records will be removed as of June 2004.

  Individual, complete sequences are currently expected to be a maximum
of 350 kbp in length. One major reason for the existence of this limit is
as an aid to users of sequence analysis software, some of which might not
be capable of processing megabase-scale sequences.

  However, very significant exceptions to the 350 kbp limit have existed
for several years; Phase 1 (unordered, unoriented) and Phase 2 (ordered,
oriented) high-throughput genomic sequences (HTGS) generated by efforts
such as the Human Genome Project; large dispersed eukaryotic genes with
an intron/exon structure that spans more than 350 kbp; and sequences
which result from assemblies of Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) project data.

  Given these exceptions, and the technological advances which have made
large-scale sequencing practical for an increasing number of researchers,
the collaboration has decided that the 350 kbp limit must be removed.

  As of June 2004, the length of database sequences will be limited only
by the natural structures of an organism's genome. For example, a single
record might be used to represent all of human chromosome 1, which is
approximately 245 Mbp in length.

  Software developers for some of the larger commercial sequence analysis
packages were recently asked what timeframe would be appropriate for this
change. Answers ranged from "immediately", to "several months", to "one year".
So the one-year timeframe was selected, to provide ample time to implement
changes which megabase-scale sequences may require.

  Some sample records with very large sequences have been made available
so that developers can begin to test their software modifications:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank/LargeSeqs

  Many changes are expected after the removal of the length limit. For 
example, complete bacterial genomes (typically on the order of several
megabases) will be re-assembled into single sequence records. The submission
process for such genomes will become much more streamlined, since database
staff will no longer have to split the genomes into pieces. BLAST services
will be enchanced, so that hits reported within very large sequences will
be presented in a meaningful context.

  All such changes will be discussed more fully in future release notes,
the NCBI newsletter, and the GenBank newsgroup.

1.4.2 BASECOUNT line to be dropped

  The BASECOUNT line of the GenBank flatfile format provides totals for
the number of A, T, G, C, and 'other' basepairs that are present within
the sequence of a database record. For example:

LOCUS       AY244763                5686 bp    DNA     linear   BCT 10-APR-2003
DEFINITION  Rhodococcus sp. DS7 cysDNCQ operon, complete sequence.
ACCESSION   AY244763
VERSION     AY244763.1  GI:29725657
....
BASE COUNT     1137 a   1661 c   1821 g   1066 t      1 others
ORIGIN      
        1 cgcggtttgt gacgtctgat tgccggtcat tgacctttgg gtagaacgag ttctattctg
       61 tgattgcgtt caatttagaa ccagtccggt acataaatgt accgatgcgg aaatggtgtt
....
     5281 tgtcagctcg gtgtctggng gcgaggctaa gcaccaacgg cttcggtagc agaaccacat

  This information is computationally expensive to produce for very large
sequences, and for sequences in the CON division. In the CON division case,
a record might be comprised of 'pointers' to hundreds, or even thousands,
of underlying GenBank records. So to calculate the BASECOUNT line content,
retrievals of sequence data for those many records must be performed. This
can noticeably impact the response time for flatfile generation within the
Entrez application.

Hence, as of the October 2003 GenBank Release (138.0), the BASECOUNT linetype
will no longer be present in GenBank Release and GenBank Update products.

Depending on demand, a display option might be implemented in Entrez which
allows users to choose to have BASECOUNT shown.

1.4.3 New oriT feature

  As of Release 138.0 in October 2003, a new feature key (oriT) will be
legal for the feature table. Preliminary documentation for this new
feature is available:

	Feature Key            oriT

	Definition             origin of transfer; region of a plasmid where
                               transfer is initiated during the process of
                               conjugation or mobilisation.

	Mandatory qualifiers:  None

	Optional Qualifiers:   /bound_moiety="text"
                               /citation=[number]
                               /db_xref="<database>:<identifier>"
                               /direction=value
                               /evidence=<evidence_value>
                               /gene="text"
                               /label=feature_label
                               /locus_tag="text" (single token)
                               /map="text"
                               /note="text"
                               /rpt_family="text"
                               /rpt_type=<repeat_type>
                               /rpt_unit=<feature_label>
                               /standard_name="text"
                               /usedin=accnum:feature_label

	Molecule Scope:        DNA

	Comments:              rep_origin should be used for origins
                               of replication; /direction has 
                               legal values RIGHT, LEFT and BOTH,
                               however only RIGHT and LEFT are valid
                               when used in conjunction with the oriT
                               feature 

1.4.4 New /ecotype qualifier

  As of the October 2003 GenBank Release (138.0), a new source feature
qualifier called /ecotype will begin to be used. The preliminary
definition for /ecotype is :

        Qualifier       /ecotype=    
        Definition      A distinct population of organisms of a
                        widespread species that has adapted
                        gentically to its own local habitat.
                        Nevertheless, they can still reproduce
                        with members of other ecotypes of the
                        same species.
        Value format    "text"
        Example         /ecotype="Columbia"

        Comment         'Ecotype' is often applied to standard
                        genetic stocks of Arabidopsis thaliana,
                        but it can be applied to any organism,
                        especially sessile organisms like plants.


1.4.5 Change to value format of /rpt_unit

  As of Release 138.0 in October 2003, the value-format of the /rpt_unit
qualifier will be changed to allow 'text' . The currently documented
format is:

	Value format    <feature_label>  or  <base_range>
	Example         /rpt_unit=Alu_rpt1
	                /rpt_unit=202..245
	Comment         used to indicate feature which defines (or base range of) the
	                repeat unit of which a repeat region is made

  However, a very common value for /rpt_unit is a literal sequence
string that represents the repeating unit(s). For example:

	/rpt_unit=ta
	/rpt_unit=ac;ag

So the format of this qualifier will be changed to:

	Value format    "text"  or  <feature_label>  or  <base_range>

Existing feature label and base range values will eventually be presented
as text values.

1.4.6 New operon feature

  Starting with the October 2003 release (138.0), a new feature will be
legal for the feature table:

	Feature Key:           operon

	Definition:            region containing polycistronic transcripts
                               and regulatory sequences containing genes
                               that encode enzymes that are in the same
                               metabolic pathway  

	Optional qualifiers:   /allele="text"
                               /citation=[number]
                               /db_xref="<database>:<identifier>"
                               /evidence=<evidence_value>
                               /function="text"
                               /operon="text"
                               /label=feature_label
                               /locus_tag="text" (single token)
                               /map="text"
                               /note="text"
                               /product="text"
                               /pseudo
                               /phenotype="text"
                               /standard_name="text"
                               /usedin=accnum:feature_label

  In bacteria, many genes encoding for specific biosynthetic pathways are
transcribed in polycistronic operons. It has been challenging to reflect
this biology within the GenBank flatfile format. GenBank has been using
a gene feature that spans the entire regulatory region and all of the coding
regions and then gene features corresponding to the individual genes spaning
the coding genes.

  The new operon feature will simplify the annotation of cases like
these. Examples of the new operon feature will be provided in future
release notes.

1.4.7 [er] prefix for JOURNAL line

  As of Release 138.0 in October 2003, a new prefix will be legal for the
JOURNAL line:  [er] .

  This prefix is an abbreviation for Electronic Resource, which is a 
term that describes journal articles that are available on-line.

  In 1999, an interim 'Online Publication' REFERENCE format was adopted for
use at GenBank in order to cite articles appearing only electronically:

      REFERENCE   1  (bases 1 to 2858)
        AUTHORS   Smith, J.
        TITLE     Cloning and expression of a phospholipase gene
        JOURNAL   Online Publication
        REMARK    Online-Journal-name; Article Identifier; URL

  In subsequent years, no standards for citing on-line journal articles
have emerged from library organizations.

  One such library organization (National Library of Medicine, NIH) is now
assigning identifiers (Medline UIs and PubMed Ids) to articles published
on-line, and it is presenting these articles in a manner that is identical
to print-journal articles. For example:

      REFERENCE   1
        AUTHORS   Haas,B.J., Volfovsky,N., Town,C.D., Troukhan,M., Alexandrov,N.,
                  Feldmann,K.A., Flavell,R.B., White,O. and Salzberg,S.L.
        TITLE     Full-length messenger RNA sequences greatly improve genome
                  annotation
        JOURNAL   Genome Biol. 3 (6), RESEARCH0029 (2002)
        MEDLINE   22088475
         PUBMED   12093376

  Although these citations may contain journal abbreviations, volume numbers,
issue/part/supplement numbers, pages, and year (just like a print-journal
citation), there is no guarantee that the contents of these fields will be 
comparable to those of print-journal citations.

  In the case above, although the page number is a bit unusual
("RESEARCH0029"), software that processes the JOURNAL line would probably
still be able to parse its contents. But there is also a possibility that
these fields could contain unusual characters (embedded spaces, commas,
parentheses), and possibly even URLs. So the use of [er] :

        JOURNAL   [er] Genome Biol. 3 (6), RESEARCH0029 (2002)

will act as a warning (primarily to software) that the contents of the
JOURNAL line might not be as parsable as a print-journal JOURNAL line.

1.4.8 Accession format of WGS records

  Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) sequences utilize an accession number format which
is different from those used for non-WGS GenBank sequences. This format is
referred to as 4 + 2 + 6, and is comprised of:

  - a 4-letter WGS project code
  - a 2-digit assembly-version number
  - a 6 (and sometimes 7) digit sequence number

  Because of their unique nature, WGS sequences are kept separate from other
GenBank products:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank/wgs

  For example, sequences much larger than the current 350 kbp limit can be
generated during the WGS assembly phase. In addition, there is no tracking
of nucleotide sequences from one assembly to the next. So the accessions
of one:

	AAAB01000001
	AAAB01000002
	AAAB01000003
	....

are not necessarily related in any way to those of the next assembly:

	AAAB02000001
	AAAB02000002
	AAAB02000003
	....

  When a WGS project is completed, it is possible that the submittors may chose
to submit a single finished WGS sequence with a 4 + 2 + 6 accession, at which
point it would appear in the non-WGS portion of GenBank.

  Alternately, the submittors might chose to submit the completed genome via
a non-WGS method, in which case a de-novo non-WGS accession would be assigned.
That record would then have one or more 2 + 4 + 6 WGS accessions as
secondary accessions.

  Both scenarios are likely to occur, especially after the 350 kbp sequence
length restriction is lifted. So we felt it was important to alert users
that WGS accessions will eventually be encountered in the non-WGS portion
of GenBank, as primary or secondary accession numbers.

1.5 Request for Direct Submission of Sequence Data

  A successful GenBank requires that sequence data enter the database as
soon as possible after publication, that the annotations be as complete as
possible, and that the sequence and annotation data be accurate. All
three of these requirements are best met if authors of sequence data
submit their data directly to GenBank in a usable form. It is especially
important that these submissions be in computer-readable form.

  GenBank must rely on direct author submission of data to ensure that
it achieves its goals of completeness, accuracy, and timeliness. To
assist researchers in entering their own sequence data, GenBank
provides a WWW submission tool called BankIt, as well as a stand-alone
software package called Sequin. BankIt and Sequin are both easy-to-use
programs that enable authors to enter a sequence, annotate it, and
submit it to GenBank.  Through the international collaboration of DNA
sequence databases, GenBank submissions are forwarded daily for inclusion
in the EMBL and DDBJ databases.

  SEQUIN.  Sequin is an interactive, graphically-oriented program based
on screen forms and controlled vocabularies that guides you through the
process of entering your sequence and providing biological and
bibliographic annotation.  Sequin is designed to simplify the sequence submission
process, and to provide increased data handling capabilities to accomodate
very long sequences, complex annotations, and robust error checking.  E-mail
the completed submission file to : gb-sub@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  Sequin is provided for Macintosh, PC/Windows, UNIX and VMS computers.
It is available by annonymous ftp from ftp.ncbi.nih.gov; login as
anonymous and use your e-mail address as the password. It is located in
the sequin directory. Or direct your web browser to this URL:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/sequin

  BANKIT.  BankIt provides a simple forms approach for submitting your
sequence and descriptive information to GenBank.  Your submission will
be submitted directly to GenBank via the World Wide Web, and
immediately forwarded for inclusion in the EMBL and DDBJ databases.
BankIt may be used with Netscape, Internet Explorer, and other common
WWW clients. You can access BankIt from GenBank's home page:   

	http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/

  AUTHORIN.  Authorin sequence submissions are no longer accepted by
GenBank, and the Authorin application is no longer distributed by NCBI.  

  If you have questions about GenBank submissions or any of the data
submission tools, contact NCBI at: info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or 301-496-2475.

1.6 Organization of This Document

  The second section describes the contents of GenBank releases. The third
section illustrates the formats of the flat files.  The fourth section
describes other versions of the data, the fifth section identifies known prob-
lems, and the sixth contains administrative details.

2. ORGANIZATION OF DATA FILES

2.1 Overview

  GenBank releases consist of a set of ASCII text files, most of which
contain sequence data. A few supplemental "index" files are also supplied,
containing comprehensive lists of author names, journal citations,
gene names, and keywords, along with the accession numbers of the records
in which they can be found (see Section 3.3). The line-lengths of
these files is variable.

2.2 Files

  This GenBank flat file release consists of 532 files. The lists
that follow describe each of the files included in the distribution.
Their sizes and base pair content are also summarized.

2.2.1 File Descriptions

1.  gbrel.txt	- Release notes (this document).
2.  gbsdr.txt 	- Short directory of the data bank.
3.  gbacc.idx 	- Index of the entries according to accession number.
4.  gbkey.idx 	- Index of the entries according to keyword phrase.
5.  gbaut1.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 1.
6.  gbaut2.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 2.
7.  gbaut3.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 3.
8.  gbaut4.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 4.
9.  gbaut5.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 5.
10. gbaut6.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 6.
11. gbaut7.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 7.
12. gbaut8.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 8.
13. gbaut9.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 9.
14. gbaut10.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 10.
15. gbaut11.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 11.
16. gbaut12.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 12.
17. gbaut13.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 13.
18. gbaut14.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 14.
19. gbaut15.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 15.
20. gbaut16.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 16.
21. gbaut17.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 17.
22. gbaut18.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 18.
23. gbaut19.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 19.
24. gbaut20.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 20.
25. gbjou.idx 	- Index of the entries according to journal citation.
26. gbgen.idx 	- Index of the entries according to gene names.
27. gbsec.idx	- Index of the entries according to secondary accession number.
28. gbpri1.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 1.
29. gbpri2.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 2.
30. gbpri3.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 3.
31. gbpri4.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 4.
32. gbpri5.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 5.
33. gbpri6.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 6.
34. gbpri7.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 7.
35. gbpri8.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 8.
36. gbpri9.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 9.
37. gbpri10.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 10.
38. gbpri11.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 11.
39. gbpri12.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 12.
40. gbpri13.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 13.
41. gbpri14.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 14.
42. gbpri15.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 15.
43. gbpri16.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 16.
44. gbpri17.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 17.
45. gbpri18.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 18.
46. gbpri19.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 19.
47. gbpri20.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 20.
48. gbpri21.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 21.
49. gbpri22.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 22.
50. gbpri23.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 23.
51. gbpri24.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 24.
52. gbpri25.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 25.
53. gbpri26.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 26.
54. gbrod1.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 1.
55. gbrod2.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 2.
56. gbrod3.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 3.
57. gbrod4.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 4.
58. gbrod5.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 5.
59. gbrod6.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 6.
60. gbrod7.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 7.
61. gbrod8.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 8.
62. gbrod9.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 9.
63. gbmam.seq 	- Other mammalian sequence entries.
64. gbvrt1.seq 	- Other vertebrate sequence entries, part 1.
65. gbvrt2.seq 	- Other vertebrate sequence entries, part 2.
66. gbvrt3.seq 	- Other vertebrate sequence entries, part 3.
67. gbinv1.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 1.
68. gbinv2.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 2.
69. gbinv3.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 3.
70. gbinv4.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 4.
71. gbinv5.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 5.
72. gbinv6.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 6.
73. gbpln1.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 1.
74. gbpln2.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 2.
75. gbpln3.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 3.
76. gbpln4.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 4.
77. gbpln5.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 5.
78. gbpln6.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 6.
79. gbpln7.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 7.
80. gbpln8.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 8.
81. gbpln9.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 9.
82. gbbct1.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 1.
83. gbbct2.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 2.
84. gbbct3.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 3.
85. gbbct4.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 4.
86. gbbct5.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 5.
87. gbbct6.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 6.
88. gbbct7.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 7.
89. gbbct8.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 8.
90. gbvrl1.seq 	- Viral sequence entries, part 1.
91. gbvrl2.seq 	- Viral sequence entries, part 2.
92. gbvrl3.seq 	- Viral sequence entries, part 3.
93. gbphg.seq 	- Phage sequence entries.
94. gbsyn.seq 	- Synthetic and chimeric sequence entries.
95. gbuna.seq 	- Unannotated sequence entries.
96. gbest1.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 1.
97. gbest2.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 2.
98. gbest3.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 3.
99. gbest4.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 4.
100. gbest5.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 5.
101. gbest6.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 6.
102. gbest7.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 7.
103. gbest8.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 8.
104. gbest9.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 9.
105. gbest10.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 10.
106. gbest11.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 11.
107. gbest12.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 12.
108. gbest13.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 13.
109. gbest14.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 14.
110. gbest15.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 15.
111. gbest16.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 16.
112. gbest17.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 17.
113. gbest18.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 18.
114. gbest19.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 19.
115. gbest20.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 20.
116. gbest21.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 21.
117. gbest22.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 22.
118. gbest23.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 23.
119. gbest24.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 24.
120. gbest25.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 25.
121. gbest26.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 26.
122. gbest27.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 27.
123. gbest28.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 28.
124. gbest29.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 29.
125. gbest30.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 30.
126. gbest31.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 31.
127. gbest32.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 32.
128. gbest33.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 33.
129. gbest34.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 34.
130. gbest35.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 35.
131. gbest36.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 36.
132. gbest37.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 37.
133. gbest38.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 38.
134. gbest39.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 39.
135. gbest40.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 40.
136. gbest41.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 41.
137. gbest42.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 42.
138. gbest43.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 43.
139. gbest44.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 44.
140. gbest45.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 45.
141. gbest46.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 46.
142. gbest47.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 47.
143. gbest48.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 48.
144. gbest49.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 49.
145. gbest50.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 50.
146. gbest51.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 51.
147. gbest52.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 52.
148. gbest53.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 53.
149. gbest54.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 54.
150. gbest55.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 55.
151. gbest56.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 56.
152. gbest57.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 57.
153. gbest58.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 58.
154. gbest59.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 59.
155. gbest60.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 60.
156. gbest61.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 61.
157. gbest62.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 62.
158. gbest63.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 63.
159. gbest64.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 64.
160. gbest65.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 65.
161. gbest66.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 66.
162. gbest67.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 67.
163. gbest68.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 68.
164. gbest69.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 69.
165. gbest70.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 70.
166. gbest71.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 71.
167. gbest72.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 72.
168. gbest73.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 73.
169. gbest74.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 74.
170. gbest75.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 75.
171. gbest76.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 76.
172. gbest77.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 77.
173. gbest78.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 78.
174. gbest79.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 79.
175. gbest80.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 80.
176. gbest81.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 81.
177. gbest82.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 82.
178. gbest83.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 83.
179. gbest84.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 84.
180. gbest85.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 85.
181. gbest86.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 86.
182. gbest87.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 87.
183. gbest88.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 88.
184. gbest89.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 89
185. gbest90.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 90.
186. gbest91.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 91.
187. gbest92.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 92.
188. gbest93.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 93.
189. gbest94.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 94.
190. gbest95.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 95.
191. gbest96.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 96.
192. gbest97.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 97.
193. gbest98.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 98.
194. gbest99.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 99.
195. gbest100.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 100.
196. gbest101.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 101.
197. gbest102.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 102.
198. gbest103.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 103.
199. gbest104.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 104.
200. gbest105.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 105.
201. gbest106.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 106.
202. gbest107.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 107.
203. gbest108.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 108.
204. gbest109.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 109.
205. gbest110.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 110.
206. gbest111.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 111.
207. gbest112.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 112.
208. gbest113.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 113.
209. gbest114.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 114.
210. gbest115.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 115.
211. gbest116.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 116.
212. gbest117.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 117.
213. gbest118.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 118.
214. gbest119.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 119.
215. gbest120.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 120.
216. gbest121.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 121.
217. gbest122.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 122.
218. gbest123.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 123.
219. gbest124.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 124.
220. gbest125.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 125.
221. gbest126.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 126.
222. gbest127.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 127.
223. gbest128.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 128.
224. gbest129.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 129.
225. gbest130.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 130.
226. gbest131.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 131.
227. gbest132.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 132.
228. gbest133.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 133.
229. gbest134.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 134.
230. gbest135.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 135.
231. gbest136.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 136.
232. gbest137.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 137.
233. gbest138.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 138.
234. gbest139.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 139.
235. gbest140.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 140.
236. gbest141.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 141.
237. gbest142.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 142.
238. gbest143.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 143.
239. gbest144.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 144.
240. gbest145.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 145.
241. gbest146.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 146.
242. gbest147.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 147.
243. gbest148.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 148.
244. gbest149.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 149.
245. gbest150.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 150.
246. gbest151.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 151.
247. gbest152.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 152.
248. gbest153.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 153.
249. gbest154.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 154.
250. gbest155.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 155.
251. gbest156.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 156.
252. gbest157.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 157.
253. gbest158.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 158.
254. gbest159.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 159.
255. gbest160.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 160.
256. gbest161.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 161.
257. gbest162.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 162.
258. gbest163.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 163.
259. gbest164.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 164.
260. gbest165.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 165.
261. gbest166.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 166.
262. gbest167.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 167.
263. gbest168.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 168.
264. gbest169.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 169.
265. gbest170.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 170.
266. gbest171.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 171.
267. gbest172.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 172.
268. gbest173.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 173.
269. gbest174.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 174.
270. gbest175.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 175.
271. gbest176.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 176.
272. gbest177.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 177.
273. gbest178.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 178.
274. gbest179.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 179.
275. gbest180.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 180.
276. gbest181.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 181.
277. gbest182.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 182.
278. gbest183.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 183.
279. gbest184.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 184.
280. gbest185.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 185.
281. gbest186.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 186.
282. gbest187.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 187.
283. gbest188.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 188.
284. gbest189.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 189.
285. gbest190.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 190.
286. gbest191.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 191.
287. gbest192.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 192.
288. gbest193.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 193.
289. gbest194.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 194.
290. gbest195.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 195.
291. gbest196.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 196.
292. gbest197.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 197.
293. gbest198.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 198.
294. gbest199.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 199.
295. gbest200.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 200.
296. gbest201.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 201.
297. gbest202.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 202.
298. gbest203.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 203.
299. gbest204.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 204.
300. gbest205.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 205.
301. gbest206.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 206.
302. gbest207.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 207.
303. gbest208.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 208.
304. gbest209.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 209.
305. gbest210.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 210.
306. gbest211.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 211.
307. gbest212.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 212.
308. gbest213.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 213.
309. gbest214.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 214.
310. gbest215.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 215.
311. gbest216.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 216.
312. gbest217.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 217.
313. gbest218.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 218.
314. gbest219.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 219.
315. gbest220.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 220.
316. gbest221.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 221.
317. gbest222.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 222.
318. gbest223.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 223.
319. gbest224.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 224.
320. gbest225.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 225.
321. gbest226.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 226.
322. gbest227.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 227.
323. gbest228.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 228.
324. gbest229.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 229.
325. gbest230.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 230.
326. gbest231.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 231.
327. gbest232.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 232.
328. gbest233.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 233.
329. gbest234.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 234.
330. gbest235.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 235.
331. gbest236.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 236.
332. gbest237.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 237.
333. gbest238.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 238.
334. gbest239.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 239.
335. gbest240.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 240.
336. gbest241.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 241.
337. gbest242.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 242.
338. gbest243.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 243.
339. gbest244.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 244.
340. gbest245.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 245.
341. gbest246.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 246.
342. gbest247.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 247.
343. gbest248.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 248.
344. gbest249.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 249.
345. gbest250.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 250.
346. gbest251.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 251.
347. gbest252.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 252.
348. gbest253.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 253.
349. gbest254.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 254.
350. gbest255.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 255.
351. gbest256.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 256.
352. gbest257.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 257.
353. gbest258.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 258.
354. gbest259.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 259.
355. gbest260.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 260.
356. gbest261.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 261.
357. gbest262.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 262.
358. gbest263.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 263.
359. gbest264.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 264.
360. gbest265.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 265.
361. gbest266.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 266.
362. gbest267.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 267.
363. gbest268.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 268.
364. gbest269.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 269.
365. gbest270.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 270.
366. gbpat1.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 1.
367. gbpat2.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 2.
368. gbpat3.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 3.
369. gbpat4.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 4.
370. gbpat5.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 5.
371. gbpat6.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 6.
372. gbpat7.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 7.
373. gbpat8.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 8.
374. gbpat9.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 9.
375. gbpat10.seq - Patent sequence entries, part 10.
376. gbsts1.seq  - STS (sequence tagged site) sequence entries, part 1.
377. gbsts2.seq  - STS (sequence tagged site) sequence entries, part 2.
378. gbsts3.seq  - STS (sequence tagged site) sequence entries, part 3.
379. gbgss1.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 1.
380. gbgss2.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 2.
381. gbgss3.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 3.
382. gbgss4.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 4.
383. gbgss5.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 5.
384. gbgss6.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 6.
385. gbgss7.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 7.
386. gbgss8.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 8.
387. gbgss9.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 9.
388. gbgss10.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 10.
389. gbgss11.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 11.
390. gbgss12.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 12.
391. gbgss13.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 13.
392. gbgss14.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 14.
393. gbgss15.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 15.
394. gbgss16.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 16.
395. gbgss17.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 17.
396. gbgss18.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 18.
397. gbgss19.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 19.
398. gbgss20.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 20.
399. gbgss21.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 21.
400. gbgss22.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 22.
401. gbgss23.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 23.
402. gbgss24.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 24.
403. gbgss25.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 25.
404. gbgss26.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 26.
405. gbgss27.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 27.
406. gbgss28.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 28.
407. gbgss29.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 29.
408. gbgss30.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 30.
409. gbgss31.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 31.
410. gbgss32.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 32.
411. gbgss33.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 33.
412. gbgss34.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 34.
413. gbgss35.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 35.
414. gbgss36.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 36.
415. gbgss37.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 37.
416. gbgss38.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 38.
417. gbgss39.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 39.
418. gbgss40.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 40.
419. gbgss41.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 41.
420. gbgss42.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 42.
421. gbgss43.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 43.
422. gbgss44.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 44.
423. gbgss45.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 45.
424. gbgss46.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 46.
425. gbgss47.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 47.
426. gbgss48.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 48.
427. gbgss49.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 49.
428. gbgss50.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 50.
429. gbgss51.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 51.
430. gbgss52.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 52.
431. gbgss53.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 53.
432. gbgss54.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 54.
433. gbgss55.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 55.
434. gbgss56.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 56.
435. gbgss57.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 57.
436. gbgss58.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 58.
437. gbgss59.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 59.
438. gbgss60.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 60.
439. gbgss61.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 61.
440. gbgss62.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 62.
441. gbgss63.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 63.
442. gbgss64.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 64.
443. gbgss65.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 65.
444. gbgss66.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 66.
445. gbgss67.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 67.
446. gbgss68.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 68.
447. gbgss69.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 69.
448. gbgss70.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 70.
449. gbgss71.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 71.
450. gbgss72.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 72.
451. gbgss73.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 73.
452. gbgss74.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 74.
453. gbgss75.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 75.
454. gbgss76.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 76.
455. gbgss77.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 77.
456. gbgss78.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 78.
457. gbgss79.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 79.
458. gbgss80.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 80.
459. gbgss81.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 81.
460. gbgss82.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 82.
461. gbgss83.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 83.
462. gbgss84.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 84.
463. gbhtg1.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 1.
464. gbhtg2.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 2.
465. gbhtg3.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 3.
466. gbhtg4.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 4.
467. gbhtg5.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 5.
468. gbhtg6.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 6.
469. gbhtg7.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 7.
470. gbhtg8.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 8.
471. gbhtg9.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 9.
472. gbhtg10.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 10.
473. gbhtg11.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 11.
474. gbhtg12.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 12.
475. gbhtg13.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 13.
476. gbhtg14.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 14.
477. gbhtg15.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 15.
478. gbhtg16.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 16.
479. gbhtg17.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 17.
480. gbhtg18.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 18.
481. gbhtg19.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 19.
482. gbhtg20.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 20.
483. gbhtg21.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 21.
484. gbhtg22.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 22.
485. gbhtg23.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 23.
486. gbhtg24.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 24.
487. gbhtg25.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 25.
488. gbhtg26.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 26.
489. gbhtg27.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 27.
490. gbhtg28.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 28.
491. gbhtg29.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 29.
492. gbhtg30.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 30.
493. gbhtg31.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 31.
494. gbhtg32.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 32.
495. gbhtg33.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 33.
496. gbhtg34.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 34.
497. gbhtg35.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 35.
498. gbhtg36.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 36.
499. gbhtg37.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 37.
500. gbhtg38.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 38.
501. gbhtg39.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 39.
502. gbhtg40.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 40.
503. gbhtg41.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 41.
504. gbhtg42.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 42.
505. gbhtg43.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 43.
506. gbhtg44.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 44.
507. gbhtg45.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 45.
508. gbhtg46.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 46.
509. gbhtg47.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 47.
510. gbhtg48.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 48.
511. gbhtg49.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 49.
512. gbhtg50.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 50.
513. gbhtg51.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 51.
514. gbhtg52.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 52.
515. gbhtg53.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 53.
516. gbhtg54.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 54.
517. gbhtg55.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 55.
518. gbhtg56.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 56.
519. gbhtg57.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 57.
520. gbhtg58.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 58.
521. gbhtg59.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 59.
522. gbhtg60.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 60.
523. gbhtg61.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 61.
524. gbhtg62.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 62.
525. gbhtc1.seq	 - HTC (high throughput cDNA sequencing) entries, part 1.
526. gbhtc2.seq	 - HTC (high throughput cDNA sequencing) entries, part 2.
527. gbhtc3.seq	 - HTC (high throughput cDNA sequencing) entries, part 3.
528. gbhtc4.seq	 - HTC (high throughput cDNA sequencing) entries, part 4.
529. gbcon.seq	 - CON division entries (see description below for details)
530. gbchg.txt   - Accession numbers of entries updated since the previous release.
531. gbdel.txt   - Accession numbers of entries deleted since the previous release.
532. gbnew.txt   - Accession numbers of entries new since the previous release.

  The gbcon.seq data file provides an alternative representation for complex
sequences, such as segmented sets and complete-genomes that have been split
into pieces. These "CON" records do not contain sequence data; they utilize
a CONTIG linetype with a join() statement which describes how the component
sequences can be assembled to form the larger sequence. The contents of the 
CON division are not reflected in the 'index', 'new', 'chg', and 'del' files
that accompany GenBank releases, nor in release statistics (Sections 2.2.6,
2.2.7, and 2.2.8). The GenBank README describes the CON division of GenBank
in more detail:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank/README.genbank

2.2.5 File Sizes

  Uncompressed, the Release 137.0 flatfiles require roughly 107 GB (sequence
files only) or 121 GB (including the 'short directory' and 'index' files).
The following table contains the approximate sizes of the individual files in
this release.  Since minor changes to some of the files might have occurred
after these release notes were written, these sizes should not be used to
determine file integrity; they are provided as an aid to planning only.

File Size      File Name

 890642343     gbacc.idx
 503277197     gbaut1.idx
 504627379     gbaut10.idx
 501577990     gbaut11.idx
 500324741     gbaut12.idx
 500707148     gbaut13.idx
 524572190     gbaut14.idx
 514490366     gbaut15.idx
 517176982     gbaut16.idx
 518254442     gbaut17.idx
 517705479     gbaut18.idx
 523291349     gbaut19.idx
 503495734     gbaut2.idx
 444149203     gbaut20.idx
 501742812     gbaut3.idx
 506008762     gbaut4.idx
 513938547     gbaut5.idx
 513942220     gbaut6.idx
 510057330     gbaut7.idx
 502334959     gbaut8.idx
 515932754     gbaut9.idx
 250017040     gbbct1.seq
 250347902     gbbct2.seq
 250001066     gbbct3.seq
 250513818     gbbct4.seq
 250001224     gbbct5.seq
 250000965     gbbct6.seq
 250000289     gbbct7.seq
   5319295     gbbct8.seq
   4720999     gbchg.txt
    112788     gbdel.txt
 230690239     gbest1.seq
 230688913     gbest10.seq
 230689773     gbest100.seq
 230690307     gbest101.seq
 230688538     gbest102.seq
 230689670     gbest103.seq
 230689193     gbest104.seq
 230689170     gbest105.seq
 230688358     gbest106.seq
 230689493     gbest107.seq
 230688438     gbest108.seq
 230690392     gbest109.seq
 230688688     gbest11.seq
 230689216     gbest110.seq
 230688391     gbest111.seq
 230689744     gbest112.seq
 230690369     gbest113.seq
 230689281     gbest114.seq
 230687561     gbest115.seq
 230689605     gbest116.seq
 230690513     gbest117.seq
 230687560     gbest118.seq
 230688205     gbest119.seq
 230688847     gbest12.seq
 230689236     gbest120.seq
 230690083     gbest121.seq
 230688220     gbest122.seq
 230689039     gbest123.seq
 230687972     gbest124.seq
 230689456     gbest125.seq
 230688911     gbest126.seq
 230690694     gbest127.seq
 230688713     gbest128.seq
 230690215     gbest129.seq
 230689478     gbest13.seq
 230690059     gbest130.seq
 230688107     gbest131.seq
 230689368     gbest132.seq
 230687684     gbest133.seq
 230691037     gbest134.seq
 230690311     gbest135.seq
 230687910     gbest136.seq
 230687965     gbest137.seq
 230688308     gbest138.seq
 230690388     gbest139.seq
 230688732     gbest14.seq
 230687486     gbest140.seq
 230689062     gbest141.seq
 230689181     gbest142.seq
 230688489     gbest143.seq
 230689608     gbest144.seq
 230688815     gbest145.seq
 230689487     gbest146.seq
 230688832     gbest147.seq
 230688555     gbest148.seq
 230689624     gbest149.seq
 230687749     gbest15.seq
 230688049     gbest150.seq
 230688516     gbest151.seq
 230688382     gbest152.seq
 230688341     gbest153.seq
 230690567     gbest154.seq
 230689310     gbest155.seq
 230688258     gbest156.seq
 230690623     gbest157.seq
 230688466     gbest158.seq
 230688394     gbest159.seq
 230690653     gbest16.seq
 230688532     gbest160.seq
 230690682     gbest161.seq
 230689300     gbest162.seq
 230689741     gbest163.seq
 230687848     gbest164.seq
 230687779     gbest165.seq
 230687572     gbest166.seq
 230690229     gbest167.seq
 230690018     gbest168.seq
 230690584     gbest169.seq
 230690708     gbest17.seq
 230688763     gbest170.seq
 230687619     gbest171.seq
 230690790     gbest172.seq
 230690319     gbest173.seq
 230689678     gbest174.seq
 230687589     gbest175.seq
 230689984     gbest176.seq
 230687575     gbest177.seq
 230688788     gbest178.seq
 230689601     gbest179.seq
 230689046     gbest18.seq
 230687777     gbest180.seq
 230687791     gbest181.seq
 230688230     gbest182.seq
 230689779     gbest183.seq
 230687517     gbest184.seq
 230688935     gbest185.seq
 230688294     gbest186.seq
 230689577     gbest187.seq
 230689151     gbest188.seq
 230687938     gbest189.seq
 230691044     gbest19.seq
 230688878     gbest190.seq
 230687893     gbest191.seq
 230687629     gbest192.seq
 230690176     gbest193.seq
 230688814     gbest194.seq
 230687757     gbest195.seq
 230688397     gbest196.seq
 166371183     gbest197.seq
 163866782     gbest198.seq
 168374431     gbest199.seq
 230689402     gbest2.seq
 230690678     gbest20.seq
 170884958     gbest200.seq
 171254487     gbest201.seq
 165780363     gbest202.seq
 166679566     gbest203.seq
 166017040     gbest204.seq
 166054492     gbest205.seq
 166220333     gbest206.seq
 165987120     gbest207.seq
 165458350     gbest208.seq
 165799742     gbest209.seq
 230691012     gbest21.seq
 168636977     gbest210.seq
 163431438     gbest211.seq
 165838286     gbest212.seq
 170357472     gbest213.seq
 168490406     gbest214.seq
 167222389     gbest215.seq
 167203274     gbest216.seq
 166884824     gbest217.seq
 166638379     gbest218.seq
 165918891     gbest219.seq
 230688279     gbest22.seq
 166004101     gbest220.seq
 167144583     gbest221.seq
 170301853     gbest222.seq
 180902124     gbest223.seq
 172699005     gbest224.seq
 230688208     gbest225.seq
 230690762     gbest226.seq
 230690196     gbest227.seq
 230689945     gbest228.seq
 230689421     gbest229.seq
 230688683     gbest23.seq
 230689557     gbest230.seq
 230688966     gbest231.seq
 230690378     gbest232.seq
 230690750     gbest233.seq
 230688264     gbest234.seq
 230690833     gbest235.seq
 230689998     gbest236.seq
 230690715     gbest237.seq
 230687630     gbest238.seq
 230688054     gbest239.seq
 230687572     gbest24.seq
 230689189     gbest240.seq
 230690045     gbest241.seq
 230690702     gbest242.seq
 230688843     gbest243.seq
 230688684     gbest244.seq
 230687671     gbest245.seq
 230688727     gbest246.seq
 230690079     gbest247.seq
 230688785     gbest248.seq
 230689099     gbest249.seq
 230690233     gbest25.seq
 230690362     gbest250.seq
 230688215     gbest251.seq
 230691453     gbest252.seq
 230688483     gbest253.seq
 230688447     gbest254.seq
 230690363     gbest255.seq
 230689188     gbest256.seq
 230688914     gbest257.seq
 230689695     gbest258.seq
 230689346     gbest259.seq
 230688182     gbest26.seq
 230690930     gbest260.seq
 230689785     gbest261.seq
 230688783     gbest262.seq
 230688666     gbest263.seq
 230687888     gbest264.seq
 230688518     gbest265.seq
 230688914     gbest266.seq
 226253542     gbest267.seq
 230688337     gbest268.seq
 230687467     gbest269.seq
 230689382     gbest27.seq
   1512776     gbest270.seq
 230687811     gbest28.seq
 230687484     gbest29.seq
 230689641     gbest3.seq
 230688698     gbest30.seq
 230689515     gbest31.seq
 230689445     gbest32.seq
 230688462     gbest33.seq
 230689122     gbest34.seq
 230687462     gbest35.seq
 230689764     gbest36.seq
 194770144     gbest37.seq
 193831943     gbest38.seq
 213569280     gbest39.seq
 230690502     gbest4.seq
 218401605     gbest40.seq
 218088197     gbest41.seq
 218974980     gbest42.seq
 230689409     gbest43.seq
 230688675     gbest44.seq
 230689849     gbest45.seq
 226357761     gbest46.seq
 230687883     gbest47.seq
 230690329     gbest48.seq
 230688199     gbest49.seq
 169478121     gbest5.seq
 230687604     gbest50.seq
 230688290     gbest51.seq
 230688862     gbest52.seq
 230688468     gbest53.seq
 230690714     gbest54.seq
 230689940     gbest55.seq
 230690989     gbest56.seq
 230690010     gbest57.seq
 230689776     gbest58.seq
 230689393     gbest59.seq
 178687378     gbest6.seq
 230690476     gbest60.seq
 230688891     gbest61.seq
 219158308     gbest62.seq
 211336363     gbest63.seq
 210951119     gbest64.seq
 210955867     gbest65.seq
 211369195     gbest66.seq
 212744542     gbest67.seq
 211168058     gbest68.seq
 210761914     gbest69.seq
 230688865     gbest7.seq
 212036852     gbest70.seq
 211872186     gbest71.seq
 207147553     gbest72.seq
 209709581     gbest73.seq
 209065123     gbest74.seq
 211386147     gbest75.seq
 223307128     gbest76.seq
 230692802     gbest77.seq
 230688645     gbest78.seq
 227553317     gbest79.seq
 230690111     gbest8.seq
 218973404     gbest80.seq
 216113402     gbest81.seq
 228479195     gbest82.seq
 230688973     gbest83.seq
 230687714     gbest84.seq
 230690582     gbest85.seq
 230689381     gbest86.seq
 230688714     gbest87.seq
 230689465     gbest88.seq
 230688286     gbest89.seq
 230689639     gbest9.seq
 230690234     gbest90.seq
 230689701     gbest91.seq
 230688158     gbest92.seq
 230688108     gbest93.seq
 230688886     gbest94.seq
 230688542     gbest95.seq
 230690848     gbest96.seq
 230688187     gbest97.seq
 230690049     gbest98.seq
 230690417     gbest99.seq
  30855019     gbgen.idx
 209718398     gbgss1.seq
 209718902     gbgss10.seq
 209718556     gbgss11.seq
 209718122     gbgss12.seq
 209717388     gbgss13.seq
 209716609     gbgss14.seq
 209718299     gbgss15.seq
 209717187     gbgss16.seq
 209718356     gbgss17.seq
 209717245     gbgss18.seq
 209718316     gbgss19.seq
 209717475     gbgss2.seq
 209717994     gbgss20.seq
 209716767     gbgss21.seq
 209717640     gbgss22.seq
 209718513     gbgss23.seq
 209719955     gbgss24.seq
 209716366     gbgss25.seq
 209717708     gbgss26.seq
 209718075     gbgss27.seq
 209717798     gbgss28.seq
 209716619     gbgss29.seq
 209716519     gbgss3.seq
 209718102     gbgss30.seq
 209717571     gbgss31.seq
 209716175     gbgss32.seq
 209718706     gbgss33.seq
 209716323     gbgss34.seq
 209718203     gbgss35.seq
 209718446     gbgss36.seq
 209718341     gbgss37.seq
 209716237     gbgss38.seq
 209716893     gbgss39.seq
 209717732     gbgss4.seq
 209718577     gbgss40.seq
 209717786     gbgss41.seq
 209716967     gbgss42.seq
 209716119     gbgss43.seq
 209716698     gbgss44.seq
 209717931     gbgss45.seq
 209717700     gbgss46.seq
 209718559     gbgss47.seq
 209716383     gbgss48.seq
 209716739     gbgss49.seq
 209717281     gbgss5.seq
 209716566     gbgss50.seq
 209716023     gbgss51.seq
 209717272     gbgss52.seq
 209716077     gbgss53.seq
 209717041     gbgss54.seq
 209718511     gbgss55.seq
 209717744     gbgss56.seq
 209716530     gbgss57.seq
 209718555     gbgss58.seq
 209717868     gbgss59.seq
 209717736     gbgss6.seq
 209716945     gbgss60.seq
 209717505     gbgss61.seq
 209717430     gbgss62.seq
 209716007     gbgss63.seq
 209717783     gbgss64.seq
 209716440     gbgss65.seq
 209716644     gbgss66.seq
 209718106     gbgss67.seq
 209718505     gbgss68.seq
 209716387     gbgss69.seq
 209716168     gbgss7.seq
 209718170     gbgss70.seq
 209716623     gbgss71.seq
 209717549     gbgss72.seq
 156177628     gbgss73.seq
 250000816     gbgss74.seq
 250002075     gbgss75.seq
 250000930     gbgss76.seq
 250000183     gbgss77.seq
 250001023     gbgss78.seq
 250002429     gbgss79.seq
 209716164     gbgss8.seq
 250000213     gbgss80.seq
 250001904     gbgss81.seq
 250004029     gbgss82.seq
 250000786     gbgss83.seq
 196229683     gbgss84.seq
 209718224     gbgss9.seq
 250004721     gbhtc1.seq
 250003279     gbhtc2.seq
 250000469     gbhtc3.seq
  70570915     gbhtc4.seq
 250080624     gbhtg1.seq
 250092622     gbhtg10.seq
 250056436     gbhtg11.seq
 250046413     gbhtg12.seq
 250023547     gbhtg13.seq
 250155386     gbhtg14.seq
 250256459     gbhtg15.seq
 250038001     gbhtg16.seq
 250261769     gbhtg17.seq
 250165739     gbhtg18.seq
 250109127     gbhtg19.seq
 250010751     gbhtg2.seq
 250307205     gbhtg20.seq
 250162072     gbhtg21.seq
 250211355     gbhtg22.seq
 250001196     gbhtg23.seq
 250003603     gbhtg24.seq
 250088047     gbhtg25.seq
 250095304     gbhtg26.seq
 250193591     gbhtg27.seq
 250257323     gbhtg28.seq
 250047907     gbhtg29.seq
 250010953     gbhtg3.seq
 250098854     gbhtg30.seq
 250028662     gbhtg31.seq
 250304901     gbhtg32.seq
 250168267     gbhtg33.seq
 250245639     gbhtg34.seq
 250059099     gbhtg35.seq
 250266150     gbhtg36.seq
 250244611     gbhtg37.seq
 250338342     gbhtg38.seq
 250240215     gbhtg39.seq
 250081550     gbhtg4.seq
 250184239     gbhtg40.seq
 250051364     gbhtg41.seq
 250032890     gbhtg42.seq
 250324282     gbhtg43.seq
 250267104     gbhtg44.seq
 250011137     gbhtg45.seq
 250225792     gbhtg46.seq
 250127686     gbhtg47.seq
 250049813     gbhtg48.seq
 250005951     gbhtg49.seq
 250003212     gbhtg5.seq
 250109046     gbhtg50.seq
 250100106     gbhtg51.seq
 250078578     gbhtg52.seq
 250201917     gbhtg53.seq
 250119315     gbhtg54.seq
 250263582     gbhtg55.seq
 250187275     gbhtg56.seq
 250015562     gbhtg57.seq
 250015162     gbhtg58.seq
 250003865     gbhtg59.seq
 250031381     gbhtg6.seq
 250042481     gbhtg60.seq
 250141504     gbhtg61.seq
 238017415     gbhtg62.seq
 250038243     gbhtg7.seq
 250219690     gbhtg8.seq
 250097470     gbhtg9.seq
 250019771     gbinv1.seq
 250135035     gbinv2.seq
 250001107     gbinv3.seq
 250015712     gbinv4.seq
 250001889     gbinv5.seq
  73430438     gbinv6.seq
 691631210     gbjou.idx
 610087723     gbkey.idx
 183776331     gbmam.seq
  25017097     gbnew.txt
 250004941     gbpat1.seq
  77048495     gbpat10.seq
 250000912     gbpat2.seq
 250000754     gbpat3.seq
 250001263     gbpat4.seq
 250000285     gbpat5.seq
 250023467     gbpat6.seq
 250001029     gbpat7.seq
 250000553     gbpat8.seq
 250001585     gbpat9.seq
  25031381     gbphg.seq
 250153558     gbpln1.seq
 250002620     gbpln2.seq
 250002541     gbpln3.seq
 250007374     gbpln4.seq
 250046687     gbpln5.seq
 250003374     gbpln6.seq
 250064817     gbpln7.seq
 250000316     gbpln8.seq
 169709493     gbpln9.seq
 250195865     gbpri1.seq
 250034109     gbpri10.seq
 250022539     gbpri11.seq
 250225112     gbpri12.seq
 250190421     gbpri13.seq
 250255655     gbpri14.seq
 250004833     gbpri15.seq
 250082261     gbpri16.seq
 250105456     gbpri17.seq
 250017465     gbpri18.seq
 250011767     gbpri19.seq
 250062706     gbpri2.seq
 250141446     gbpri20.seq
 250002273     gbpri21.seq
 250003632     gbpri22.seq
 250003140     gbpri23.seq
 250001180     gbpri24.seq
 250001042     gbpri25.seq
   9560026     gbpri26.seq
 250022857     gbpri3.seq
 250094089     gbpri4.seq
 250014916     gbpri5.seq
 250023544     gbpri6.seq
 250250528     gbpri7.seq
 250212159     gbpri8.seq
 250202279     gbpri9.seq
    163172     gbrel.txt
 250015906     gbrod1.seq
 250135278     gbrod2.seq
 250007774     gbrod3.seq
 250130073     gbrod4.seq
 250008658     gbrod5.seq
 250133096     gbrod6.seq
 250004278     gbrod7.seq
 250007132     gbrod8.seq
  92910092     gbrod9.seq
2177132844     gbsdr.txt
 250000395     gbsts1.seq
 250002022     gbsts2.seq
 181724212     gbsts3.seq
   1500630     gbsec.idx
  47651835     gbsyn.seq
   2424068     gbuna.seq
 250000642     gbvrl1.seq
 250004200     gbvrl2.seq
 176071457     gbvrl3.seq
 250196323     gbvrt1.seq
 250068264     gbvrt2.seq
 167007298     gbvrt3.seq

2.2.6 Per-Division Statistics 

  The following table provides a per-division breakdown of the number of
sequence entries and the total number of bases of DNA/RNA in each sequence
data file:

Division     Entries    Bases

BCT1         23212      99978999
BCT2         8071       106706178
BCT3         28828      101791846
BCT4         41806      94000003
BCT5         32540      103040461
BCT6         27532      94129230
BCT7         38692      90279996
BCT8         894        1911043
EST1         67482      26039454
EST10        76218      29487275
EST100       72477      41751841
EST101       68289      28927786
EST102       69614      32242234
EST103       63527      33103351
EST104       67051      39872312
EST105       71171      47185001
EST106       74491      29218087
EST107       73975      32316567
EST108       73990      26671950
EST109       73037      35391002
EST11        74111      28418471
EST110       67356      36015104
EST111       73457      42229430
EST112       78737      43905596
EST113       73940      47573662
EST114       67203      41041000
EST115       68505      44101493
EST116       71848      47061056
EST117       71125      43895159
EST118       73813      42142152
EST119       73723      46432909
EST12        75893      30363341
EST120       72383      48519873
EST121       72102      50267872
EST122       77989      38640578
EST123       75238      30616049
EST124       78143      40274570
EST125       76812      41969433
EST126       75706      46861077
EST127       60390      27930107
EST128       71667      38589326
EST129       67482      39492874
EST13        76283      29051594
EST130       65211      35426449
EST131       70979      42724498
EST132       71395      44511548
EST133       68034      39478251
EST134       71895      39255624
EST135       69950      43691296
EST136       65245      39606194
EST137       68685      38509009
EST138       101432     55093332
EST139       79198      44611755
EST14        76090      30321342
EST140       101574     53367896
EST141       107062     57190029
EST142       99354      54669021
EST143       88979      53246575
EST144       67965      37232698
EST145       65800      29979198
EST146       60085      27593532
EST147       55829      27293357
EST148       62420      30839886
EST149       54087      27272269
EST15        75027      31692298
EST150       79644      54578755
EST151       68195      36309635
EST152       71844      51853368
EST153       71071      40375662
EST154       60463      30297051
EST155       64082      38641859
EST156       65930      32117147
EST157       62913      45685947
EST158       63322      36428119
EST159       87360      47704623
EST16        74959      33003541
EST160       64110      44212615
EST161       69823      37355861
EST162       55646      32383217
EST163       69804      43691998
EST164       72434      27171645
EST165       75423      42483201
EST166       74669      39445821
EST167       68297      34822515
EST168       67839      37673754
EST169       69681      52027366
EST17        78284      31761398
EST170       66471      40661848
EST171       69012      34782663
EST172       68650      49537117
EST173       68202      48967111
EST174       70843      37367311
EST175       68328      43125665
EST176       70169      59543519
EST177       63497      46669319
EST178       63098      46355034
EST179       63164      46068152
EST18        82729      34000958
EST180       64668      45290049
EST181       66186      50595024
EST182       62442      39842754
EST183       62084      39079076
EST184       60756      34084218
EST185       68752      39133159
EST186       84062      49001968
EST187       79349      52544309
EST188       78548      46177228
EST189       104064     64459316
EST19        77260      30103492
EST190       106282     63704260
EST191       98015      58798160
EST192       68471      37237501
EST193       68075      60937652
EST194       66383      67970327
EST195       74663      53395939
EST196       77293      37192886
EST197       27592      10292372
EST198       27906      10549492
EST199       27170      10101948
EST2         73960      28405514
EST20        74307      31876591
EST200       26731      9675347
EST201       26725      9106274
EST202       27546      10062891
EST203       27260      9787049
EST204       27297      9902992
EST205       27300      11053391
EST206       27210      11816173
EST207       27282      10970064
EST208       27506      9769535
EST209       27496      8985290
EST21        73772      33079460
EST210       27145      10251793
EST211       27971      11110361
EST212       27642      11050492
EST213       26812      11397961
EST214       26819      12236325
EST215       27192      10725400
EST216       27075      11091503
EST217       27094      12008548
EST218       27266      11441731
EST219       27336      10774947
EST22        72482      30334439
EST220       27316      10936903
EST221       27185      10376821
EST222       26587      13388764
EST223       24719      17108467
EST224       26030      17519352
EST225       101315     39055516
EST226       75989      40587517
EST227       75489      44421190
EST228       65715      38210461
EST229       68674      41696283
EST23        76831      31771455
EST230       60841      31428418
EST231       99942      46712075
EST232       83957      43888612
EST233       71371      37934877
EST234       63564      30730033
EST235       66987      43312418
EST236       70445      34117231
EST237       70962      33403593
EST238       72944      45099475
EST239       63774      35800039
EST24        74942      32366708
EST240       66145      37965016
EST241       75784      38100704
EST242       81925      46012555
EST243       80847      53524467
EST244       79698      54924690
EST245       110867     48716687
EST246       77463      40975440
EST247       72750      44387781
EST248       73606      39026766
EST249       69506      44342222
EST25        75298      33778373
EST250       70205      48062077
EST251       69614      40419904
EST252       65956      44364664
EST253       59168      35717630
EST254       67159      36624009
EST255       82821      44211883
EST256       88524      50322113
EST257       112193     49654421
EST258       103270     45173453
EST259       68741      36293351
EST26        70950      28826253
EST260       68230      39547211
EST261       74596      44577237
EST262       100157     33581531
EST263       71204      25429731
EST264       71563      26734447
EST265       72774      25845273
EST266       71565      26003337
EST267       78053      26159910
EST268       71369      28660363
EST269       73214      27794228
EST27        74568      31061657
EST270       805        329458
EST28        99115      46839145
EST29        77921      37797706
EST3         73008      29602505
EST30        63600      69072253
EST31        84320      51668620
EST32        94112      47641558
EST33        92148      48263727
EST34        102130     43642727
EST35        94760      52720511
EST36        97368      40817804
EST37        69229      18602635
EST38        69445      18563634
EST39        68945      20745086
EST4         73620      28044133
EST40        43455      11885989
EST41        43354      12107844
EST42        43097      11595138
EST43        64270      24612837
EST44        95877      42293992
EST45        92654      44091591
EST46        86783      44789278
EST47        98024      48998682
EST48        102281     52734602
EST49        74809      32897651
EST5         49000      15800326
EST50        66764      28350382
EST51        71936      32308984
EST52        72100      30755514
EST53        76156      31321871
EST54        79040      31204804
EST55        69536      27744814
EST56        62988      28374554
EST57        71434      31950479
EST58        79026      35727113
EST59        73479      29274453
EST6         54765      17167740
EST60        73333      25938654
EST61        86300      40561157
EST62        49031      15915349
EST63        40223      11116060
EST64        40250      12020607
EST65        40556      12521564
EST66        40648      12211420
EST67        40561      13043781
EST68        40621      12694352
EST69        40479      12329202
EST7         73594      29034709
EST70        40191      12082087
EST71        40667      12719102
EST72        41547      11814209
EST73        41294      13114623
EST74        41156      12699367
EST75        41051      13489674
EST76        45913      11929322
EST77        39945      24993111
EST78        41804      21862344
EST79        46083      18897833
EST8         74952      30042535
EST80        49953      22917184
EST81        51781      21499465
EST82        57254      23337130
EST83        75014      31298646
EST84        73851      28612861
EST85        72176      33385979
EST86        76970      46101748
EST87        75893      41117437
EST88        76536      38287498
EST89        75084      39597889
EST9         76966      29885821
EST90        70847      39770457
EST91        72692      31610703
EST92        74118      40948905
EST93        69876      34312144
EST94        76529      50060002
EST95        64219      33677000
EST96        71721      36884961
EST97        72154      41623391
EST98        72412      42919931
EST99        69807      42857314
GSS1         81358      34877394
GSS10        65039      33355549
GSS11        67692      39911513
GSS12        66176      32675724
GSS13        61430      33835469
GSS14        67515      34991512
GSS15        64368      30605233
GSS16        65384      28821351
GSS17        67239      35495586
GSS18        66000      38708038
GSS19        63484      29457352
GSS2         82757      34759037
GSS20        51855      25754083
GSS21        51699      26141463
GSS22        52313      24488906
GSS23        54402      23117436
GSS24        60847      39347223
GSS25        52573      23771721
GSS26        53996      33702056
GSS27        67151      34845144
GSS28        54948      20493940
GSS29        52338      24421251
GSS3         78179      37219980
GSS30        65235      29774194
GSS31        54879      29472376
GSS32        71018      36366397
GSS33        76247      35849850
GSS34        67407      36750416
GSS35        63813      42536587
GSS36        66808      33819481
GSS37        72425      37957896
GSS38        68685      36501274
GSS39        70755      39822675
GSS4         72766      37154824
GSS40        84098      55862158
GSS41        84107      55851635
GSS42        79393      40493607
GSS43        79638      45417732
GSS44        78856      36019851
GSS45        74476      25420488
GSS46        72566      51000128
GSS47        72298      51385886
GSS48        67393      46390889
GSS49        65052      43264973
GSS5         70065      37277545
GSS50        65257      42877331
GSS51        71182      38992995
GSS52        70652      36985194
GSS53        78724      55003892
GSS54        80415      60944389
GSS55        72155      47597653
GSS56        84187      51893733
GSS57        79074      50820943
GSS58        72612      46029894
GSS59        65487      34037105
GSS6         70425      35358440
GSS60        76779      51377598
GSS61        76245      37934511
GSS62        76471      49171424
GSS63        67492      64204505
GSS64        64385      70673994
GSS65        77443      61689106
GSS66        81615      57377538
GSS67        60072      39250977
GSS68        58241      40217713
GSS69        72310      53401990
GSS7         69487      34953767
GSS70        80264      60144477
GSS71        74361      44144651
GSS72        77382      50169648
GSS73        56732      38238407
GSS74        86694      65544743
GSS75        83144      62398545
GSS76        93755      40591012
GSS77        99264      57180252
GSS78        89189      57245279
GSS79        80889      63290424
GSS8         69701      35687977
GSS80        68545      57397613
GSS81        67396      59960024
GSS82        60521      57310666
GSS83        99422      55953254
GSS84        79571      36784453
GSS9         68253      33869892
HTC1         27623      44290909
HTC2         25836      58508653
HTC3         64188      74201152
HTC4         30781      21928983
HTG1         1330       190523074
HTG10        1230       189359128
HTG11        1415       187206722
HTG12        986        192006050
HTG13        757        192336679
HTG14        737        192532129
HTG15        762        192524555
HTG16        812        192170093
HTG17        774        192563624
HTG18        1445       185997923
HTG19        1593       183896570
HTG2         2506       188141985
HTG20        923        191312053
HTG21        1243       188511419
HTG22        818        191986991
HTG23        811        191922132
HTG24        970        191011910
HTG25        928        191319660
HTG26        883        191465696
HTG27        768        192319724
HTG28        864        191933783
HTG29        868        191822606
HTG3         2517       187854801
HTG30        889        191687837
HTG31        997        190725810
HTG32        972        191114392
HTG33        931        191400731
HTG34        1001       190865333
HTG35        914        191406306
HTG36        946        191948261
HTG37        907        191712352
HTG38        1007       191494412
HTG39        894        191814017
HTG4         2549       189790275
HTG40        861        192158265
HTG41        841        191889490
HTG42        882        191672719
HTG43        955        191452530
HTG44        967        191740937
HTG45        943        191840543
HTG46        962        191590383
HTG47        1097       190883549
HTG48        1226       189209319
HTG49        1119       190578161
HTG5         1293       188183977
HTG50        1264       190434959
HTG51        1075       191861076
HTG52        1171       189591732
HTG53        1086       191527310
HTG54        1196       191387388
HTG55        1276       192021348
HTG56        1241       191310041
HTG57        1056       193319649
HTG58        1280       191241469
HTG59        1177       194168456
HTG6         1289       187798115
HTG60        1035       194012934
HTG61        1007       194055127
HTG62        1037       178830039
HTG7         1252       188106358
HTG8         1291       187716898
HTG9         1209       189319495
INV1         10392      172416848
INV2         1277       166322247
INV3         58640      89985516
INV4         65667      79503871
INV5         31579      113003226
INV6         9618       34179586
MAM          51523      65126960
PAT1         213421     66849374
PAT10        71972      19633366
PAT2         194414     83932035
PAT3         144298     81706771
PAT4         108436     113880459
PAT5         138713     91440799
PAT6         131037     93904163
PAT7         122054     54659860
PAT8         98046      62063833
PAT9         107807     49133178
PHG          2325       9625272
PLN1         22468      136180370
PLN2         39108      127054585
PLN3         77012      76176270
PLN4         32549      53386007
PLN5         7394       163599679
PLN6         45978      82545173
PLN7         65080      71002176
PLN8         41198      118169236
PLN9         28464      68592980
PRI1         15675      152160857
PRI10        1404       174823628
PRI11        1264       175107498
PRI12        1498       175146086
PRI13        1600       178578940
PRI14        13304      164092644
PRI15        42681      116711009
PRI16        13468      155144901
PRI17        1585       180068608
PRI18        1752       181203204
PRI19        2218       187299921
PRI2         1409       171553820
PRI20        1481       186853896
PRI21        36420      112703543
PRI22        14757      161890304
PRI23        24058      144222076
PRI24        43286      122292741
PRI25        57797      98377755
PRI26        1531       4656145
PRI3         1255       181794903
PRI4         1290       177969691
PRI5         1142       173531732
PRI6         1202       178759496
PRI7         1212       177393743
PRI8         1314       167611029
PRI9         1218       177210899
ROD1         7198       173657658
ROD2         1024       189685279
ROD3         1066       194809668
ROD4         24466      152102173
ROD5         1176       194255943
ROD6         1204       192711723
ROD7         13623      172188985
ROD8         35649      102230511
ROD9         25866      30108023
STS1         87286      47236218
STS2         83690      35856649
STS3         67982      31268326
SYN          10900      17720964
UNA          1084       389421
VRL1         72550      63319310
VRL2         72380      65127477
VRL3         51525      46685728
VRT1         61316      90683736
VRT2         27562      143648774
VRT3         24861      90382292

2.2.7 Selected Per-Organism Statistics 

  The following table provides the number of entries and bases of DNA/RNA for
the twenty most sequenced organisms in Release 137.0 (chloroplast and mitochon-
drial sequences not included, and Whole Genome Shotgun sequences not included) :

Entries       Bases   Species

7032889 10171131129   Homo sapiens
5051505  6068540624   Mus musculus
829588   5549854732   Rattus norvegicus
532651   1052782281   Danio rerio
261070    710002531   Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group)
351636    691118051   Drosophila melanogaster
1168918   677783748   Zea mays
595902    496094124   Gallus gallus
550335    413331480   Arabidopsis thaliana
567868    386359841   Brassica oleracea
620542    377479598   Bos taurus
22306     332944640   Macaca mulatta
499237    294180075   Ciona intestinalis
166971    290877866   Pan troglodytes
503892    256774106   Triticum aestivum
222498    232906530   Caenorhabditis elegans
310953    197616457   Xenopus laevis
192594    172353022   Medicago truncatula
189219    170859292   Tetraodon nigroviridis
357695    168478482   Glycine max

2.2.8 Growth of GenBank

  The following table lists the number of bases and the number of sequence
records in each release of GenBank, beginning with Release 3 in 1982.
From 1982 to the present, the number of bases in GenBank has doubled
approximately every 14 months.

Release      Date     Base Pairs   Entries

    3    Dec 1982         680338       606
   14    Nov 1983        2274029      2427
   20    May 1984        3002088      3665
   24    Sep 1984        3323270      4135
   25    Oct 1984        3368765      4175
   26    Nov 1984        3689752      4393
   32    May 1985        4211931      4954
   36    Sep 1985        5204420      5700
   40    Feb 1986        5925429      6642
   42    May 1986        6765476      7416
   44    Aug 1986        8442357      8823
   46    Nov 1986        9615371      9978
   48    Feb 1987       10961380     10913
   50    May 1987       13048473     12534
   52    Aug 1987       14855145     14020
   53    Sep 1987       15514776     14584
   54    Dec 1987       16752872     15465
   55    Mar 1988       19156002     17047
   56    Jun 1988       20795279     18226
   57    Sep 1988       22019698     19044
   57.1  Oct 1988       23800000     20579
   58    Dec 1988       24690876     21248
   59    Mar 1989       26382491     22479
   60    Jun 1989       31808784     26317
   61    Sep 1989       34762585     28791
   62    Dec 1989       37183950     31229
   63    Mar 1990       40127752     33377
   64    Jun 1990       42495893     35100
   65    Sep 1990       49179285     39533
   66    Dec 1990       51306092     41057
   67    Mar 1991       55169276     43903
   68    Jun 1991       65868799     51418
   69    Sep 1991       71947426     55627
   70    Dec 1991       77337678     58952
   71    Mar 1992       83894652     65100
   72    Jun 1992       92160761     71280
   73    Sep 1992      101008486     78608
   74    Dec 1992      120242234     97084
   75    Feb 1993      126212259    106684
   76    Apr 1993      129968355    111911
   77    Jun 1993      138904393    120134
   78    Aug 1993      147215633    131328
   79    Oct 1993      157152442    143492
   80    Dec 1993      163802597    150744
   81    Feb 1994      173261500    162946
   82    Apr 1994      180589455    169896
   83    Jun 1994      191393939    182753
   84    Aug 1994      201815802    196703
   85    Oct 1994      217102462    215273
   86    Dec 1994      230485928    237775
   87    Feb 1995      248499214    269478
   88    Apr 1995      286094556    352414
   89    Jun 1995      318624568    425211
   90    Aug 1995      353713490    492483
   91    Oct 1995      384939485    555694
   92    Dec 1995      425860958    620765
   93    Feb 1996      463758833    685693
   94    Apr 1996      499127741    744295
   95    Jun 1996      551750920    835487
   96    Aug 1996      602072354    920588
   97    Oct 1996      651972984    1021211
   98    Dec 1996      730552938    1114581
   99    Feb 1997      786898138    1192505
   100   Apr 1997      842864309    1274747
   101   Jun 1997      966993087    1491069
   102   Aug 1997     1053474516    1610848
   103   Oct 1997     1160300687    1765847
   104   Dec 1997     1258290513    1891953
   105   Feb 1998     1372368913    2042325
   106   Apr 1998     1502542306    2209232
   107   Jun 1998     1622041465    2355928
   108   Aug 1998     1797137713    2532359
   109   Oct 1998     2008761784    2837897
   110   Dec 1998     2162067871    3043729
   111   Apr 1999     2569578208    3525418
   112   Jun 1999     2974791993    4028171
   113   Aug 1999     3400237391    4610118
   114   Oct 1999     3841163011    4864570
   115   Dec 1999     4653932745    5354511
   116   Feb 2000     5805414935    5691170
   117   Apr 2000     7376080723    6215002
   118   Jun 2000     8604221980    7077491
   119   Aug 2000     9545724824    8214339
   120   Oct 2000    10335692655    9102634
   121   Dec 2000    11101066288    10106023
   122   Feb 2001    11720120326    10896781
   123   Apr 2001    12418544023    11545572
   124   Jun 2001    12973707065    12243766
   125   Aug 2001    13543364296    12813516
   126   Oct 2001    14396883064    13602262
   127   Dec 2001    15849921438    14976310
   128   Feb 2002    17089143893    15465325
   129   Apr 2002    19072679701    16769983
   130   Jun 2002    20648748345    17471130
   131   Aug 2002    22616937182    18197119
   132   Oct 2002    26525934656    19808101
   133   Dec 2002    28507990166    22318883
   134   Feb 2003    29358082791    23035823
   135   Apr 2003    31099264455    24027936
   136   Jun 2003    32528249295    25592865
   137   Aug 2003    33865022251    27213748

3. FILE FORMATS

  The flat file examples included in this section, while not always from the
current release, are usually fairly recent.  Any differences compared to the
actual records are the result of updates to the entries involved.

3.1 File Header Information

  With the exception of the index files, gbcon.seq, and the lists of new,
changed, and deleted accession numbers, each of the 532 files of a GenBank
release begins with the same header, except for the first line, which
contains the file name, and the sixth line, which contains the title of
the file. The first line of the file contains the file name in character
positions 1 to 9 and the full database name (Genetic Sequence Data Bank,
aka 'GenBank') starting in column 22. The brief names of the files in this
release are listed in section 2.2.

  The second line contains the date of the current release in the form
`day month year', beginning in position 27. The fourth line contains
the current GenBank release number. The release number appears in
positions 48 to 52 and consists of three numbers separated by a decimal
point. The number to the left of the decimal is the major release
number. The digit to the right of the decimal indicates the version of
the major release; it is zero for the first version. The sixth line
contains a title for the file. The eighth line lists the number of
entries (loci), number of bases (or base pairs), and number of reports
of sequences (equal to number of entries in this case). These numbers are
right-justified at fixed positions. The number of entries appears in
positions 1 to 8, the number of bases in positions 16 to 26, and the
number of reports in positions 40 to 47. The third, fifth, seventh, and
ninth lines are blank.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
GBBCT1.SEQ           Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                          15 April 2003

                NCBI-GenBank Flat File Release 137.0

                        Bacterial Sequences (Part 1)

   37811 loci,    97585608 bases, from    37811 reported sequences

---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 1. Sample File Header


3.2 Directory Files

3.2.1 Short Directory File

  The short directory file contains brief descriptions of all of the
sequence entries contained in this release. These descriptions are in
fifteen groups, one group for each of the fifteen sequence entry
data files. The first record at the beginning of a group of entries
contains the name of the group in uppercase characters, beginning in
position 21. The organism groups are PRIMATE, RODENT, OTHER MAMMAL,
OTHER VERTEBRATE, INVERTEBRATE, PLANT, BACTERIAL, STRUCTURAL RNA, VIRAL,
PHAGE, SYNTHETIC, UNANNOTATED, EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAG, PATENT, or
SEQUENCE TAGGED SITE.  The second record is blank.

  Each record in the short directory contains the sequence entry name
(LOCUS) in the first 12 positions, followed by a brief definition of
the sequence beginning in column 13. The definition is truncated (at
the end of a word) to leave room at the right margin for at least one
space, the sequence length, and the letters `bp'. The length of the
sequence is printed right-justified to column 77, followed by the
letters `bp' in columns 78 and 79. The next-to-last record for a group
has `ZZZZZZZZZZ' in its first ten positions (where the entry name
would normally appear). The last record is a blank line. An example of
the short directory file format, showing the descriptions of the last
entries in the Other Vertebrate sequence data file and the first
entries of the Invertebrate sequence data file, is reproduced below:

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
ZEFWNT1G3   B.rerio wnt-1 gene (exon 3) for wnt-1 protein.                266bp
ZEFWNT1G4   B.rerio wnt-1 gene (exon 4) for wnt-1 protein.                647bp
ZEFZF54     Zebrafish homeotic gene ZF-54.                                246bp
ZEFZFEN     Zebrafish engrailed-like homeobox sequence.                   327bp
ZZZZZZZZZZ
 
                    INVERTEBRATE

AAHAV33A    Acanthocheilonema viteae pepsin-inhibitor-like-protein       1048bp
ACAAC01     Acanthamoeba castelani gene encoding actin I.                1571bp
ACAACTPH    Acanthamoeba castellanii actophorin mRNA, complete cds.       671bp
ACAMHCA     A.castellanii non-muscle myosin heavy chain gene, partial    5894bp
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
Example 2. Short Directory File


3.3 Index Files

There are six files containing indices to the entries in this release:

  Accession number index file (Accession and Version)
  Secondary accession number index file
  Keyword phrase index file
  Author name index file
  Journal citation index file
  Gene name index file

  The index keys (accession numbers, keywords, authors, journals, and
gene symbols.) of an index are sorted alphabetically. All index keys
appear in uppercase characters even though they appear in mixed case
in the sequence entries. Following each index key, the identifiers of the
sequence entries containing that key are listed (LOCUS name,
division abbreviation, and primary accession number). The division
abbreviations are:

 1. PRI - primate sequences
 2. ROD - rodent sequences
 3. MAM - other mammalian sequences
 4. VRT - other vertebrate sequences
 5. INV - invertebrate sequences
 6. PLN - plant, fungal, and algal sequences
 7. BCT - bacterial sequences
 8. VRL - viral sequences
 9. PHG - bacteriophage sequences
10. SYN - synthetic sequences
11. UNA - unannotated sequences
12. EST - EST sequences (expressed sequence tags) 
13. PAT - patent sequences
14. STS - STS sequences (sequence tagged sites) 
15. GSS - GSS sequences (genome survey sequences) 
16. HTG - HTGS sequences (high throughput genomic sequences) 
17. HTC - HTC sequences (high throughput cDNA sequences) 

  A line-oriented, TAB-delimited format is utilized for the gbaut.idx,
gbgen.idx,  gbjou.idx, gbkey.idx, and gbsec.idx indexes. Each index
key is presented on its own line, and is followed by a
LOCUS/Division/Accession triplet for every record containing the key:

Indexed-Term 
        LOCUS-name1 Div-code1 Accession1 
        LOCUS-name2 Div-code2 Accession2 
        LOCUS-name3 Div-code3 Accession3 
        .... 

  Here is an example of the format, in which TAB characters are displayed 
as ^I, and carriage-returns/newlines as $ : 

(H+,K+)-ATPASE BETA-SUBUNIT$ 
^IRATHKATPB^IROD^IM55655$ 
^IMUSATP4B1^IROD^IM64685$ 
^IMUSATP4B2^IROD^IM64686$ 
^IMUSATP4B3^IROD^IM64687$ 
^IMUSATP4B4^IROD^IM64688$ 
^IDOGATPASEB^IMAM^IM76486$ 

When viewed by a file browser such as 'less' or 'more' : 

(H+,K+)-ATPASE BETA-SUBUNIT 
        RATHKATPB ROD M55655 
        MUSATP4B1 ROD M64685 
        MUSATP4B2 ROD M64686 
        MUSATP4B3 ROD M64687 
        MUSATP4B4 ROD M64688 
        DOGATPASEB MAM M76486 

  Note that the index keys can be distinguished from LOCUS/DIV/ACCESSION 
by the fact that they do not start with a TAB character. So one can 
extract just the terms via simple text-processing: 

        perl -ne 'print unless /^\s+/' < gbkey.idx > terms.gbkey

  The format of the primary accession number index file is slightly
different, with each indexed key (Accession.Version) present on
the same line as the LOCUS/Division/Accession triplet:

Accession1.Version1 Locus-name1 Div-code1 Accession1 
Accession2.Version2 Locus-name2 Div-code2 Accession2 
.... 

  Here is an example of the format, in which TAB characters are displayed 
as ^I, and carriage-returns/newlines as $ : 

AC000102.1^IAC000102^IPRI^IAC000102$ 
AC000103.1^IAC000103^IPLN^IAC000103$ 
AC000104.1^IF19P19^IPLN^IAC000104$ 
AC000105.40^IAC000105^IPRI^IAC000105$ 
AC000106.1^IF7G19^IPLN^IAC000106$ 
AC000107.1^IAC000107^IPLN^IAC000107$ 
AC000108.1^IAC000108^IBCT^IAC000108$ 
AC000109.1^IHSAC000109^IPRI^IAC000109$ 
AC000110.1^IHSAC000110^IPRI^IAC000110$ 

When viewed by a file browser such as 'less' or 'more' : 

AC000102.1 AC000102 PRI AC000102 
AC000103.1 AC000103 PLN AC000103 
AC000104.1 F19P19 PLN AC000104 
AC000105.40 AC000105 PRI AC000105 
AC000106.1 F7G19 PLN AC000106 
AC000107.1 AC000107 PLN AC000107 
AC000108.1 AC000108 BCT AC000108 
AC000109.1 HSAC000109 PRI AC000109 
AC000110.1 HSAC000110 PRI AC000110 

3.3.1 Accession Number Index File - gbacc.idx

  Accession numbers are unique six character or eight-character alphanumeric
identifiers of GenBank database entries. The six-character accession
number format consists of a single uppercase letter, followed by 5 digits.
The eight-character accession number format consists of two uppercase
letters, followed by 6 digits.  Accessions provide an unchanging identifier
for the data with which they are associated, and we encourage you to cite
accession numbers whenever you refer to data from GenBank.

  GenBank entries can have both 'primary' and 'secondary' accessions
associated with them (see Section 3.5.6). Only primary accessions are present
in the gbacc.idx index.

3.3.2 Keyword Phrase Index File - gbkey.idx

  Keyword phrases consist of names for gene products and other
characteristics of sequence entries.

3.3.3 Author Name Index File - gbaut*.idx

The author name index files list all of the author names that appear
in the references within sequence records.

3.3.4 Journal Citation Index File - gbjou.idx

  The journal citation index file lists all of the citations that appear
in the references within sequence records.. All citations are truncated
to 80 characters.

3.3.5 Gene Name Index - gbgen.idx

  The /gene qualifiers of many GenBank entries contain values other than
official gene symbols, such as the product or the standard name of the gene.
Hence, NCBI has chosen to build an index (gbgen.idx) more like a keyword index
for this field, using both the GenBank /gene qualifier and the 'Gene.locus'
fields from the NCBI internal database as keys.

3.4 Sequence Entry Files

  GenBank releases contain one or more sequence entry data files, one
for each "division" of GenBank.

3.4.1 File Organization

  Each of these files has the same format and consists of two parts:
header information (described in section 3.1) and sequence entries for
that division (described in the following sections).

3.4.2  Entry Organization

  In the second portion of a sequence entry file (containing the
sequence entries for that division), each record (line) consists of
two parts. The first part is found in positions 1 to 10 and may
contain:

1. A keyword, beginning in column 1 of the record (e.g., REFERENCE is
a keyword).

2. A subkeyword beginning in column 3, with columns 1 and 2 blank
(e.g., AUTHORS is a subkeyword of REFERENCE). Or a subkeyword beginning
in column 4, with columns 1, 2, and 3 blank (e.g., PUBMED is a
subkeyword of REFERENCE).

3. Blank characters, indicating that this record is a continuation of
the information under the keyword or subkeyword above it.

4. A code, beginning in column 6, indicating the nature of an entry
(feature key) in the FEATURES table; these codes are described in
Section 3.4.12.1 below.

5. A number, ending in column 9 of the record. This number occurs in
the portion of the entry describing the actual nucleotide sequence and
designates the numbering of sequence positions.

6. Two slashes (//) in positions 1 and 2, marking the end of an entry.

  The second part of each sequence entry record contains the information
appropriate to its keyword, in positions 13 to 80 for keywords and
positions 11 to 80 for the sequence.

  The following is a brief description of each entry field. Detailed
information about each field may be found in Sections 3.4.4 to 3.4.14.

LOCUS	- A short mnemonic name for the entry, chosen to suggest the
sequence's definition. Mandatory keyword/exactly one record.

DEFINITION	- A concise description of the sequence. Mandatory
keyword/one or more records.

ACCESSION	- The primary accession number is a unique, unchanging
code assigned to each entry. (Please use this code when citing
information from GenBank.) Mandatory keyword/one or more records.

VERSION		- A compound identifier consisting of the primary
accession number and a numeric version number associated with the
current version of the sequence data in the record. This is followed
by an integer key (a "GI") assigned to the sequence by NCBI.
Mandatory keyword/exactly one record.

NID		- An alternative method of presenting the NCBI GI
identifier (described above). The NID is obsolete and was removed
from the GenBank flatfile format in December 1999.

KEYWORDS	- Short phrases describing gene products and other
information about an entry. Mandatory keyword in all annotated
entries/one or more records.

SEGMENT	- Information on the order in which this entry appears in a
series of discontinuous sequences from the same molecule. Optional
keyword (only in segmented entries)/exactly one record.

SOURCE	- Common name of the organism or the name most frequently used
in the literature. Mandatory keyword in all annotated entries/one or
more records/includes one subkeyword.

   ORGANISM	- Formal scientific name of the organism (first line)
and taxonomic classification levels (second and subsequent lines).
Mandatory subkeyword in all annotated entries/two or more records.

REFERENCE	- Citations for all articles containing data reported
in this entry. Includes seven subkeywords and may repeat. Mandatory
keyword/one or more records.

   AUTHORS	- Lists the authors of the citation. Optional
subkeyword/one or more records.

   CONSRTM	- Lists the collective names of consortiums associated
with the citation (eg, International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium),
rather than individual author names. Optional subkeyword/one or more records.

   TITLE	- Full title of citation. Optional subkeyword (present
in all but unpublished citations)/one or more records.

   JOURNAL	- Lists the journal name, volume, year, and page
numbers of the citation. Mandatory subkeyword/one or more records.

   MEDLINE	- Provides the Medline unique identifier for a
citation. Optional subkeyword/one record.

    PUBMED 	- Provides the PubMed unique identifier for a
citation. Optional subkeyword/one record.

   REMARK	- Specifies the relevance of a citation to an
entry. Optional subkeyword/one or more records.

COMMENT	- Cross-references to other sequence entries, comparisons to
other collections, notes of changes in LOCUS names, and other remarks.
Optional keyword/one or more records/may include blank records.

FEATURES	- Table containing information on portions of the
sequence that code for proteins and RNA molecules and information on
experimentally determined sites of biological significance. Optional
keyword/one or more records.

BASE COUNT	- Summary of the number of occurrences of each base
code in the sequence. Mandatory keyword/exactly one record.

ORIGIN	- Specification of how the first base of the reported sequence
is operationally located within the genome. Where possible, this
includes its location within a larger genetic map. Mandatory
keyword/exactly one record.

	- The ORIGIN line is followed by sequence data (multiple records).

// 	- Entry termination symbol. Mandatory at the end of an
entry/exactly one record.

3.4.3 Sample Sequence Data File

  An example of a complete sequence entry file follows. (This example
has only two entries.) Note that in this example, as throughout the
data bank, numbers in square brackets indicate items in the REFERENCE
list. For example, in ACARR58S, [1] refers to the paper by Mackay, et
al.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
GBSMP.SEQ          Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                         15 December 1992

                 GenBank Flat File Release 74.0

                     Structural RNA Sequences

      2 loci,       236 bases, from     2 reported sequences

LOCUS       AAURRA        118 bp ss-rRNA            RNA       16-JUN-1986
DEFINITION  A.auricula-judae (mushroom) 5S ribosomal RNA.
ACCESSION   K03160
VERSION     K03160.1  GI:173593
KEYWORDS    5S ribosomal RNA; ribosomal RNA.
SOURCE      A.auricula-judae (mushroom) ribosomal RNA.
  ORGANISM  Auricularia auricula-judae
            Eukaryota; Fungi; Eumycota; Basidiomycotina; Phragmobasidiomycetes;
            Heterobasidiomycetidae; Auriculariales; Auriculariaceae.
REFERENCE   1  (bases 1 to 118)
  AUTHORS   Huysmans,E., Dams,E., Vandenberghe,A. and De Wachter,R.
  TITLE     The nucleotide sequences of the 5S rRNAs of four mushrooms and
            their use in studying the phylogenetic position of basidiomycetes
            among the eukaryotes
  JOURNAL   Nucleic Acids Res. 11, 2871-2880 (1983)
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     rRNA            1..118
                     /note="5S ribosomal RNA"
BASE COUNT       27 a     34 c     34 g     23 t
ORIGIN      5' end of mature rRNA.
        1 atccacggcc ataggactct gaaagcactg catcccgtcc gatctgcaaa gttaaccaga
       61 gtaccgccca gttagtacca cggtggggga ccacgcggga atcctgggtg ctgtggtt
//
LOCUS       ABCRRAA       118 bp ss-rRNA            RNA       15-SEP-1990
DEFINITION  Acetobacter sp. (strain MB 58) 5S ribosomal RNA, complete sequence.
ACCESSION   M34766
VERSION     M34766.1  GI:173603
KEYWORDS    5S ribosomal RNA.
SOURCE      Acetobacter sp. (strain MB 58) rRNA.
  ORGANISM  Acetobacter sp.
            Prokaryotae; Gracilicutes; Scotobacteria; Aerobic rods and cocci;
            Azotobacteraceae.
REFERENCE   1  (bases 1 to 118)
  AUTHORS   Bulygina,E.S., Galchenko,V.F., Govorukhina,N.I., Netrusov,A.I.,
            Nikitin,D.I., Trotsenko,Y.A. and Chumakov,K.M.
  TITLE     Taxonomic studies of methylotrophic bacteria by 5S ribosomal RNA
            sequencing
  JOURNAL   J. Gen. Microbiol. 136, 441-446 (1990)
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     rRNA            1..118
                     /note="5S ribosomal RNA"
BASE COUNT       27 a     40 c     32 g     17 t      2 others
ORIGIN      
        1 gatctggtgg ccatggcggg agcaaatcag ccgatcccat cccgaactcg gccgtcaaat
       61 gccccagcgc ccatgatact ctgcctcaag gcacggaaaa gtcggtcgcc gccagayy
//
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 9. Sample Sequence Data File


3.4.4 LOCUS Format

  The items of information contained in the LOCUS record are always
found in fixed positions. The locus name (or entry name), which is
always sixteen characters or less, begins in position 13. The locus name
is designed to help group entries with similar sequences: the first
three characters usually designate the organism; the fourth and fifth
characters can be used to show other group designations, such as gene
product; for segmented entries the last character is one of a series
of sequential integers.

  The number of bases or base pairs in the sequence ends in position 40.
The letters `bp' are in positions 42 to 43. Positions 45 to 47 provide
the number of strands of the sequence. Positions 48 to 53 indicate the
type of molecule sequenced. Topology of the molecule is indicated in
positions 56 to 63.

  GenBank sequence entries are divided among many different
'divisions'. Each entry's division is specified by a three-letter code
in positions 65 to 67. See Section 3.3 for an explanation of division
codes.

  Positions 69 to 79 of the record contain the date the entry was
entered or underwent any substantial revisions, such as the addition
of newly published data, in the form dd-MMM-yyyy.

The detailed format for the LOCUS line format is as follows:

Positions  Contents
---------  --------
01-05      'LOCUS'
06-12      spaces
13-28      Locus name
29-29      space
30-40      Length of sequence, right-justified
41-41      space
42-43      bp
44-44      space
45-47      spaces, ss- (single-stranded), ds- (double-stranded), or
           ms- (mixed-stranded)
48-53      NA, DNA, RNA, tRNA (transfer RNA), rRNA (ribosomal RNA), 
           mRNA (messenger RNA), uRNA (small nuclear RNA), snRNA,
           snoRNA. Left justified.
54-55      space
56-63      'linear' followed by two spaces, or 'circular'
64-64      space
65-67      The division code (see Section 3.3)
68-68      space
69-79      Date, in the form dd-MMM-yyyy (e.g., 15-MAR-1991)

  Although each of these data values can be found at column-specific
positions, we encourage those who parse the contents of the LOCUS
line to use a token-based approach. This will prevent the need for
software changes if the spacing of the data values ever has to be
modified.

3.4.5 DEFINITION Format

  The DEFINITION record gives a brief description of the sequence,
proceeding from general to specific. It starts with the common name of
the source organism, then gives the criteria by which this sequence is
distinguished from the remainder of the source genome, such as the
gene name and what it codes for, or the protein name and mRNA, or some
description of the sequence's function (if the sequence is
non-coding). If the sequence has a coding region, the description may
be followed by a completeness qualifier, such as cds (complete coding
sequence). There is no limit on the number of lines that may be part
of the DEFINITION.  The last line must end with a period.

3.4.5.1 DEFINITION Format for NLM Entries

  The DEFINITION line for entries derived from journal-scanning at the NLM is
an automatically generated descriptive summary that accompanies each DNA and
protein sequence. It contains information derived from fields in a database 
that summarize the most important attributes of the sequence.  The DEFINITION
lines are designed to supplement the accession number and the sequence itself
as a means of uniquely and completely specifying DNA and protein sequences. The
following are examples of NLM DEFINITION lines:

NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase [swine, mRNA, 1 gene, 1585 nt]

94 kda fiber cell beaded-filament structural protein [rats, lens, mRNA
Partial, 1 gene, 1873 nt]

inhibin alpha {promoter and exons} [mice, Genomic, 1 gene, 1102 nt, segment
1 of 2]

cefEF, cefG=acetyl coenzyme A:deacetylcephalosporin C o-acetyltransferase
[Acremonium chrysogenum, Genomic, 2 genes, 2639 nt]

myogenic factor 3, qmf3=helix-loop-helix protein [Japanese quails,
embryo, Peptide Partial, 246 aa]


  The first part of the definition line contains information describing
the genes and proteins represented by the molecular sequences.  This can
be gene locus names, protein names and descriptions that replace or augment
actual names.  Gene and gene product are linked by "=".  Any special
identifying terms are presented within brackets, such as: {promoter},
{N-terminal}, {EC 2.13.2.4}, {alternatively spliced}, or {3' region}.

  The second part of the definition line is delimited by square brackets, '[]',
and provides details about the molecule type and length.  The biological
source, i.e., genus and species or common name as cited by the author.
Developmental stage, tissue type and strain are included if available.
The molecule types include: Genomic, mRNA, Peptide. and Other Genomic
Material. Genomic molecules are assumed to be partial sequence unless
"Complete" is specified, whereas mRNA and peptide molecules are assumed
to be complete unless "Partial" is noted.

3.4.6 ACCESSION Format

  This field contains a series of six-character and/or eight-character
identifiers called 'accession numbers'. The six-character accession
number format consists of a single uppercase letter, followed by 5 digits.
The eight-character accession number format consists of two uppercase
letters, followed by 6 digits. The 'primary', or first, of the accession
numbers occupies positions 13 to 18 (6-character format) or positions
13 to 20 (8-character format). Subsequent 'secondary' accession numbers
(if present) are separated from the primary, and from each other, by a
single space. In some cases, multiple lines of secondary accession
numbers might be present, starting at position 13.

  The primary accession number of a GenBank entry provides a stable identifier
for the biological object that the entry represents. Accessions do not change
when the underlying sequence data or associated features change.

  Secondary accession numbers arise for a number of reasons. For example, a
single accession number may initially be assigned to a sequence described in
a publication. If it is later discovered that the sequence must be entered
into the database as multiple entries, each entry would receive a new primary
accession number, and the original accession number would appear as a secondary
accession number on each of the new entries.

3.4.7 VERSION Format

  This line contains two types of identifiers for a GenBank database entry:
a compound accession number and an NCBI GI identifier. 

LOCUS       AF181452     1294 bp    DNA             PLN       12-OCT-1999
DEFINITION  Hordeum vulgare dehydrin (Dhn2) gene, complete cds.
ACCESSION   AF181452
VERSION     AF181452.1  GI:6017929
            ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^
            Compound    NCBI GI
            Accession   Identifier
            Number

  A compound accession number consists of two parts: a stable, unchanging
primary-accession number portion (see Section 3.4.6 for a description of
accession numbers), and a sequentially increasing numeric version number.
The accession and version numbers are separated by a period. The initial
version number assigned to a new sequence is one. Compound accessions are
often referred to as "Accession.Version" .

  An accession number allows one to retrieve the same biological object in the
database, regardless of any changes that are made to the entry over time. But
those changes can include changes to the sequence data itself, which is of
fundamental importance to many database users. So a numeric version number is
associated with the sequence data in every database entry. If an entry (for
example, AF181452) undergoes two sequence changes, its compound accession
number on the VERSION line would start as AF181452.1 . After the first sequence
change this would become: AF181452.2 . And after the second change: AF181452.3 .

  The NCBI GI identifier of the VERSION line also serves as a method for
identifying the sequence data that has existed for a database entry over
time. GI identifiers are numeric values of one or more digits. Since they
are integer keys, they are less human-friendly than the Accession.Version
system described above. Returning to our example for AF181452, it was
initially assigned GI 6017929. If the sequence changes, a new integer GI will
be assigned, perhaps 7345003 . And after the second sequence change, perhaps
the GI would become 10456892 .

  Why are both these methods for identifying the version of the sequence
associated with a database entry in use? For two reasons:

- Some data sources processed by NCBI for incorporation into its Entrez
  sequence retrieval system do not version their own sequences.

- GIs provide a uniform, integer identifier system for every sequence
  NCBI has processed. Some products and systems derived from (or reliant
  upon) NCBI products and services prefer to use these integer identifiers
  because they can all be processed in the same manner.

GenBank Releases contain only the most recent versions of all sequences
in the database. However, older versions can be obtained via GI-based or
Accession.Version-based queries with NCBI's web-Entrez and network-Entrez
applications. A sequence revision history web page is also available:

	  http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/htbin-post/Entrez/girevhist

NOTE: All the version numbers for the compound Accession.Version identifier
system were initialized to a value of one in February 1999, when that
system was introduced.

3.4.8 KEYWORDS Format

  The KEYWORDS field does not appear in unannotated entries, but is
required in all annotated entries. Keywords are separated by
semicolons; a "keyword" may be a single word or a phrase consisting of
several words. Each line in the keywords field ends in a semicolon;
the last line ends with a period. If no keywords are included in the
entry, the KEYWORDS record contains only a period.

3.4.9 SEGMENT Format

  The SEGMENT keyword is used when two (or more) entries of known
relative orientation are separated by a short (<10 kb) stretch of DNA.
It is limited to one line of the form `n of m', where `n' is the
segment number of the current entry and `m' is the total number of
segments.

3.4.10 SOURCE Format

  The SOURCE field consists of two parts. The first part is found after
the SOURCE keyword and contains free-format information including an
abbreviated form of the organism name followed by a molecule type;
multiple lines are allowed, but the last line must end with a period.
The second part consists of information found after the ORGANISM
subkeyword. The formal scientific name for the source organism (genus
and species, where appropriate) is found on the same line as ORGANISM.
The records following the ORGANISM line list the taxonomic
classification levels, separated by semicolons and ending with a
period.

3.4.11 REFERENCE Format

  The REFERENCE field consists of five parts: the keyword REFERENCE, and
the subkeywords AUTHORS, TITLE (optional), JOURNAL, MEDLINE (optional),
PUBMED (optional), and REMARK (optional).

  The REFERENCE line contains the number of the particular reference and
(in parentheses) the range of bases in the sequence entry reported in
this citation. Additional prose notes may also be found within the
parentheses. The numbering of the references does not reflect
publication dates or priorities.

  The AUTHORS line lists the authors in the order in which they appear
in the cited article. Last names are separated from initials by a
comma (no space); there is no comma before the final `and'. The list
of authors ends with a period.  The TITLE line is an optional field,
although it appears in the majority of entries. It does not appear in
unpublished sequence data entries that have been deposited directly
into the GenBank data bank, the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library,
or the DNA Data Bank of Japan. The TITLE field does not end with a
period.

  The JOURNAL line gives the appropriate literature citation for the
sequence in the entry. The word `Unpublished' will appear after the
JOURNAL subkeyword if the data did not appear in the scientific
literature, but was directly deposited into the data bank. For
published sequences the JOURNAL line gives the Thesis, Journal, or
Book citation, including the year of publication, the specific
citation, or In press.

  For Book citations, the JOURNAL line is specially-formatted, and
includes:

	editor name(s)
	book title
	page number(s)
	publisher-name/publisher-location
	year

For example:

LOCUS       AY277550                1440 bp    DNA     linear   BCT 17-JUN-2003
DEFINITION  Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain CSC13-6 16S ribosomal RNA gene,
            partial sequence.
ACCESSION   AY277550
....
REFERENCE   1  (bases 1 to 1440)
  AUTHORS   Gonzalez,J.M., Laiz,L. and Saiz-Jimenez,C.
  TITLE     Classifying bacterial isolates from hypogean environments:
            Application of a novel fluorimetric method dor the estimation of
            G+C mol% content in microorganisms by thermal denaturation
            temperature
  JOURNAL   (in) Saiz-Jimenez,C. (Ed.);
            MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND CULTURAL HERITAGE: 47-54;
            A.A. Balkema, The Netherlands (2003)

  The presence of "(in)" signals the fact that the reference is for a book
rather than a journal article. A semi-colon signals the end of the editor
names. The next semi-colon signals the end of the page numbers, and the
colon that immediately *precedes* the page numbers signals the end of the
book title. The publisher name and location are a free-form text string.
Finally, the year appears at the very end of the JOURNAL line, enclosed in
parentheses.

  The MEDLINE line provides the National Library of Medicine's Medline
unique identifier for a citation (if known). Medline UIs are 8 digit
numbers.

  The PUBMED line provides the PubMed unique identifier for a citation
(if known). PUBMED ids are numeric, and are record identifiers for article
abstracts in the PubMed database :

       http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed

  Citations in PubMed that do not fall within Medline's scope will have only
a PUBMED identifier. Similarly, citations that *are* in Medline's scope but
which have not yet been assigned Medline UIs will have only a PUBMED identifier.
If a citation is present in both the PubMed and Medline databases, both a
MEDLINE and a PUBMED line will be present.

  The REMARK line is a textual comment that specifies the relevance
of the citation to the entry.

3.4.12 FEATURES Format

  GenBank releases use a feature table format designed jointly by
GenBank, the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library, and the DNA Data
Bank of Japan. This format is in use by all three databases. The
most complete and accurate Feature Table documentation can be found
on the Web at:

	http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/projects/collab/FT/index.html

  Any discrepancy between the abbreviated feature table description
of these release notes and the complete documentation on the Web
should be resolved in favor of the version at the above URL.

  The Feature Table specification is also available as a printed
document: `The DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank Feature Table: Definition'. Contact
GenBank at the address shown on the first page of these Release Notes
if you would like a copy.

  The feature table contains information about genes and gene products,
as well as regions of biological significance reported in the
sequence. The feature table contains information on regions of the
sequence that code for proteins and RNA molecules. It also enumerates
differences between different reports of the same sequence, and
provides cross-references to other data collections, as described in
more detail below.

  The first line of the feature table is a header that includes the
keyword `FEATURES' and the column header `Location/Qualifier.' Each
feature consists of a descriptor line containing a feature key and a
location (see sections below for details). If the location does not
fit on this line, a continuation line may follow. If further
information about the feature is required, one or more lines
containing feature qualifiers may follow the descriptor line.

  The feature key begins in column 6 and may be no more than 15
characters in length. The location begins in column 22. Feature
qualifiers begin on subsequent lines at column 22. Location,
qualifier, and continuation lines may extend from column 22 to 80.

  Feature tables are required, due to the mandatory presence of the
source feature. The sections below provide a brief introduction to
the feature table format.

3.4.12.1 Feature Key Names

  The first column of the feature descriptor line contains the feature
key. It starts at column 6 and can continue to column 20. The list of
valid feature keys is shown below.

  Remember, the most definitive documentation for the feature table can
be found at:

	http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/projects/collab/FT/index.html

allele		Obsolete; see variation feature key
attenuator	Sequence related to transcription termination
C_region	Span of the C immunological feature
CAAT_signal	`CAAT box' in eukaryotic promoters
CDS		Sequence coding for amino acids in protein (includes
		stop codon)
conflict	Independent sequence determinations differ
D-loop      	Displacement loop
D_segment	Span of the D immunological feature
enhancer	Cis-acting enhancer of promoter function
exon		Region that codes for part of spliced mRNA
gene            Region that defines a functional gene, possibly
                including upstream (promotor, enhancer, etc)
		and downstream control elements, and for which
		a name has been assigned.
GC_signal	`GC box' in eukaryotic promoters
iDNA		Intervening DNA eliminated by recombination
intron		Transcribed region excised by mRNA splicing
J_region	Span of the J immunological feature
LTR		Long terminal repeat
mat_peptide	Mature peptide coding region (does not include stop codon)
misc_binding	Miscellaneous binding site
misc_difference	Miscellaneous difference feature
misc_feature	Region of biological significance that cannot be described
		by any other feature
misc_recomb	Miscellaneous recombination feature
misc_RNA	Miscellaneous transcript feature not defined by other RNA keys
misc_signal	Miscellaneous signal
misc_structure	Miscellaneous DNA or RNA structure
modified_base	The indicated base is a modified nucleotide
mRNA		Messenger RNA
mutation 	Obsolete: see variation feature key
N_region	Span of the N immunological feature
old_sequence	Presented sequence revises a previous version
polyA_signal	Signal for cleavage & polyadenylation
polyA_site	Site at which polyadenine is added to mRNA
precursor_RNA	Any RNA species that is not yet the mature RNA product
prim_transcript	Primary (unprocessed) transcript
primer		Primer binding region used with PCR
primer_bind	Non-covalent primer binding site
promoter	A region involved in transcription initiation
protein_bind	Non-covalent protein binding site on DNA or RNA
RBS		Ribosome binding site
rep_origin	Replication origin for duplex DNA
repeat_region	Sequence containing repeated subsequences
repeat_unit	One repeated unit of a repeat_region
rRNA		Ribosomal RNA
S_region	Span of the S immunological feature
satellite	Satellite repeated sequence
scRNA		Small cytoplasmic RNA
sig_peptide	Signal peptide coding region
snRNA		Small nuclear RNA
source		Biological source of the sequence data represented by
		a GenBank record. Mandatory feature, one or more per record.
		For organisms that have been incorporated within the
		NCBI taxonomy database, an associated /db_xref="taxon:NNNN"
		qualifier will be present (where NNNNN is the numeric
		identifier assigned to the organism within the NCBI taxonomy
		database).
stem_loop	Hair-pin loop structure in DNA or RNA
STS		Sequence Tagged Site; operationally unique sequence that
		identifies the combination of primer spans used in a PCR assay
TATA_signal	`TATA box' in eukaryotic promoters
terminator	Sequence causing transcription termination
transit_peptide	Transit peptide coding region
transposon	Transposable element (TN)
tRNA 		Transfer RNA
unsure		Authors are unsure about the sequence in this region
V_region	Span of the V immunological feature
variation 	A related population contains stable mutation
- (hyphen)	Placeholder
-10_signal	`Pribnow box' in prokaryotic promoters
-35_signal	`-35 box' in prokaryotic promoters
3'clip		3'-most region of a precursor transcript removed in processing
3'UTR		3' untranslated region (trailer)
5'clip		5'-most region of a precursor transcript removed in processing
5'UTR		5' untranslated region (leader)


3.4.12.2 Feature Location

  The second column of the feature descriptor line designates the
location of the feature in the sequence. The location descriptor
begins at position 22. Several conventions are used to indicate
sequence location.

  Base numbers in location descriptors refer to numbering in the entry,
which is not necessarily the same as the numbering scheme used in the
published report. The first base in the presented sequence is numbered
base 1. Sequences are presented in the 5 to 3 direction.

Location descriptors can be one of the following:

1. A single base;

2. A contiguous span of bases;

3. A site between two bases;

4. A single base chosen from a range of bases;

5. A single base chosen from among two or more specified bases;

6. A joining of sequence spans;

7. A reference to an entry other than the one to which the feature
belongs (i.e., a remote entry), followed by a location descriptor
referring to the remote sequence;

  A site between two residues, such as an endonuclease cleavage site, is
indicated by listing the two bases separated by a carat (e.g., 23^24).

  A single residue chosen from a range of residues is indicated by the
number of the first and last bases in the range separated by a single
period (e.g., 23.79). The symbols < and > indicate that the end point
of the range is beyond the specified base number.

  A contiguous span of bases is indicated by the number of the first and
last bases in the range separated by two periods (e.g., 23..79). The
symbols < and > indicate that the end point of the range is beyond the
specified base number. Starting and ending positions can be indicated
by base number or by one of the operators described below.

  Operators are prefixes that specify what must be done to the indicated
sequence to locate the feature. The following are the operators
available, along with their most common format and a description.

complement (location): The feature is complementary to the location
indicated. Complementary strands are read 5 to 3.

join (location, location, .. location): The indicated elements should
be placed end to end to form one contiguous sequence.

order (location, location, .. location): The elements are found in the
specified order in the 5 to 3 direction, but nothing is implied about
the rationality of joining them.

3.4.12.3  Feature Qualifiers

  Qualifiers provide additional information about features. They take
the form of a slash (/) followed by a qualifier name and, if
applicable, an equal sign (=) and a qualifier value. Feature
qualifiers begin at column 22.

Qualifiers convey many types of information. Their values can,
therefore, take several forms:

1. Free text;
2. Controlled vocabulary or enumerated values;
3. Citations or reference numbers;
4. Sequences;
5. Feature labels.

  Text qualifier values must be enclosed in double quotation marks. The
text can consist of any printable characters (ASCII values 32-126
decimal). If the text string includes double quotation marks, each set
must be `escaped' by placing a double quotation mark in front of it
(e.g., /note="This is an example of ""escaped"" quotation marks").

  Some qualifiers require values selected from a limited set of choices.
For example, the `/direction' qualifier has only three values `left,'
`right,' or `both.' These are called controlled vocabulary qualifier
values. Controlled qualifier values are not case sensitive; they can
be entered in any combination of upper- and lowercase without changing
their meaning.

  Citation or published reference numbers for the entry should be
enclosed in square brackets ([]) to distinguish them from other
numbers.

  A literal sequence of bases (e.g., "atgcatt") should be enclosed in
quotation marks. Literal sequences are distinguished from free text by
context. Qualifiers that take free text as their values do not take
literal sequences, and vice versa.

  The `/label=' qualifier takes a feature label as its qualifier.
Although feature labels are optional, they allow unambiguous
references to the feature. The feature label identifies a feature
within an entry; when combined with the accession number and the name
of the data bank from which it came, it is a unique tag for that
feature. Feature labels must be unique within an entry, but can be the
same as a feature label in another entry. Feature labels are not case
sensitive; they can be entered in any combination of upper-and
lowercase without changing their meaning.

The following is a partial list of feature qualifiers.

/anticodon	Location of the anticodon of tRNA and the amino acid
		for which it codes

/bound_moiety	Moiety bound

/citation	Reference to a citation providing the claim of or
		evidence for a feature

/codon		Specifies a codon that is different from any found in the
		reference genetic code

/codon_start	Indicates the first base of the first complete codon
		in a CDS (as 1 or 2 or 3)

/cons_splice	Identifies intron splice sites that do not conform to
		the 5'-GT... AG-3' splice site consensus

/db_xref	A database cross-reference; pointer to related information
		in another database. A description of all cross-references
		can be found at:

		http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/collab/db_xref.html

/direction	Direction of DNA replication

/EC_number	Enzyme Commission number for the enzyme product of the
		sequence

/evidence	Value indicating the nature of supporting evidence

/frequency	Frequency of the occurrence of a feature

/function	Function attributed to a sequence

/gene		Symbol of the gene corresponding to a sequence region (usable
		with all features)

/label		A label used to permanently identify a feature

/map		Map position of the feature in free-format text

/mod_base	Abbreviation for a modified nucleotide base

/note		Any comment or additional information

/number		A number indicating the order of genetic elements
		(e.g., exons or introns) in the 5 to 3 direction

/organism	Name of the organism that is the source of the
		sequence data in the record. 

/partial	Differentiates between complete regions and partial ones

/phenotype	Phenotype conferred by the feature

/product	Name of a product encoded by a coding region (CDS)
		feature

/pseudo		Indicates that this feature is a non-functional
		version of the element named by the feature key

/rpt_family	Type of repeated sequence; Alu or Kpn, for example

/rpt_type	Organization of repeated sequence

/rpt_unit	Identity of repeat unit that constitutes a repeat_region

/standard_name	Accepted standard name for this feature

/transl_except	Translational exception: single codon, the translation
		of which does not conform to the reference genetic code

/translation	Amino acid translation of a coding region

/type		Name of a strain if different from that in the SOURCE field

/usedin		Indicates that feature is used in a compound feature
		in another entry

3.4.12.4 Cross-Reference Information

  One type of information in the feature table lists cross-references to
the annual compilation of transfer RNA sequences in Nucleic Acids
Research, which has kindly been sent to us on CD-ROM by Dr. Sprinzl.
Each tRNA entry of the feature table contains a /note= qualifier that
includes a reference such as `(NAR: 1234)' to identify code 1234 in
the NAR compilation. When such a cross-reference appears in an entry
that contains a gene coding for a transfer RNA molecule, it refers to
the code in the tRNA gene compilation. Similar cross-references in
entries containing mature transfer RNA sequences refer to the
companion compilation of tRNA sequences published by D.H. Gauss and M.
Sprinzl in Nucleic Acids Research.

3.4.12.5 Feature Table Examples

  In the first example a number of key names, feature locations, and
qualifiers are illustrated, taken from different sequences. The first
table entry is a coding region consisting of a simple span of bases
and including a /gene qualifier. In the second table entry, an NAR
cross-reference is given (see the previous section for a discussion of
these cross-references). The third and fourth table entries use the
symbols `<`and `>' to indicate that the beginning or end of the
feature is beyond the range of the presented sequence. In the fifth
table entry, the symbol `^' indicates that the feature is between
bases.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
     CDS             5..1261
                     /product="alpha-1-antitrypsin precursor"
                     /map="14q32.1"
                     /gene="PI"
     tRNA            1..87
                     /note="Leu-tRNA-CAA (NAR: 1057)"
                     /anticodon=(pos:35..37,aa:Leu)
     mRNA            1..>66
                     /note="alpha-1-acid glycoprotein mRNA"
     transposon      <1..267
                     /note="insertion element IS5"
     misc_recomb     105^106
                     /note="B.subtilis DNA end/IS5 DNA start"
     conflict        258
                     /replace="t"
                     /citation=[2]
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 10. Feature Table Entries


The next example shows the representation for a CDS that spans more
than one entry.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
LOCUS       HUMPGAMM1    3688 bp ds-DNA             PRI       15-OCT-1990
DEFINITION  Human phosphoglycerate mutase (muscle specific isozyme) (PGAM-M)
            gene, 5' end.
ACCESSION   M55673 M25818 M27095
KEYWORDS    phosphoglycerate mutase.
SEGMENT     1 of 2
  .
  .
  .
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     CAAT_signal     1751..1755
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     TATA_signal     1791..1799
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     exon            1820..2274
                     /number=1
                     /EC_number="5.4.2.1"
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     intron          2275..2377
                     /number=1
                     /gene="PGAM2"
     exon            2378..2558
                     /number=2
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
  .
  .
  .
//
LOCUS       HUMPGAMM2     677 bp ds-DNA             PRI       15-OCT-1990
DEFINITION  Human phosphoglycerate mutase (muscle specific isozyme) (PGAM-M),
            exon 3.
ACCESSION   M55674 M25818 M27096
KEYWORDS    phosphoglycerate mutase.
SEGMENT     2 of 2
  .
  .
  .
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     exon            255..457
                     /number=3
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     intron          order(M55673:2559..>3688,<1..254)
                     /number=2
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     mRNA            join(M55673:1820..2274,M55673:2378..2558,255..457)
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     CDS             join(M55673:1861..2274,M55673:2378..2558,255..421)
                     /note="muscle-specific isozyme"
                     /gene="PGAM2"
                     /product="phosphoglycerate mutase"
                     /codon_start=1
                     /translation="MATHRLVMVRHGESTWNQENRFCGWFDAELSEKGTEEAKRGAKA
                     IKDAKMEFDICYTSVLKRAIRTLWAILDGTDQMWLPVVRTWRLNERHYGGLTGLNKAE
                     TAAKHGEEQVKIWRRSFDIPPPPMDEKHPYYNSISKERRYAGLKPGELPTCESLKDTI
                     ARALPFWNEEIVPQIKAGKRVLIAAHGNSLRGIVKHLEGMSDQAIMELNLPTGIPIVY
                     ELNKELKPTKPMQFLGDEETVRKAMEAVAAQGKAK"
  .
  .
  .
//
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 11. Joining Sequences


3.4.13 ORIGIN Format

  The ORIGIN record may be left blank, may appear as `Unreported.' or
may give a local pointer to the sequence start, usually involving an
experimentally determined restriction cleavage site or the genetic
locus (if available). The ORIGIN record ends in a period if it
contains data, but does not include the period if the record is left
empty (in contrast to the KEYWORDS field which contains a period
rather than being left blank).

3.4.14 SEQUENCE Format

  The nucleotide sequence for an entry is found in the records following
the ORIGIN record. The sequence is reported in the 5 to 3 direction.
There are sixty bases per record, listed in groups of ten bases
followed by a blank, starting at position 11 of each record. The
number of the first nucleotide in the record is given in columns 4 to
9 (right justified) of the record.


4. ALTERNATE RELEASES

  NCBI is supplying sequence data in the GenBank flat file format to
maintain compatibility with existing software which require that
particular format.  Although we have made every effort to ensure
that these data are presented in the traditional flat file format,
if you encounter any problems in using these data with software which
is based upon the flat file format, please contact us at:

              info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  The flat file is just one of many possible report formats that can be
generated from the richer representation supported by the ASN.1 form of the
data.  Developers of new software tools should consider using the ASN.1 form
directly to take advantage of those features.  Documentation and a Software
Developer's Toolkit for ASN.1 are available through NCBI.  You may call NCBI
at (301)496-2475, or subscribe to a developers' electronic newsgroup by
sending your name, address, affiliation, and e-mail address to:

              bits-request@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  The Software Developer's Toolkit and PostScript documentation for UNIX,
VMS, Ultrix, AIX, MacOS, DOS, and Microsoft Windows systems is available
in a compressed UNIX tar file by anonymous ftp from 'ftp.ncbi.nih.gov',
in the toolbox/ncbi_tools directory. The file is 'ncbi.tar.Z'.


5. KNOWN PROBLEMS OF THE GENBANK DATABASE

5.1 Incorrect Gene Symbols in Entries and Index

  The /gene qualifier for many GenBank entries contains values other than the
official gene symbol, such as the product or the standard name of the gene. The
gene symbol index (gbgen.idx) is created from the data in the /gene qualifier
and therefore may contain data other than official gene symbols.


6. GENBANK ADMINISTRATION 

  The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), National Library
of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, is responsible for the production
and distribution of the NIH GenBank Sequence Database.  NCBI distributes
GenBank sequence data by anonymous FTP, e-mail servers and other
network services.  For more information, you may contact NCBI at the
e-mail address:  info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov  or by phone: 301-496-2475.

6.1 Registered Trademark Notice

  GenBank (R) is a registered trademark of the U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services for the Genetic Sequence Data Bank.

6.2 Citing GenBank

  If you have used GenBank in your research, we would appreciate it if
you would include a reference to GenBank in all publications related
to that research.

  When citing data in GenBank, it is appropriate to give the sequence
name, primary accession number, and the publication in which the
sequence first appeared.  If the data are unpublished, we urge you to
contact the group which submitted the data to GenBank to see if there
is a recent publication or if they have determined any revisions or
extensions of the data.

  It is also appropriate to list a reference for GenBank itself.  The
following publication, which describes the GenBank database, should
be cited:

    Benson D.A., Karsch-Mizrachi I., Lipman D.J., Ostell J., Rapp B.A., 
    Wheeler D.L.  GenBank. Nucl. Acids Res. 28(1):15-18 (2000)

  The following statement is an example of how you may cite GenBank
data.  It cites the sequence, its primary accession number, the group
who determined the sequence, and GenBank.  The numbers in parentheses
refer to the GenBank citation above and to the REFERENCE in the
GenBank sequence entry.

`We scanned the GenBank (1) database for sequence similarities and
found one sequence (2), GenBank accession number J01016, which showed
significant similarity...'

  (1) Benson, D.A. et al. Nucl. Acids Res. 28(1):15-18 (2000)
  (2) Nellen, W. and Gallwitz, D. J. Mol. Biol. 159, 1-18 (1982)

6.3 GenBank Distribution Formats and Media

  Complete flat file releases of the GenBank database are available via
NCBI's anonymous ftp server:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov

  Each release is cumulative, incorporating all previous GenBank data.
No retrieval software is provided. GenBank distribution via CD-ROM
ceased as of GenBank Release 106.0 (April, 1998).

  Mirrors of the GenBank FTP site at the NCBI are available from the
San Diego Supercomputer Center and the University of Indiana:

	ftp://genbank.sdsc.edu/pub
	ftp://bio-mirror.net/biomirror/genbank/

6.4 Other Methods of Accessing GenBank Data

  Entrez is a molecular biology database system that presents an integrated
view of DNA and protein sequence data, 3D structure data, complete genomes,
and associated MEDLINE entries. The system is produced by the National
Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and is available only via
the Internet (using the Web-Entrez and Network-Entrez applications).

  Accessing Entrez is easy: if you have a World Wide Web browser, such as
Netscape or Internet-Explorer, simply point your browser to:

	 http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/

  The Web version of Entrez has all the capabilities of the network version,
but with the visual style of the World Wide Web. If you prefer the "look and
feel" of Network-Entrez, you may download Network-Entrez from the NCBI's
FTP server:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/

Versions are available for PC/Windows, Macintosh and several Unix variants.

  For information about Network-Entrez, Web-Entrez or any other NCBI
services, you may contact NCBI by e-mail at info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or by
phone at 301-496-2475.

6.5 Request for Corrections and Comments

  We welcome your suggestions for improvements to GenBank. We are
especially interested to learn of errors or inconsistencies in the
data.  BankIt or Sequin can be used to submit revisions to previous
submissions.  In addition, suggestions and corrections can be sent by
electronic mail to:  update@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.  Please be certain to
indicate the GenBank release number (e.g., Release 137.0) and the
primary accession number of the entry to which your comments apply; it
is helpful if you also give the entry name and the current contents of
any data field for which you are recommending a change.

6.6  Credits and Acknowledgments

Credits -

GenBank Release Coordination	
	Mark Cavanaugh

GenBank Submission Coordination	
	Ilene Mizrachi

GenBank Annotation Staff
	Lori Black, Larissa Brown, Larry Chlumsky, Karen Clark, Irene Fang,
	Michael Fetchko, Anjanette Johnston, William Klimke, Pierre Ledoux,
	Richard McVeigh, Ilene Mizrachi, DeAnne Olsen Cravaritis,
	Chris O'Sullivan, Leigh Riley, Gert Roosen, MJ Rosovitz, Susan Schafer,
	Suh-suh Wang, Steven Wilhite, and Linda Yankie

Data Management and Preparation
	Vladimir Alekseyev, Serge Bazhin, Anton Butanaev, Mark Cavanaugh,
	Hsiu-Chuan Chen, Jonathan Kans, Michael Kimelman, Jim Ostell,
	Karl Sirotkin, Vladimir Soussov, Elena Starchenko, Hanzhen Sun,
	Tatiana Tatusov, Carolyn Tolstoshev, Jane Weisemann, Eugene Yaschenko

Database Administration
	Ron Chen, Slava Khotomliansky, Tony Stearman

User Support
	Medha Bhagwat, Peter Cooper, Susan Dombrowski, Andrei Gabrielian
	Renata Geer, Scott McGinnis, Donna Messersmith, Rana Morris, Vyvy Pham,
	Monica Romiti, Eric Sayers, Tao Tao, David Wheeler 

Project Direction
	David Lipman


Acknowledgments - 

  Contractor support for GenBank production and distribution has been
provided by Management Systems Designers, Inc., ComputerCraft Corporation,
and The KEVRIC Company, Inc.

6.7 Disclaimer

  The United States Government makes no representations or warranties
regarding the content or accuracy of the information.  The United States
Government also makes no representations or warranties of merchantability
or fitness for a particular purpose or that the use of the sequences will
not infringe any patent, copyright, trademark, or other rights.  The
United States Government accepts no responsibility for any consequence
of the receipt or use of the information.

  For additional information about GenBank releases, please contact
NCBI by e-mail at info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, by phone at (301) 496-2475,
or by mail at:

  GenBank
  National Library of Medicine
  Bldg. 38A Rm. 8N-809
  8600 Rockville Pike
  Bethesda, MD 20894
  FAX: (301) 480-9241
Support Center