Release Notes For GenBank Release 139

GBREL.TXT          Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                         December 15 2003

               NCBI-GenBank Flat File Release 139.0

                    Distribution Release Notes

 30968418 loci, 36553368485 bases, from 30968418 reported sequences

 This document describes the format and content of the flat files that
comprise releases of the GenBank nucleotide sequence database. If you
have any questions or comments about GenBank or this document, please
contact NCBI via email at info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or:

   GenBank
   National Center for Biotechnology Information
   National Library of Medicine, 38A, 8N805
   8600 Rockville Pike
   Bethesda, MD  20894
   USA
   Phone:  (301) 496-2475
   Fax:    (301) 480-9241

==========================================================================
TABLE OF CONTENTS
==========================================================================

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Release 139.0
1.2 Cutoff Date
1.3 Important Changes in Release 139.0
1.4 Upcoming Changes
1.5 Request for Direct Submission of Sequence Data
1.6 Organization of This Document

2. ORGANIZATION OF DATA FILES

2.1 Overview
2.2 Files
     2.2.1 File Descriptions
     2.2.5 File Sizes
     2.2.6 Per-Division Statistics 
     2.2.7 Selected Per-Organism Statistics 
     2.2.8 Growth of GenBank

3. FILE FORMATS

3.1 File Header Information
3.2 Directory Files
     3.2.1 Short Directory File
3.3 Index Files
     3.3.1 Accession Number Index File
     3.3.2 Keyword Phrase Index File
     3.3.3 Author Name Index File
     3.3.4 Journal Citation Index File
     3.3.5 Gene Name Index
3.4 Sequence Entry Files
     3.4.1 File Organization
     3.4.2  Entry Organization
     3.4.3 Sample Sequence Data File
     3.4.4 LOCUS Format
     3.4.5 DEFINITION Format
          3.4.5.1 DEFINITION Format for NLM Entries
     3.4.6 ACCESSION Format
     3.4.7 VERSION Format
     3.4.8 KEYWORDS Format
     3.4.9 SEGMENT Format
     3.4.10 SOURCE Format
     3.4.11 REFERENCE Format
     3.4.12 FEATURES Format
          3.4.12.1 Feature Key Names
          3.4.12.2 Feature Location
          3.4.12.3  Feature Qualifiers
          3.4.12.4 Cross-Reference Information
          3.4.12.5 Feature Table Examples
     3.4.13 ORIGIN Format
     3.4.14 SEQUENCE Format

4. ALTERNATE RELEASES

5. KNOWN PROBLEMS OF THE GENBANK DATABASE

5.1 Incorrect Gene Symbols in Entries and Index

6. GENBANK ADMINISTRATION 

6.1 Registered Trademark Notice
6.2 Citing GenBank
6.3 GenBank Distribution Formats and Media
6.4 Other Methods of Accessing GenBank Data
6.5 Request for Corrections and Comments
6.6 Credits and Acknowledgments
6.7 Disclaimer

==========================================================================

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Release 139.0

  The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National
Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health (NIH) is responsible
for producing and distributing the GenBank Sequence Database.  NCBI handles
all GenBank direct submissions and authors are advised to use the address
below.  Submitters are encouraged to use the free Sequin software package
for sending sequence data, or the newly developed World Wide Web submission
form.  See Section 1.5 below for details.

*****************************************************************************

The address for direct submissions to GenBank is:

       GenBank Submissions
       National Center for Biotechnology Information
       Bldg 38A, Rm. 8N-803
       8600 Rockville Pike
       Bethesda, MD 20894

       E-MAIL:  gb-sub@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Updates and changes to existing GenBank records:

       E-MAIL:  update@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

URL for the new GenBank submission tool - BankIt - on the World Wide Web:

       http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/

(see Section 1.5 for additional details about submitting data to GenBank.)

*****************************************************************************

  GenBank Release 139.0 is a release of sequence data by NCBI in the GenBank
flatfile format.  GenBank is a component of a tri-partite, international
collaboration of sequence databases in the U.S., Europe, and Japan.  The
collaborating databases in Europe are the European Molecular Biology Laboratory
(EMBL) at Hinxton Hall, UK, and the DNA Database of Japan (DDBJ) in Mishima,
Japan.  Patent sequences are incorporated through arrangements with the
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and via the collaborating international
databases from other international patent offices.  The database is converted
to various output formats, including the Flat File and Abstract Syntax Notation 1
(ASN.1) versions.  The ASN.1 and Flat File forms of the data are available at
NCBI's anonymous FTP server: ftp.ncbi.nih.gov .

1.2 Cutoff Date

  This full release, 139.0, incorporates data available to the collaborating
databases as of December 19, 2003.  For more recent data, users are advised to:

  o Download GenBank Incremental Update (GIU) files by anonymous FTP from NCBI:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/ncbi-asn1/daily-nc (ASN.1 format)
	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank/daily-nc   (flatfile format)

    Mirrors of the GenBank FTP site at the NCBI are available from the San Diego
    Supercomputer Center and the University of Indiana:

	ftp://genbank.sdsc.edu/pub
	ftp://bio-mirror.net/biomirror/genbank/

    Some users who experience slow FTP transfers of large files might realize
    an improvement in transfer rates from these alternate sites when traffic at
    the NCBI is high.

  o Use the interactive Network-Entrez or Web-Entrez applications to query
    the 'Entrez: Nucleotides' database (see Section 6.4 of this document).

1.3 Important Changes in Release 139.0

1.3.1 Organizational changes

  The total number of sequence data files increased by 8 with this release:

  - the EST division is now comprised of 288 files (+9)
  - the PAT division is now comprised of 11  files (+1)
  - the PLN division is now comprised of 10  files (+1)
  - the PRI division is now comprised of 27  files (+1)
  - the ROD division is now comprised of 11  files (+1)

  - the HTG division is now comprised of 61  files (-1)
  - the GSS division is now comprised of 98  files (-4)

  Updates to a significant number of GSS sequences has resulted in a
  *decrease* in the overall number of GSS sequence files, from 102
  to 98.

  The decrease in the number of HTG sequence files reflects the
  on-going finishing of DRAFT-quality sequences.

1.3.2 WGS Accessions and Finished WGS Projects

  Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) sequences utilize an accession number format which
is different from those used for non-WGS GenBank sequences. This format is
referred to as 4 + 2 + 6, and is comprised of:

  - a 4-letter WGS project code
  - a 2-digit assembly-version number
  - a 6 (and sometimes 7) digit sequence number

  Because of their unique nature, WGS sequences are kept separate from other
GenBank products:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank/wgs

  For example, sequences *much* larger than the current 350 kbp limit can be
generated during the WGS assembly phase. In addition, there is no tracking
of nucleotide sequences from one assembly to the next. So the accessions
of one:

	AAAB01000001
	AAAB01000002
	AAAB01000003
	....

are not necessarily related in any obvious way to those of the next assembly:

	AAAB02000001
	AAAB02000002
	AAAB02000003
	....

  When a WGS project is completed, it is possible that the submittors may chose
to submit a single finished WGS sequence with a 4 + 2 + 6 accession, at which
point it could appear in the non-WGS portion of GenBank.

  Alternately, the submittors might chose to submit the completed genome via
a non-WGS method, in which case a de-novo non-WGS accession would be assigned.
That record would then have one or more 2 + 4 + 6 WGS accessions as
secondary accessions.

  The second of these scenarios has recently occurred for one bacterial genome:

LOCUS       AE017199              490885 bp    DNA     circular BCT 18-DEC-2003
DEFINITION  Nanoarchaeum equitans Kin4-M, complete genome.
ACCESSION   AE017199 AACL01000001 AACL01000000
VERSION     AE017199.1  GI:40068520

  Both scenarios will become increasingly frequent, especially after the 350 kbp
sequence length restriction is lifted (see Section 1.4.1). So users should be
aware that WGS accessions can be encountered in the non-WGS portion of GenBank,
as primary *or* secondary accession numbers.

1.3.3 GSS File Header Problem

  GSS sequences at GenBank are maintained in one of two different systems,
depending on their origin. One recent change to release processing involves
the parallelization of the dumps from those systems. Because the second dump
(for example) has no prior knowledge of exactly how many GSS files will be
dumped from the first, it doesn't know how to number it's own output files.

  There is thus a discrepancy between the filenames and file headers of twelve
GSS flatfiles in Release 139.0. Consider the gbgss87.seq file:

GBGSS1.SEQ           Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                          December 15 2003

                NCBI-GenBank Flat File Release 139.0

                           GSS Sequences (Part 1)

   87880 loci,    66457089 bases, from    87880 reported sequences


  Here, the filename and part number in the header is "1", though the file
has been renamed as "87" based on the files dumped from the other system.

  We will work to resolve this discrepancy in future releases, but the
priority is certainly much lower than many other tasks.

1.4 Upcoming Changes

1.4.1 **Sequence Length Limitation To Be Removed In June 2004**

  At the May 2003 collaborative meeting among representatives of GenBank,
EMBL, and DDBJ, it was decided that the 350 kilobase limit on the sequence
length of database records will be removed as of June 2004.

  Individual, complete sequences are currently expected to be a maximum
of 350 kbp in length. One major reason for the existence of this limit is
as an aid to users of sequence analysis software, some of which might not
be capable of processing megabase-scale sequences.

  However, very significant exceptions to the 350 kbp limit have existed
for several years; Phase 1 (unordered, unoriented) and Phase 2 (ordered,
oriented) high-throughput genomic sequences (HTGS) generated by efforts
such as the Human Genome Project; large dispersed eukaryotic genes with
an intron/exon structure that spans more than 350 kbp; and sequences
which result from assemblies of Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) project data.

  Given these exceptions, and the technological advances which have made
large-scale sequencing practical for an increasing number of researchers,
the collaboration has decided that the 350 kbp limit must be removed.

  As of June 2004, the length of database sequences will be limited only
by the natural structures of an organism's genome. For example, a single
record might be used to represent all of human chromosome 1, which is
approximately 245 Mbp in length.

  Software developers for some of the larger commercial sequence analysis
packages were recently asked what timeframe would be appropriate for this
change. Answers ranged from "immediately", to "several months", to "one year".
So the one-year timeframe was selected, to provide ample time to implement
changes which megabase-scale sequences may require.

  Some sample records with very large sequences have been made available
so that developers can begin to test their software modifications:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank/LargeSeqs

  Many changes are expected after the removal of the length limit. For 
example, complete bacterial genomes (typically on the order of several
megabases) will be re-assembled into single sequence records. The submission
process for such genomes will become much more streamlined, since database
staff will no longer have to split the genomes into pieces. BLAST services
will be enchanced, so that hits reported within very large sequences will
be presented in a meaningful context.

  All such changes will be discussed more fully in future release notes,
the NCBI newsletter, and the GenBank newsgroup.

1.4.2 Filename change : genpept.fsa

  A companion file is made available with every GenBank Release that contains
all of the protein sequences, in FASTA format, for the coding regions annotated
on GenBank records:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank/genpept.fsa.gz

  The term 'GenPept' has been used for purely historical reasons. But in
fact, GenPept is the name of a (non-FASTA) flatfile format for protein sequences,
one that closely parallels the GenBank flatfile format for DNA sequences.

  As of Release 140.0 in February 2004, the name of this file will be
changed to:

	gb_NNN.aa_fsa.gz

where 'NNN' represents the GenBank release number (eg, '140') and 'aa_fsa'
signifies 'protein FASTA' .

1.5 Request for Direct Submission of Sequence Data

  A successful GenBank requires that sequence data enter the database as
soon as possible after publication, that the annotations be as complete as
possible, and that the sequence and annotation data be accurate. All
three of these requirements are best met if authors of sequence data
submit their data directly to GenBank in a usable form. It is especially
important that these submissions be in computer-readable form.

  GenBank must rely on direct author submission of data to ensure that
it achieves its goals of completeness, accuracy, and timeliness. To
assist researchers in entering their own sequence data, GenBank
provides a WWW submission tool called BankIt, as well as a stand-alone
software package called Sequin. BankIt and Sequin are both easy-to-use
programs that enable authors to enter a sequence, annotate it, and
submit it to GenBank.  Through the international collaboration of DNA
sequence databases, GenBank submissions are forwarded daily for inclusion
in the EMBL and DDBJ databases.

  SEQUIN.  Sequin is an interactive, graphically-oriented program based
on screen forms and controlled vocabularies that guides you through the
process of entering your sequence and providing biological and
bibliographic annotation.  Sequin is designed to simplify the sequence submission
process, and to provide increased data handling capabilities to accomodate
very long sequences, complex annotations, and robust error checking.  E-mail
the completed submission file to : gb-sub@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  Sequin is provided for Macintosh, PC/Windows, UNIX and VMS computers.
It is available by annonymous ftp from ftp.ncbi.nih.gov; login as
anonymous and use your e-mail address as the password. It is located in
the sequin directory. Or direct your web browser to this URL:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/sequin

  BANKIT.  BankIt provides a simple forms approach for submitting your
sequence and descriptive information to GenBank.  Your submission will
be submitted directly to GenBank via the World Wide Web, and
immediately forwarded for inclusion in the EMBL and DDBJ databases.
BankIt may be used with Netscape, Internet Explorer, and other common
WWW clients. You can access BankIt from GenBank's home page:   

	http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/

  AUTHORIN.  Authorin sequence submissions are no longer accepted by
GenBank, and the Authorin application is no longer distributed by NCBI.  

  If you have questions about GenBank submissions or any of the data
submission tools, contact NCBI at: info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or 301-496-2475.

1.6 Organization of This Document

  The second section describes the contents of GenBank releases. The third
section illustrates the formats of the flat files.  The fourth section
describes other versions of the data, the fifth section identifies known prob-
lems, and the sixth contains administrative details.

2. ORGANIZATION OF DATA FILES

2.1 Overview

  GenBank releases consist of a set of ASCII text files, most of which
contain sequence data. A few supplemental "index" files are also supplied,
containing comprehensive lists of author names, journal citations,
gene names, and keywords, along with the accession numbers of the records
in which they can be found (see Section 3.3). The line-lengths of
these files is variable.

2.2 Files

  This GenBank flat file release consists of 570 files. The lists
that follow describe each of the files included in the distribution.
Their sizes and base pair content are also summarized.

2.2.1 File Descriptions

1.  gbrel.txt	- Release notes (this document).
2.  gbsdr.txt 	- Short directory of the data bank.
3.  gbacc.idx 	- Index of the entries according to accession number.
4.  gbkey.idx 	- Index of the entries according to keyword phrase.
5.  gbaut1.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 1.
6.  gbaut2.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 2.
7.  gbaut3.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 3.
8.  gbaut4.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 4.
9.  gbaut5.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 5.
10. gbaut6.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 6.
11. gbaut7.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 7.
12. gbaut8.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 8.
13. gbaut9.idx 	- Index of the entries according to author, part 9.
14. gbaut10.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 10.
15. gbaut11.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 11.
16. gbaut12.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 12.
17. gbaut13.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 13.
18. gbaut14.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 14.
19. gbaut15.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 15.
20. gbaut16.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 16.
21. gbaut17.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 17.
22. gbaut18.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 18.
23. gbaut19.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 19.
24. gbaut20.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 20.
25. gbaut21.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 21.
26. gbaut22.idx - Index of the entries according to author, part 22.
27. gbjou.idx 	- Index of the entries according to journal citation.
28. gbgen.idx 	- Index of the entries according to gene names.
29. gbsec.idx	- Index of the entries according to secondary accession number.
30. gbpri1.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 1.
31. gbpri2.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 2.
32. gbpri3.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 3.
33. gbpri4.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 4.
34. gbpri5.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 5.
35. gbpri6.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 6.
36. gbpri7.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 7.
37. gbpri8.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 8.
38. gbpri9.seq 	- Primate sequence entries, part 9.
39. gbpri10.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 10.
40. gbpri11.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 11.
41. gbpri12.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 12.
42. gbpri13.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 13.
43. gbpri14.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 14.
44. gbpri15.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 15.
45. gbpri16.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 16.
46. gbpri17.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 17.
47. gbpri18.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 18.
48. gbpri19.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 19.
49. gbpri20.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 20.
50. gbpri21.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 21.
51. gbpri22.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 22.
52. gbpri23.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 23.
53. gbpri24.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 24.
54. gbpri25.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 25.
55. gbpri26.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 26.
56. gbpri27.seq	- Primate sequence entries, part 27.
57. gbrod1.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 1.
58. gbrod2.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 2.
59. gbrod3.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 3.
60. gbrod4.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 4.
61. gbrod5.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 5.
62. gbrod6.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 6.
63. gbrod7.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 7.
64. gbrod8.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 8.
65. gbrod9.seq 	- Rodent sequence entries, part 9.
66. gbrod10.seq - Rodent sequence entries, part 10.
67. gbrod11.seq - Rodent sequence entries, part 11.
68. gbmam.seq 	- Other mammalian sequence entries.
69. gbvrt1.seq 	- Other vertebrate sequence entries, part 1.
70. gbvrt2.seq 	- Other vertebrate sequence entries, part 2.
71. gbvrt3.seq 	- Other vertebrate sequence entries, part 3.
72. gbvrt4.seq 	- Other vertebrate sequence entries, part 4.
73. gbinv1.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 1.
74. gbinv2.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 2.
75. gbinv3.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 3.
76. gbinv4.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 4.
77. gbinv5.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 5.
78. gbinv6.seq 	- Invertebrate sequence entries, part 6.
79. gbpln1.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 1.
80. gbpln2.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 2.
81. gbpln3.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 3.
82. gbpln4.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 4.
83. gbpln5.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 5.
84. gbpln6.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 6.
85. gbpln7.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 7.
86. gbpln8.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 8.
87. gbpln9.seq 	- Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 9.
88. gbpln10.seq - Plant sequence entries (including fungi and algae), part 10.
89. gbbct1.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 1.
90. gbbct2.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 2.
91. gbbct3.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 3.
92. gbbct4.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 4.
93. gbbct5.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 5.
94. gbbct6.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 6.
95. gbbct7.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 7.
96. gbbct8.seq 	- Bacterial sequence entries, part 8.
97. gbvrl1.seq 	- Viral sequence entries, part 1.
98. gbvrl2.seq 	- Viral sequence entries, part 2.
99. gbvrl3.seq 	- Viral sequence entries, part 3.
100. gbphg.seq 	- Phage sequence entries.
101. gbsyn.seq 	- Synthetic and chimeric sequence entries.
102. gbuna.seq 	- Unannotated sequence entries.
103. gbest1.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 1.
104. gbest2.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 2.
105. gbest3.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 3.
106. gbest4.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 4.
107. gbest5.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 5.
108. gbest6.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 6.
109. gbest7.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 7.
110. gbest8.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 8.
111. gbest9.seq  - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 9.
112. gbest10.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 10.
113. gbest11.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 11.
114. gbest12.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 12.
115. gbest13.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 13.
116. gbest14.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 14.
117. gbest15.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 15.
118. gbest16.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 16.
119. gbest17.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 17.
120. gbest18.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 18.
121. gbest19.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 19.
122. gbest20.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 20.
123. gbest21.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 21.
124. gbest22.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 22.
125. gbest23.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 23.
126. gbest24.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 24.
127. gbest25.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 25.
128. gbest26.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 26.
129. gbest27.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 27.
130. gbest28.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 28.
131. gbest29.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 29.
132. gbest30.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 30.
133. gbest31.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 31.
134. gbest32.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 32.
135. gbest33.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 33.
136. gbest34.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 34.
137. gbest35.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 35.
138. gbest36.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 36.
139. gbest37.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 37.
140. gbest38.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 38.
141. gbest39.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 39.
142. gbest40.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 40.
143. gbest41.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 41.
144. gbest42.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 42.
145. gbest43.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 43.
146. gbest44.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 44.
147. gbest45.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 45.
148. gbest46.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 46.
149. gbest47.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 47.
150. gbest48.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 48.
151. gbest49.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 49.
152. gbest50.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 50.
153. gbest51.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 51.
154. gbest52.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 52.
155. gbest53.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 53.
156. gbest54.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 54.
157. gbest55.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 55.
158. gbest56.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 56.
159. gbest57.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 57.
160. gbest58.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 58.
161. gbest59.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 59.
162. gbest60.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 60.
163. gbest61.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 61.
164. gbest62.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 62.
165. gbest63.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 63.
166. gbest64.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 64.
167. gbest65.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 65.
168. gbest66.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 66.
169. gbest67.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 67.
170. gbest68.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 68.
171. gbest69.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 69.
172. gbest70.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 70.
173. gbest71.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 71.
174. gbest72.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 72.
175. gbest73.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 73.
176. gbest74.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 74.
177. gbest75.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 75.
178. gbest76.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 76.
179. gbest77.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 77.
180. gbest78.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 78.
181. gbest79.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 79.
182. gbest80.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 80.
183. gbest81.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 81.
184. gbest82.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 82.
185. gbest83.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 83.
186. gbest84.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 84.
187. gbest85.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 85.
188. gbest86.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 86.
189. gbest87.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 87.
190. gbest88.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 88.
191. gbest89.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 89
192. gbest90.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 90.
193. gbest91.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 91.
194. gbest92.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 92.
195. gbest93.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 93.
196. gbest94.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 94.
197. gbest95.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 95.
198. gbest96.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 96.
199. gbest97.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 97.
200. gbest98.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 98.
201. gbest99.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 99.
202. gbest100.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 100.
203. gbest101.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 101.
204. gbest102.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 102.
205. gbest103.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 103.
206. gbest104.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 104.
207. gbest105.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 105.
208. gbest106.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 106.
209. gbest107.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 107.
210. gbest108.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 108.
211. gbest109.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 109.
212. gbest110.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 110.
213. gbest111.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 111.
214. gbest112.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 112.
215. gbest113.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 113.
216. gbest114.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 114.
217. gbest115.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 115.
218. gbest116.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 116.
219. gbest117.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 117.
220. gbest118.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 118.
221. gbest119.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 119.
222. gbest120.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 120.
223. gbest121.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 121.
224. gbest122.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 122.
225. gbest123.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 123.
226. gbest124.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 124.
227. gbest125.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 125.
228. gbest126.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 126.
229. gbest127.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 127.
230. gbest128.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 128.
231. gbest129.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 129.
232. gbest130.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 130.
233. gbest131.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 131.
234. gbest132.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 132.
235. gbest133.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 133.
236. gbest134.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 134.
237. gbest135.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 135.
238. gbest136.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 136.
239. gbest137.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 137.
240. gbest138.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 138.
241. gbest139.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 139.
242. gbest140.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 140.
243. gbest141.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 141.
244. gbest142.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 142.
245. gbest143.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 143.
246. gbest144.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 144.
247. gbest145.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 145.
248. gbest146.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 146.
249. gbest147.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 147.
250. gbest148.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 148.
251. gbest149.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 149.
252. gbest150.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 150.
253. gbest151.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 151.
254. gbest152.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 152.
255. gbest153.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 153.
256. gbest154.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 154.
257. gbest155.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 155.
258. gbest156.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 156.
259. gbest157.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 157.
260. gbest158.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 158.
261. gbest159.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 159.
262. gbest160.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 160.
263. gbest161.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 161.
264. gbest162.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 162.
265. gbest163.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 163.
266. gbest164.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 164.
267. gbest165.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 165.
268. gbest166.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 166.
269. gbest167.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 167.
270. gbest168.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 168.
271. gbest169.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 169.
272. gbest170.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 170.
273. gbest171.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 171.
274. gbest172.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 172.
275. gbest173.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 173.
276. gbest174.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 174.
277. gbest175.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 175.
278. gbest176.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 176.
279. gbest177.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 177.
280. gbest178.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 178.
281. gbest179.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 179.
282. gbest180.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 180.
283. gbest181.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 181.
284. gbest182.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 182.
285. gbest183.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 183.
286. gbest184.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 184.
287. gbest185.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 185.
288. gbest186.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 186.
289. gbest187.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 187.
290. gbest188.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 188.
291. gbest189.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 189.
292. gbest190.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 190.
293. gbest191.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 191.
294. gbest192.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 192.
295. gbest193.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 193.
296. gbest194.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 194.
297. gbest195.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 195.
298. gbest196.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 196.
299. gbest197.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 197.
300. gbest198.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 198.
301. gbest199.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 199.
302. gbest200.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 200.
303. gbest201.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 201.
304. gbest202.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 202.
305. gbest203.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 203.
306. gbest204.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 204.
307. gbest205.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 205.
308. gbest206.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 206.
309. gbest207.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 207.
310. gbest208.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 208.
311. gbest209.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 209.
312. gbest210.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 210.
313. gbest211.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 211.
314. gbest212.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 212.
315. gbest213.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 213.
316. gbest214.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 214.
317. gbest215.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 215.
318. gbest216.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 216.
319. gbest217.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 217.
320. gbest218.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 218.
321. gbest219.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 219.
322. gbest220.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 220.
323. gbest221.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 221.
324. gbest222.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 222.
325. gbest223.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 223.
326. gbest224.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 224.
327. gbest225.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 225.
328. gbest226.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 226.
329. gbest227.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 227.
330. gbest228.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 228.
331. gbest229.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 229.
332. gbest230.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 230.
333. gbest231.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 231.
334. gbest232.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 232.
335. gbest233.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 233.
336. gbest234.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 234.
337. gbest235.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 235.
338. gbest236.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 236.
339. gbest237.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 237.
340. gbest238.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 238.
341. gbest239.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 239.
342. gbest240.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 240.
343. gbest241.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 241.
344. gbest242.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 242.
345. gbest243.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 243.
346. gbest244.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 244.
347. gbest245.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 245.
348. gbest246.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 246.
349. gbest247.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 247.
350. gbest248.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 248.
351. gbest249.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 249.
352. gbest250.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 250.
353. gbest251.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 251.
354. gbest252.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 252.
355. gbest253.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 253.
356. gbest254.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 254.
357. gbest255.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 255.
358. gbest256.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 256.
359. gbest257.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 257.
360. gbest258.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 258.
361. gbest259.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 259.
362. gbest260.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 260.
363. gbest261.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 261.
364. gbest262.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 262.
365. gbest263.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 263.
366. gbest264.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 264.
367. gbest265.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 265.
368. gbest266.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 266.
369. gbest267.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 267.
370. gbest268.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 268.
371. gbest269.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 269.
372. gbest270.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 270.
373. gbest271.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 271.
374. gbest272.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 272.
375. gbest273.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 273.
376. gbest274.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 274.
377. gbest275.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 275.
378. gbest276.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 276.
379. gbest277.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 277.
380. gbest278.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 278.
381. gbest279.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 279.
382. gbest280.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 280.
383. gbest281.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 281.
384. gbest282.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 282.
385. gbest283.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 283.
386. gbest284.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 284.
387. gbest285.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 285.
388. gbest286.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 286.
389. gbest287.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 287.
390. gbest288.seq - EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence entries, part 288.
391. gbpat1.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 1.
392. gbpat2.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 2.
393. gbpat3.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 3.
394. gbpat4.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 4.
395. gbpat5.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 5.
396. gbpat6.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 6.
397. gbpat7.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 7.
398. gbpat8.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 8.
399. gbpat9.seq  - Patent sequence entries, part 9.
400. gbpat10.seq - Patent sequence entries, part 10.
401. gbpat11.seq - Patent sequence entries, part 11.
402. gbsts1.seq  - STS (sequence tagged site) sequence entries, part 1.
403. gbsts2.seq  - STS (sequence tagged site) sequence entries, part 2.
404. gbsts3.seq  - STS (sequence tagged site) sequence entries, part 3.
405. gbgss1.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 1.
406. gbgss2.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 2.
407. gbgss3.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 3.
408. gbgss4.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 4.
409. gbgss5.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 5.
410. gbgss6.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 6.
411. gbgss7.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 7.
412. gbgss8.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 8.
413. gbgss9.seq  - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 9.
414. gbgss10.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 10.
415. gbgss11.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 11.
416. gbgss12.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 12.
417. gbgss13.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 13.
418. gbgss14.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 14.
419. gbgss15.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 15.
420. gbgss16.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 16.
421. gbgss17.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 17.
422. gbgss18.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 18.
423. gbgss19.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 19.
424. gbgss20.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 20.
425. gbgss21.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 21.
426. gbgss22.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 22.
427. gbgss23.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 23.
428. gbgss24.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 24.
429. gbgss25.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 25.
430. gbgss26.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 26.
431. gbgss27.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 27.
432. gbgss28.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 28.
433. gbgss29.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 29.
434. gbgss30.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 30.
435. gbgss31.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 31.
436. gbgss32.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 32.
437. gbgss33.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 33.
438. gbgss34.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 34.
439. gbgss35.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 35.
440. gbgss36.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 36.
441. gbgss37.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 37.
442. gbgss38.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 38.
443. gbgss39.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 39.
444. gbgss40.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 40.
445. gbgss41.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 41.
446. gbgss42.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 42.
447. gbgss43.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 43.
448. gbgss44.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 44.
449. gbgss45.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 45.
450. gbgss46.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 46.
451. gbgss47.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 47.
452. gbgss48.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 48.
453. gbgss49.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 49.
454. gbgss50.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 50.
455. gbgss51.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 51.
456. gbgss52.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 52.
457. gbgss53.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 53.
458. gbgss54.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 54.
459. gbgss55.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 55.
460. gbgss56.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 56.
461. gbgss57.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 57.
462. gbgss58.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 58.
463. gbgss59.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 59.
464. gbgss60.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 60.
465. gbgss61.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 61.
466. gbgss62.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 62.
467. gbgss63.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 63.
468. gbgss64.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 64.
469. gbgss65.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 65.
470. gbgss66.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 66.
471. gbgss67.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 67.
472. gbgss68.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 68.
473. gbgss69.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 69.
474. gbgss70.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 70.
475. gbgss71.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 71.
476. gbgss72.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 72.
477. gbgss73.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 73.
478. gbgss74.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 74.
479. gbgss75.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 75.
480. gbgss76.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 76.
481. gbgss77.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 77.
482. gbgss78.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 78.
483. gbgss79.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 79.
484. gbgss80.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 80.
485. gbgss81.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 81.
486. gbgss82.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 82.
487. gbgss83.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 83.
488. gbgss84.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 84.
489. gbgss85.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 85.
490. gbgss86.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 86.
491. gbgss87.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 87.
492. gbgss88.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 88.
493. gbgss89.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 89.
494. gbgss90.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 90.
495. gbgss91.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 91.
496. gbgss92.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 92.
497. gbgss93.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 93.
498. gbgss94.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 94.
499. gbgss95.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 95.
500. gbgss96.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 96.
501. gbgss97.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 97.
502. gbgss98.seq - GSS (genome survey sequence) sequence entries, part 98.
503. gbhtg1.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 1.
504. gbhtg2.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 2.
505. gbhtg3.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 3.
506. gbhtg4.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 4.
507. gbhtg5.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 5.
508. gbhtg6.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 6.
509. gbhtg7.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 7.
510. gbhtg8.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 8.
511. gbhtg9.seq  - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 9.
512. gbhtg10.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 10.
513. gbhtg11.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 11.
514. gbhtg12.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 12.
515. gbhtg13.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 13.
516. gbhtg14.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 14.
517. gbhtg15.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 15.
518. gbhtg16.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 16.
519. gbhtg17.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 17.
520. gbhtg18.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 18.
521. gbhtg19.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 19.
522. gbhtg20.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 20.
523. gbhtg21.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 21.
524. gbhtg22.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 22.
525. gbhtg23.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 23.
526. gbhtg24.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 24.
527. gbhtg25.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 25.
528. gbhtg26.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 26.
529. gbhtg27.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 27.
530. gbhtg28.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 28.
531. gbhtg29.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 29.
532. gbhtg30.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 30.
533. gbhtg31.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 31.
534. gbhtg32.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 32.
535. gbhtg33.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 33.
536. gbhtg34.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 34.
537. gbhtg35.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 35.
538. gbhtg36.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 36.
539. gbhtg37.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 37.
540. gbhtg38.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 38.
541. gbhtg39.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 39.
542. gbhtg40.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 40.
543. gbhtg41.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 41.
544. gbhtg42.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 42.
545. gbhtg43.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 43.
546. gbhtg44.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 44.
547. gbhtg45.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 45.
548. gbhtg46.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 46.
549. gbhtg47.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 47.
550. gbhtg48.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 48.
551. gbhtg49.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 49.
552. gbhtg50.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 50.
553. gbhtg51.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 51.
554. gbhtg52.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 52.
555. gbhtg53.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 53.
556. gbhtg54.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 54.
557. gbhtg55.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 55.
558. gbhtg56.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 56.
559. gbhtg57.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 57.
560. gbhtg58.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 58.
561. gbhtg59.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 59.
562. gbhtg60.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 60.
563. gbhtg61.seq - HTGS (high throughput genomic sequencing) sequence entries, part 61.
564. gbhtc1.seq	 - HTC (high throughput cDNA sequencing) entries, part 1.
565. gbhtc2.seq	 - HTC (high throughput cDNA sequencing) entries, part 2.
566. gbhtc3.seq	 - HTC (high throughput cDNA sequencing) entries, part 3.
567. gbcon.seq	 - CON division entries (see description below for details)
568. gbchg.txt   - Accession numbers of entries updated since the previous release.
569. gbdel.txt   - Accession numbers of entries deleted since the previous release.
570. gbnew.txt   - Accession numbers of entries new since the previous release.

  The gbcon.seq data file provides an alternative representation for complex
sequences, such as segmented sets and complete-genomes that have been split
into pieces. These "CON" records do not contain sequence data; they utilize
a CONTIG linetype with a join() statement which describes how the component
sequences can be assembled to form the larger sequence. The contents of the 
CON division are not reflected in the 'index', 'new', 'chg', and 'del' files
that accompany GenBank releases, nor in release statistics (Sections 2.2.6,
2.2.7, and 2.2.8). The GenBank README describes the CON division of GenBank
in more detail:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/genbank/README.genbank

2.2.5 File Sizes

  Uncompressed, the Release 139.0 flatfiles require roughly 122 GB (sequence
files only) or 138 GB (including the 'short directory', 'index' and the
*.txt files). The following table contains the approximate sizes of the
individual files in this release.  Since minor changes to some of the files
might have occurred after these release notes were written, these sizes should
not be used to determine file integrity; they are provided as an aid to
planning only.

File Size      File Name

 250006063     gbbct1.seq
 250300558     gbbct2.seq
 250000268     gbbct3.seq
 250545610     gbbct4.seq
 250000919     gbbct5.seq
 250300895     gbbct6.seq
 250001777     gbbct7.seq
 140629630     gbbct8.seq
 230689215     gbest1.seq
 230689337     gbest10.seq
 230689413     gbest100.seq
 230690818     gbest101.seq
 230690004     gbest102.seq
 230690048     gbest103.seq
 230688732     gbest104.seq
 230689816     gbest105.seq
 230689885     gbest106.seq
 230471654     gbest107.seq
 230687592     gbest108.seq
 230690507     gbest109.seq
 230689755     gbest11.seq
 230689216     gbest110.seq
 230688727     gbest111.seq
 230689910     gbest112.seq
 230689308     gbest113.seq
 230688965     gbest114.seq
 230687786     gbest115.seq
 230688420     gbest116.seq
 230688794     gbest117.seq
 230688630     gbest118.seq
 230689897     gbest119.seq
 230689538     gbest12.seq
 230689741     gbest120.seq
 230690259     gbest121.seq
 227386065     gbest122.seq
 230688987     gbest123.seq
 230687970     gbest124.seq
 230687843     gbest125.seq
 230688353     gbest126.seq
 230690899     gbest127.seq
 230687885     gbest128.seq
 230688640     gbest129.seq
 230688516     gbest13.seq
 230690464     gbest130.seq
 230689539     gbest131.seq
 230688373     gbest132.seq
 230690038     gbest133.seq
 230689466     gbest134.seq
 230689280     gbest135.seq
 230688038     gbest136.seq
 230688021     gbest137.seq
 230689225     gbest138.seq
 230687668     gbest139.seq
 230690305     gbest14.seq
 230689041     gbest140.seq
 230688123     gbest141.seq
 230688135     gbest142.seq
 230687674     gbest143.seq
 230687815     gbest144.seq
 230689936     gbest145.seq
 230689526     gbest146.seq
 230690234     gbest147.seq
 230689936     gbest148.seq
 230689435     gbest149.seq
 230687482     gbest15.seq
 230690033     gbest150.seq
 230688337     gbest151.seq
 230687954     gbest152.seq
 230690490     gbest153.seq
 230689499     gbest154.seq
 230689598     gbest155.seq
 230688536     gbest156.seq
 230687817     gbest157.seq
 230689365     gbest158.seq
 230688008     gbest159.seq
 230689681     gbest16.seq
 230689359     gbest160.seq
 230690397     gbest161.seq
 230688727     gbest162.seq
 230688614     gbest163.seq
 230689536     gbest164.seq
 230690680     gbest165.seq
 230690223     gbest166.seq
 230688880     gbest167.seq
 230689615     gbest168.seq
 230688882     gbest169.seq
 230687854     gbest17.seq
 230689870     gbest170.seq
 230687506     gbest171.seq
 230689918     gbest172.seq
 230688985     gbest173.seq
 230688029     gbest174.seq
 230689210     gbest175.seq
 230688021     gbest176.seq
 230687588     gbest177.seq
 230689743     gbest178.seq
 230690491     gbest179.seq
 230689334     gbest18.seq
 230687925     gbest180.seq
 230692096     gbest181.seq
 230690430     gbest182.seq
 230690296     gbest183.seq
 230687876     gbest184.seq
 230689187     gbest185.seq
 230687492     gbest186.seq
 230689098     gbest187.seq
 230688433     gbest188.seq
 230688751     gbest189.seq
 230688044     gbest19.seq
 230689004     gbest190.seq
 230688167     gbest191.seq
 230689399     gbest192.seq
 230687694     gbest193.seq
 230688569     gbest194.seq
 230688723     gbest195.seq
 230688915     gbest196.seq
 230688537     gbest197.seq
 182887227     gbest198.seq
 162781913     gbest199.seq
 230689481     gbest2.seq
 230688911     gbest20.seq
 164579892     gbest200.seq
 171249428     gbest201.seq
 170057136     gbest202.seq
 163628472     gbest203.seq
 165291153     gbest204.seq
 164854113     gbest205.seq
 164291070     gbest206.seq
 164799143     gbest207.seq
 164292460     gbest208.seq
 164366770     gbest209.seq
 230691097     gbest21.seq
 163139364     gbest210.seq
 168455927     gbest211.seq
 162565128     gbest212.seq
 163457088     gbest213.seq
 167703005     gbest214.seq
 167784785     gbest215.seq
 166057687     gbest216.seq
 165914389     gbest217.seq
 165545769     gbest218.seq
 165360467     gbest219.seq
 230688777     gbest22.seq
 164467500     gbest220.seq
 164429059     gbest221.seq
 165386851     gbest222.seq
 165645870     gbest223.seq
 180991305     gbest224.seq
 172051519     gbest225.seq
 191048622     gbest226.seq
 230687664     gbest227.seq
 230690547     gbest228.seq
 230687769     gbest229.seq
 230689482     gbest23.seq
 230687642     gbest230.seq
 230688561     gbest231.seq
 230689195     gbest232.seq
 230690905     gbest233.seq
 230690028     gbest234.seq
 230689396     gbest235.seq
 230688176     gbest236.seq
 230689046     gbest237.seq
 230687623     gbest238.seq
 230688646     gbest239.seq
 230689806     gbest24.seq
 230689003     gbest240.seq
 230687733     gbest241.seq
 230689375     gbest242.seq
 230688099     gbest243.seq
 230689273     gbest244.seq
 230690410     gbest245.seq
 230689065     gbest246.seq
 230688210     gbest247.seq
 230689345     gbest248.seq
 230688710     gbest249.seq
 230689492     gbest25.seq
 230690407     gbest250.seq
 230689253     gbest251.seq
 230690689     gbest252.seq
 230689187     gbest253.seq
 215755617     gbest254.seq
 206864880     gbest255.seq
 230689998     gbest256.seq
 230689687     gbest257.seq
 230690230     gbest258.seq
 230688111     gbest259.seq
 230688183     gbest26.seq
 230691134     gbest260.seq
 230687570     gbest261.seq
 230687863     gbest262.seq
 230688441     gbest263.seq
 230688804     gbest264.seq
 230687916     gbest265.seq
 230688200     gbest266.seq
 230689054     gbest267.seq
 230688453     gbest268.seq
 230688125     gbest269.seq
 230687856     gbest27.seq
 230688385     gbest270.seq
 230689691     gbest271.seq
 230689600     gbest272.seq
 230689316     gbest273.seq
 230690528     gbest274.seq
 230687989     gbest275.seq
 230688414     gbest276.seq
 230688946     gbest277.seq
 230688981     gbest278.seq
 230689904     gbest279.seq
 230688774     gbest28.seq
 230689190     gbest280.seq
 230690611     gbest281.seq
 230689840     gbest282.seq
 230688770     gbest283.seq
 230690161     gbest284.seq
 230689604     gbest285.seq
 228922116     gbest286.seq
 230689636     gbest287.seq
 110068416     gbest288.seq
 230688903     gbest29.seq
 230689555     gbest3.seq
 230688452     gbest30.seq
 230689061     gbest31.seq
 230687986     gbest32.seq
 230687475     gbest33.seq
 230689393     gbest34.seq
 230689132     gbest35.seq
 219831654     gbest36.seq
 191000458     gbest37.seq
 191066784     gbest38.seq
 217458839     gbest39.seq
 230687893     gbest4.seq
 216114605     gbest40.seq
 215865489     gbest41.seq
 216826611     gbest42.seq
 230689215     gbest43.seq
 230687826     gbest44.seq
 221152300     gbest45.seq
 230689323     gbest46.seq
 230689759     gbest47.seq
 230689957     gbest48.seq
 230688163     gbest49.seq
 163953101     gbest5.seq
 230688016     gbest50.seq
 230687507     gbest51.seq
 230688246     gbest52.seq
 230689499     gbest53.seq
 230688033     gbest54.seq
 230688380     gbest55.seq
 230688940     gbest56.seq
 230691538     gbest57.seq
 230688274     gbest58.seq
 230688693     gbest59.seq
 180627895     gbest6.seq
 230688987     gbest60.seq
 228408426     gbest61.seq
 209721585     gbest62.seq
 209056234     gbest63.seq
 208758953     gbest64.seq
 209081321     gbest65.seq
 210334307     gbest66.seq
 209639776     gbest67.seq
 208429821     gbest68.seq
 209491508     gbest69.seq
 230688387     gbest7.seq
 210378169     gbest70.seq
 206013265     gbest71.seq
 206869956     gbest72.seq
 207980746     gbest73.seq
 208363776     gbest74.seq
 216532936     gbest75.seq
 230688554     gbest76.seq
 230687943     gbest77.seq
 230690681     gbest78.seq
 214987369     gbest79.seq
 230687664     gbest8.seq
 214787179     gbest80.seq
 217176379     gbest81.seq
 230688571     gbest82.seq
 230688033     gbest83.seq
 230687593     gbest84.seq
 230687751     gbest85.seq
 230688242     gbest86.seq
 230690297     gbest87.seq
 230690299     gbest88.seq
 230688959     gbest89.seq
 230689042     gbest9.seq
 230689950     gbest90.seq
 230689223     gbest91.seq
 230690370     gbest92.seq
 230688621     gbest93.seq
 230690896     gbest94.seq
 230689447     gbest95.seq
 230690181     gbest96.seq
 230690779     gbest97.seq
 230687513     gbest98.seq
 230690177     gbest99.seq
 230688043     gbgss1.seq
 230688142     gbgss10.seq
 230688992     gbgss11.seq
 230687493     gbgss12.seq
 230690270     gbgss13.seq
 230690054     gbgss14.seq
 230689860     gbgss15.seq
 230689442     gbgss16.seq
 230688334     gbgss17.seq
 230688247     gbgss18.seq
 230688473     gbgss19.seq
 230689845     gbgss2.seq
 230690098     gbgss20.seq
 230687629     gbgss21.seq
 230690126     gbgss22.seq
 230689189     gbgss23.seq
 230689063     gbgss24.seq
 230690864     gbgss25.seq
 230688874     gbgss26.seq
 230687909     gbgss27.seq
 230688409     gbgss28.seq
 230689769     gbgss29.seq
 230687456     gbgss3.seq
 230689089     gbgss30.seq
 230689234     gbgss31.seq
 230688509     gbgss32.seq
 230688224     gbgss33.seq
 230688282     gbgss34.seq
 230688217     gbgss35.seq
 230688209     gbgss36.seq
 230689041     gbgss37.seq
 230687677     gbgss38.seq
 230688684     gbgss39.seq
 230688361     gbgss4.seq
 230688597     gbgss40.seq
 230687472     gbgss41.seq
 230689367     gbgss42.seq
 230690184     gbgss43.seq
 230688307     gbgss44.seq
 230689515     gbgss45.seq
 230687904     gbgss46.seq
 230690100     gbgss47.seq
 230688426     gbgss48.seq
 230688163     gbgss49.seq
 230689050     gbgss5.seq
 230687794     gbgss50.seq
 230689480     gbgss51.seq
 230687464     gbgss52.seq
 230688772     gbgss53.seq
 230689010     gbgss54.seq
 230687463     gbgss55.seq
 230688225     gbgss56.seq
 230690221     gbgss57.seq
 230688067     gbgss58.seq
 230690285     gbgss59.seq
 230689236     gbgss6.seq
 230688815     gbgss60.seq
 230226302     gbgss61.seq
 230689005     gbgss62.seq
 230689219     gbgss63.seq
 230687844     gbgss64.seq
 230688656     gbgss65.seq
 230688644     gbgss66.seq
 230689248     gbgss67.seq
 230688054     gbgss68.seq
 230688437     gbgss69.seq
 230689770     gbgss7.seq
 230689774     gbgss70.seq
 230689239     gbgss71.seq
 230688799     gbgss72.seq
 230687530     gbgss73.seq
 230689397     gbgss74.seq
 230687941     gbgss75.seq
 230688448     gbgss76.seq
 230687657     gbgss77.seq
 230688188     gbgss78.seq
 230688376     gbgss79.seq
 230689005     gbgss8.seq
 210922015     gbgss80.seq
 193628552     gbgss81.seq
 209773190     gbgss82.seq
 230688256     gbgss83.seq
 230688490     gbgss84.seq
 230689160     gbgss85.seq
 148316899     gbgss86.seq
 250002029     gbgss87.seq
 250002123     gbgss88.seq
 250001004     gbgss89.seq
 230690539     gbgss9.seq
 250002371     gbgss90.seq
 250001587     gbgss91.seq
 250002093     gbgss92.seq
 250001522     gbgss93.seq
 250001611     gbgss94.seq
 250000550     gbgss95.seq
 250001252     gbgss96.seq
 250002409     gbgss97.seq
  45635786     gbgss98.seq
 250006571     gbhtc1.seq
 250002390     gbhtc2.seq
 244577070     gbhtc3.seq
 250008840     gbhtg1.seq
 250166362     gbhtg10.seq
 250044806     gbhtg11.seq
 250080583     gbhtg12.seq
 250298050     gbhtg13.seq
 250026120     gbhtg14.seq
 250139209     gbhtg15.seq
 250193838     gbhtg16.seq
 250288166     gbhtg17.seq
 250009470     gbhtg18.seq
 250005700     gbhtg19.seq
 250006229     gbhtg2.seq
 250160745     gbhtg20.seq
 250336292     gbhtg21.seq
 250233923     gbhtg22.seq
 250161994     gbhtg23.seq
 250159718     gbhtg24.seq
 250205563     gbhtg25.seq
 250157649     gbhtg26.seq
 250110610     gbhtg27.seq
 250108885     gbhtg28.seq
 250153833     gbhtg29.seq
 250054059     gbhtg3.seq
 250215003     gbhtg30.seq
 250168384     gbhtg31.seq
 250231774     gbhtg32.seq
 250042107     gbhtg33.seq
 250196389     gbhtg34.seq
 250126292     gbhtg35.seq
 250142088     gbhtg36.seq
 250189837     gbhtg37.seq
 250034836     gbhtg38.seq
 250075363     gbhtg39.seq
 250099764     gbhtg4.seq
 250276450     gbhtg40.seq
 250027038     gbhtg41.seq
 250520501     gbhtg42.seq
 250090376     gbhtg43.seq
 250225313     gbhtg44.seq
 250208844     gbhtg45.seq
 250116701     gbhtg46.seq
 250014361     gbhtg47.seq
 250166247     gbhtg48.seq
 250059473     gbhtg49.seq
 250124026     gbhtg5.seq
 250118844     gbhtg50.seq
 250106775     gbhtg51.seq
 250092012     gbhtg52.seq
 250129183     gbhtg53.seq
 250064907     gbhtg54.seq
 250038267     gbhtg55.seq
 250087476     gbhtg56.seq
 250047020     gbhtg57.seq
 250179263     gbhtg58.seq
 250219896     gbhtg59.seq
 250005656     gbhtg6.seq
 250229226     gbhtg60.seq
 188848586     gbhtg61.seq
 250003183     gbhtg7.seq
 250015116     gbhtg8.seq
 250012079     gbhtg9.seq
 250128772     gbinv1.seq
 250216616     gbinv2.seq
 250000624     gbinv3.seq
 250001535     gbinv4.seq
 250000948     gbinv5.seq
 109447046     gbinv6.seq
 200381238     gbmam.seq
 250000210     gbpat1.seq
 250000520     gbpat10.seq
   8387836     gbpat11.seq
 250001521     gbpat2.seq
 250001539     gbpat3.seq
 250002273     gbpat4.seq
 250000533     gbpat5.seq
 250000010     gbpat6.seq
 250000945     gbpat7.seq
 250001134     gbpat8.seq
 250000274     gbpat9.seq
  28651544     gbphg.seq
 250174548     gbpln1.seq
 165832499     gbpln10.seq
 250000137     gbpln2.seq
 250001287     gbpln3.seq
 250005241     gbpln4.seq
 250047732     gbpln5.seq
 250004177     gbpln6.seq
 250002848     gbpln7.seq
 250051024     gbpln8.seq
 250002141     gbpln9.seq
 250246311     gbpri1.seq
 250093772     gbpri10.seq
 250011202     gbpri11.seq
 250023045     gbpri12.seq
 250115139     gbpri13.seq
 250025501     gbpri14.seq
 250002982     gbpri15.seq
 250153913     gbpri16.seq
 250061598     gbpri17.seq
 250042066     gbpri18.seq
 250025460     gbpri19.seq
 250126936     gbpri2.seq
 250088024     gbpri20.seq
 250001093     gbpri21.seq
 250179050     gbpri22.seq
 250096861     gbpri23.seq
 250268624     gbpri24.seq
 250001734     gbpri25.seq
 250001345     gbpri26.seq
  27987878     gbpri27.seq
 250195554     gbpri3.seq
 250219618     gbpri4.seq
 250072432     gbpri5.seq
 250087450     gbpri6.seq
 250201022     gbpri7.seq
 250248490     gbpri8.seq
 250178925     gbpri9.seq
    158307     gbrel.txt
 250210714     gbrod1.seq
 250005138     gbrod10.seq
  41316139     gbrod11.seq
 250179518     gbrod2.seq
 250027012     gbrod3.seq
 250146868     gbrod4.seq
 250000645     gbrod5.seq
 250062448     gbrod6.seq
 250092877     gbrod7.seq
 250147200     gbrod8.seq
 250002434     gbrod9.seq
 250002078     gbsts1.seq
 250001990     gbsts2.seq
 217287149     gbsts3.seq
  48436528     gbsyn.seq
   2491741     gbuna.seq
 250243966     gbvrl1.seq
 250001372     gbvrl2.seq
 217246116     gbvrl3.seq
 250115067     gbvrt1.seq
 250002699     gbvrt2.seq
 250068931     gbvrt3.seq
 123814772     gbvrt4.seq

2.2.6 Per-Division Statistics 

  The following table provides a per-division breakdown of the number of
sequence entries and the total number of bases of DNA/RNA in each sequence
data file:

Division     Entries    Bases

BCT1         26380      99249869
BCT2         8384       106859371
BCT3         20293      106223735
BCT4         52141      90070453
BCT5         14313      111331543
BCT6         41267      91468937
BCT7         35470      93049369
BCT8         23971      49740348
EST1         68591      26476165
EST10        76943      29967226
EST100       69341      28754642
EST101       71190      32729094
EST102       64367      33735961
EST103       68154      40358277
EST104       72279      47626480
EST105       75885      30846636
EST106       74837      32358980
EST107       75668      26890413
EST108       74107      35062873
EST109       66448      35611722
EST11        76425      28998080
EST110       77204      41935257
EST111       79796      44891764
EST112       73584      48641426
EST113       68396      40755702
EST114       72632      49396617
EST115       70850      44538173
EST116       72319      45972673
EST117       76169      42383176
EST118       74726      48475049
EST119       74913      49905218
EST12        77095      30814241
EST120       72141      46860131
EST121       79912      42327516
EST122       74981      24347733
EST123       82977      45917725
EST124       75525      43869895
EST125       72559      43329322
EST126       65957      32234556
EST127       69672      39335810
EST128       66905      36912153
EST129       68704      40881181
EST13        77769      29965427
EST130       71860      40831802
EST131       71707      45774209
EST132       69030      41919739
EST133       73433      39669059
EST134       69270      43302477
EST135       59441      34474966
EST136       93304      50409946
EST137       93311      53249300
EST138       73458      38207355
EST139       107589     57065470
EST14        79949      32055253
EST140       108963     59435446
EST141       98201      54212650
EST142       73936      44894417
EST143       74200      44589918
EST144       68602      33817484
EST145       64478      29707512
EST146       54215      24721595
EST147       65923      32131363
EST148       61212      30906018
EST149       68933      36566836
EST15        73036      30951410
EST150       70704      50798628
EST151       67799      47144294
EST152       80305      46658119
EST153       58343      30146947
EST154       63930      32601078
EST155       67906      39502020
EST156       64977      43463596
EST157       62854      38201073
EST158       96010      50645408
EST159       71730      40476788
EST16        75620      33234360
EST160       69077      43440842
EST161       64184      36953877
EST162       64941      42474558
EST163       68469      30992442
EST164       76658      31899833
EST165       70906      44559428
EST166       83023      41201771
EST167       62292      32419403
EST168       68158      49238105
EST169       71253      46357841
EST17        84057      34404115
EST170       68003      36730030
EST171       68124      44933022
EST172       70783      54584128
EST173       69449      34089734
EST174       71975      41443192
EST175       70436      60282070
EST176       66063      49229239
EST177       64235      46750483
EST178       63749      47260124
EST179       65745      45809978
EST18        80496      32532561
EST180       65820      48144585
EST181       64012      46081522
EST182       63310      37778282
EST183       62313      34669326
EST184       67023      38780153
EST185       82571      48318486
EST186       83436      53881720
EST187       77932      45602607
EST188       106506     66214545
EST189       108923     65285069
EST19        81094      33688514
EST190       99436      59577309
EST191       69489      37946054
EST192       68535      62257982
EST193       67426      69499438
EST194       76395      51837182
EST195       81073      40302133
EST196       75992      51683242
EST197       72636      50882204
EST198       35987      16916727
EST199       27862      10618053
EST2         75366      28937064
EST20        72962      29247414
EST200       27560      10194708
EST201       26406      9686100
EST202       26692      8984315
EST203       27714      10078294
EST204       27268      9891517
EST205       27256      9837773
EST206       27367      10496968
EST207       27181      12050980
EST208       27289      11180426
EST209       27413      10045564
EST21        73105      34077863
EST210       27686      9279098
EST211       26941      9390066
EST212       27874      11333335
EST213       27768      10888877
EST214       27029      11358404
EST215       26738      12034610
EST216       27142      11275530
EST217       27100      10911889
EST218       27093      11703118
EST219       27218      11584024
EST22        77080      30678667
EST220       27330      10973496
EST221       27323      10875872
EST222       27219      10487351
EST223       27162      11786002
EST224       24456      17199797
EST225       25888      17322552
EST226       53086      21692451
EST227       104266     41836886
EST228       75360      44533307
EST229       69672      45179567
EST23        77194      32079941
EST230       70315      44901454
EST231       70983      44040442
EST232       74206      44089518
EST233       68648      39789356
EST234       69997      42894915
EST235       60134      31023831
EST236       102663     48054300
EST237       85574      45115904
EST238       72286      37931217
EST239       66282      31778420
EST24        75829      34358482
EST240       66749      43257619
EST241       72461      34860577
EST242       70976      33541128
EST243       76795      46572401
EST244       62625      35595509
EST245       67389      38153798
EST246       79118      41147523
EST247       82034      46405098
EST248       83893      55942782
EST249       84141      53971868
EST25        72844      30987758
EST250       111072     49726670
EST251       78507      44512121
EST252       73520      44237633
EST253       73645      40802256
EST254       69561      33573583
EST255       69930      27184801
EST256       66803      40826950
EST257       63099      35893900
EST258       68864      43582636
EST259       70488      40456622
EST26        76457      31468003
EST260       60767      43302475
EST261       68231      35701917
EST262       80458      41557870
EST263       78659      47135646
EST264       104631     57680093
EST265       124186     46116325
EST266       74569      37580015
EST267       68335      35544096
EST268       70037      46754806
EST269       83484      40986622
EST27        78925      34844439
EST270       70967      42074340
EST271       69098      43358623
EST272       60353      37768416
EST273       52900      27678900
EST274       59574      38062432
EST275       67064      37445352
EST276       71409      41822159
EST277       70009      42234137
EST278       74594      48765215
EST279       65047      52259823
EST28        107288     51509299
EST280       69151      44144688
EST281       93365      30325635
EST282       70292      25014415
EST283       74058      27839375
EST284       74581      26331191
EST285       79192      27201074
EST286       74917      27009634
EST287       69390      29604380
EST288       39047      13510927
EST29        68770      47384135
EST3         74213      30128080
EST30        70345      62839381
EST31        85723      48992155
EST32        85156      43744801
EST33        94511      46089642
EST34        99851      48704651
EST35        99132      50008794
EST36        91456      33314270
EST37        69406      18547734
EST38        69164      18514497
EST39        60886      18660865
EST4         74631      28188475
EST40        43604      11936693
EST41        43208      11875950
EST42        43112      11404183
EST43        82039      34213954
EST44        96003      43614341
EST45        90160      47068911
EST46        85266      40017023
EST47        107328     56577890
EST48        94282      45766846
EST49        76490      32584145
EST5         48531      15367560
EST50        68905      30433264
EST51        71333      30868286
EST52        73124      30633295
EST53        83588      33908865
EST54        74695      28999153
EST55        64059      27797192
EST56        71855      31343873
EST57        76563      36158846
EST58        73376      32117427
EST59        76358      27485531
EST6         56366      18273716
EST60        79540      31064855
EST61        72309      31386019
EST62        40191      11452559
EST63        40244      11440531
EST64        40406      12651255
EST65        40661      12290499
EST66        40629      12550066
EST67        40564      12902779
EST68        40569      12450676
EST69        40350      12217778
EST7         74709      29419404
EST70        40442      12388885
EST71        41265      12193728
EST72        41320      12571853
EST73        41283      13095819
EST74        41083      12969855
EST75        43981      12429669
EST76        43154      20970193
EST77        41151      24280144
EST78        42774      18043607
EST79        50642      22578508
EST8         76832      30878934
EST80        51222      21232594
EST81        49948      21452170
EST82        75545      32578061
EST83        74012      29017338
EST84        72980      30680260
EST85        77701      45050110
EST86        78355      41481232
EST87        76560      40500891
EST88        78533      38163942
EST89        70096      40767143
EST9         77952      30113680
EST90        74823      35571039
EST91        75157      38139223
EST92        70685      37010166
EST93        77913      50762296
EST94        67448      35023356
EST95        72423      36504398
EST96        72733      39419851
EST97        74028      44067788
EST98        68667      44843602
EST99        75147      43282326
GSS1         91455      39165311
GSS10        75660      44072177
GSS11        68964      35420101
GSS12        74457      39018254
GSS13        74910      37710061
GSS14        72454      32463546
GSS15        73355      37024223
GSS16        75390      44109985
GSS17        70475      32456657
GSS18        57548      29253320
GSS19        57673      28885434
GSS2         89843      39733291
GSS20        58929      25618167
GSS21        63534      38179096
GSS22        63602      30392308
GSS23        58737      29508342
GSS24        71990      43456291
GSS25        63398      24735170
GSS26        58339      27111604
GSS27        74949      35104064
GSS28        56777      31075838
GSS29        90589      43025051
GSS3         88179      42087134
GSS30        78227      40651576
GSS31        74139      43655692
GSS32        71168      44018015
GSS33        81573      39697122
GSS34        76615      40893012
GSS35        81418      47069497
GSS36        94342      62703201
GSS37        90286      51469221
GSS38        94122      57628036
GSS39        83894      37573730
GSS4         79640      41461659
GSS40        86678      36794375
GSS41        82321      49399498
GSS42        81111      57532835
GSS43        74993      51608562
GSS44        72792      48088640
GSS45        72910      47877939
GSS46        81013      39438036
GSS47        83557      52531292
GSS48        91955      64575445
GSS49        80943      60677697
GSS5         79616      41029577
GSS50        92986      56659147
GSS51        89169      58069888
GSS52        79361      48360423
GSS53        72164      37430567
GSS54        88767      52758453
GSS55        88007      54809749
GSS56        79813      61888500
GSS57        72150      79105921
GSS58        83679      71214935
GSS59        91403      63842563
GSS6         78380      39015012
GSS60        65696      44273123
GSS61        64729      44747300
GSS62        88373      65753249
GSS63        87115      61834504
GSS64        84336      50959674
GSS65        86893      56736608
GSS66        95930      60070527
GSS67        101325     54184964
GSS68        100838     54799266
GSS69        101640     53787757
GSS7         77306      39691808
GSS70        102926     52163988
GSS71        102692     52459138
GSS72        102631     52536048
GSS73        102659     52498649
GSS74        100709     54963027
GSS75        90280      68613582
GSS76        89844      70764422
GSS77        88651      69975549
GSS78        88107      69871995
GSS79        88207      62023905
GSS8         77095      38156969
GSS80        85056      35202445
GSS81        79037      24615719
GSS82        85035      32618408
GSS83        82215      50775231
GSS84        79298      44028073
GSS85        88443      61413527
GSS86        52905      33279882
GSS87        87880      66457089
GSS88        84727      63659853
GSS89        95471      40120697
GSS9         72888      37430595
GSS90        91333      65913779
GSS91        101404     57322380
GSS92        81613      56884934
GSS93        72129      59966777
GSS94        69660      58567384
GSS95        65577      62868967
GSS96        75263      53976574
GSS97        111327     54235748
GSS98        17826      7823114
HTC1         31801      54897459
HTC2         30889      66883801
HTC3         86401      77342266
HTG1         1329       190522391
HTG10        1238       189369264
HTG11        1417       187275912
HTG12        964        192243242
HTG13        756        192601183
HTG14        738        192458892
HTG15        764        192464209
HTG16        810        192330857
HTG17        776        192642295
HTG18        1552       184780839
HTG19        1492       184943993
HTG2         2543       188226911
HTG20        895        191410729
HTG21        1233       188735399
HTG22        811        192059488
HTG23        908        191388116
HTG24        911        191479312
HTG25        899        191657228
HTG26        851        191701705
HTG27        775        192360295
HTG28        895        191597510
HTG29        859        191879528
HTG3         2495       188024469
HTG30        940        191401823
HTG31        961        191189755
HTG32        976        191021979
HTG33        921        191422734
HTG34        975        190989299
HTG35        922        191627587
HTG36        866        192189000
HTG37        1071       190783518
HTG38        884        191659562
HTG39        862        192162435
HTG4         2539       189859059
HTG40        831        192114717
HTG41        882        191695489
HTG42        950        191613239
HTG43        956        191616694
HTG44        944        192070305
HTG45        965        191511193
HTG46        1093       190849062
HTG47        1235       189101525
HTG48        1171       190683463
HTG49        1216       190178341
HTG5         1290       188379387
HTG50        1106       191726702
HTG51        1145       189921586
HTG52        1100       191662615
HTG53        1223       191602053
HTG54        1223       192122569
HTG55        1197       191800923
HTG56        1114       192801498
HTG57        1231       191038839
HTG58        1139       194127886
HTG59        1030       194393102
HTG6         1288       187853361
HTG60        1006       194302720
HTG61        860        141476856
HTG7         1254       188112210
HTG8         1296       187616983
HTG9         1206       189361323
INV1         11252      171431351
INV2         1295       166768299
INV3         58718      91553238
INV4         71185      77379063
INV5         36096      116014574
INV6         17621      47931616
MAM          55725      73927488
PAT1         223017     70308041
PAT10        148284     55021937
PAT11        8432       2206327
PAT2         199882     89311853
PAT3         150295     96409629
PAT4         136235     96382326
PAT5         129132     104105977
PAT6         126769     103666691
PAT7         142545     85745658
PAT8         121915     50254333
PAT9         96917      61632090
PHG          2439       11135726
PLN1         24880      134123545
PLN10        27926      67720731
PLN2         25179      147964544
PLN3         77796      77173013
PLN4         51950      54489684
PLN5         19104      103432304
PLN6         3821       165470833
PLN7         60961      63370847
PLN8         63485      88324955
PLN9         44252      114271268
PRI1         15903      153342547
PRI10        1399       175643335
PRI11        1278       175514402
PRI12        1507       175071488
PRI13        1578       178944606
PRI14        2833       182359567
PRI15        44216      118908769
PRI16        30638      126623351
PRI17        1609       178975648
PRI18        1667       181092764
PRI19        1958       183344455
PRI2         1420       173125564
PRI20        2038       190118711
PRI21        18199      159569107
PRI22        34717      80299798
PRI23        9480       176501446
PRI24        24112      145301925
PRI25        44073      122881887
PRI26        54096      105129455
PRI27        7755       10609152
PRI3         1255       181935639
PRI4         1293       178208936
PRI5         1143       173792971
PRI6         1208       178983844
PRI7         1209       177211599
PRI8         1331       169207324
PRI9         1229       177840174
ROD1         7390       172280417
ROD10        39486      119066157
ROD11        10893      14371109
ROD2         889        176007852
ROD3         973        179975237
ROD4         994        180792503
ROD5         14159      164840407
ROD6         12642      173625208
ROD7         1193       193084807
ROD8         1257       193801302
ROD9         29954      109283780
STS1         88832      48173662
STS2         89017      36560822
STS3         79990      35799396
SYN          11058      18372752
UNA          1116       417623
VRL1         73048      65381277
VRL2         74522      64878821
VRL3         63411      59817105
VRT1         63234      90501516
VRT2         25014      152269103
VRT3         14228      157467710
VRT4         25026      57222271

2.2.7 Selected Per-Organism Statistics 

  The following table provides the number of entries and bases of DNA/RNA for
the twenty most sequenced organisms in Release 139.0 (chloroplast and mitochon-
drial sequences not included, and Whole Genome Shotgun sequences not included) :

Entries       Bases   Species

7152768 10307972332   Homo sapiens
5440187  6293834876   Mus musculus
843877   5553994470   Rattus norvegicus
569066   1186984387   Danio rerio
1700546  1060366537   Zea mays
266693    714394030   Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group)
361257    697671246   Drosophila melanogaster
887467    508114342   Canis familiaris
596909    503066134   Gallus gallus
589739    424174855   Arabidopsis thaliana
595964    403835636   Brassica oleracea
650813    396135104   Bos taurus
175582    385807223   Pan troglodytes
25432     337349532   Macaca mulatta
553918    303123150   Triticum aestivum
499249    294204103   Ciona intestinalis
250141    237196637   Medicago truncatula
222595    233083018   Caenorhabditis elegans
364210    232049749   Xenopus laevis
324322    211144144   Zea mays subsp. mays
297857    210279451   Silurana tropicalis

2.2.8 Growth of GenBank

  The following table lists the number of bases and the number of sequence
records in each release of GenBank, beginning with Release 3 in 1982.
From 1982 to the present, the number of bases in GenBank has doubled
approximately every 14 months.

Release      Date     Base Pairs   Entries

    3    Dec 1982         680338       606
   14    Nov 1983        2274029      2427
   20    May 1984        3002088      3665
   24    Sep 1984        3323270      4135
   25    Oct 1984        3368765      4175
   26    Nov 1984        3689752      4393
   32    May 1985        4211931      4954
   36    Sep 1985        5204420      5700
   40    Feb 1986        5925429      6642
   42    May 1986        6765476      7416
   44    Aug 1986        8442357      8823
   46    Nov 1986        9615371      9978
   48    Feb 1987       10961380     10913
   50    May 1987       13048473     12534
   52    Aug 1987       14855145     14020
   53    Sep 1987       15514776     14584
   54    Dec 1987       16752872     15465
   55    Mar 1988       19156002     17047
   56    Jun 1988       20795279     18226
   57    Sep 1988       22019698     19044
   57.1  Oct 1988       23800000     20579
   58    Dec 1988       24690876     21248
   59    Mar 1989       26382491     22479
   60    Jun 1989       31808784     26317
   61    Sep 1989       34762585     28791
   62    Dec 1989       37183950     31229
   63    Mar 1990       40127752     33377
   64    Jun 1990       42495893     35100
   65    Sep 1990       49179285     39533
   66    Dec 1990       51306092     41057
   67    Mar 1991       55169276     43903
   68    Jun 1991       65868799     51418
   69    Sep 1991       71947426     55627
   70    Dec 1991       77337678     58952
   71    Mar 1992       83894652     65100
   72    Jun 1992       92160761     71280
   73    Sep 1992      101008486     78608
   74    Dec 1992      120242234     97084
   75    Feb 1993      126212259    106684
   76    Apr 1993      129968355    111911
   77    Jun 1993      138904393    120134
   78    Aug 1993      147215633    131328
   79    Oct 1993      157152442    143492
   80    Dec 1993      163802597    150744
   81    Feb 1994      173261500    162946
   82    Apr 1994      180589455    169896
   83    Jun 1994      191393939    182753
   84    Aug 1994      201815802    196703
   85    Oct 1994      217102462    215273
   86    Dec 1994      230485928    237775
   87    Feb 1995      248499214    269478
   88    Apr 1995      286094556    352414
   89    Jun 1995      318624568    425211
   90    Aug 1995      353713490    492483
   91    Oct 1995      384939485    555694
   92    Dec 1995      425860958    620765
   93    Feb 1996      463758833    685693
   94    Apr 1996      499127741    744295
   95    Jun 1996      551750920    835487
   96    Aug 1996      602072354    920588
   97    Oct 1996      651972984    1021211
   98    Dec 1996      730552938    1114581
   99    Feb 1997      786898138    1192505
   100   Apr 1997      842864309    1274747
   101   Jun 1997      966993087    1491069
   102   Aug 1997     1053474516    1610848
   103   Oct 1997     1160300687    1765847
   104   Dec 1997     1258290513    1891953
   105   Feb 1998     1372368913    2042325
   106   Apr 1998     1502542306    2209232
   107   Jun 1998     1622041465    2355928
   108   Aug 1998     1797137713    2532359
   109   Oct 1998     2008761784    2837897
   110   Dec 1998     2162067871    3043729
   111   Apr 1999     2569578208    3525418
   112   Jun 1999     2974791993    4028171
   113   Aug 1999     3400237391    4610118
   114   Oct 1999     3841163011    4864570
   115   Dec 1999     4653932745    5354511
   116   Feb 2000     5805414935    5691170
   117   Apr 2000     7376080723    6215002
   118   Jun 2000     8604221980    7077491
   119   Aug 2000     9545724824    8214339
   120   Oct 2000    10335692655    9102634
   121   Dec 2000    11101066288    10106023
   122   Feb 2001    11720120326    10896781
   123   Apr 2001    12418544023    11545572
   124   Jun 2001    12973707065    12243766
   125   Aug 2001    13543364296    12813516
   126   Oct 2001    14396883064    13602262
   127   Dec 2001    15849921438    14976310
   128   Feb 2002    17089143893    15465325
   129   Apr 2002    19072679701    16769983
   130   Jun 2002    20648748345    17471130
   131   Aug 2002    22616937182    18197119
   132   Oct 2002    26525934656    19808101
   133   Dec 2002    28507990166    22318883
   134   Feb 2003    29358082791    23035823
   135   Apr 2003    31099264455    24027936
   136   Jun 2003    32528249295    25592865
   137   Aug 2003    33865022251    27213748
   138   Oct 2003    35599621471    29819397
   139   Dec 2003    36553368485    30968418

3. FILE FORMATS

  The flat file examples included in this section, while not always from the
current release, are usually fairly recent.  Any differences compared to the
actual records are the result of updates to the entries involved.

3.1 File Header Information

  With the exception of the index files, gbcon.seq, and the lists of new,
changed, and deleted accession numbers, each of the 570 files of a GenBank
release begins with the same header, except for the first line, which
contains the file name, and the sixth line, which contains the title of
the file. The first line of the file contains the file name in character
positions 1 to 9 and the full database name (Genetic Sequence Data Bank,
aka 'GenBank') starting in column 22. The brief names of the files in this
release are listed in section 2.2.

  The second line contains the date of the current release in the form
`day month year', beginning in position 27. The fourth line contains
the current GenBank release number. The release number appears in
positions 48 to 52 and consists of three numbers separated by a decimal
point. The number to the left of the decimal is the major release
number. The digit to the right of the decimal indicates the version of
the major release; it is zero for the first version. The sixth line
contains a title for the file. The eighth line lists the number of
entries (loci), number of bases (or base pairs), and number of reports
of sequences (equal to number of entries in this case). These numbers are
right-justified at fixed positions. The number of entries appears in
positions 1 to 8, the number of bases in positions 16 to 26, and the
number of reports in positions 40 to 47. The third, fifth, seventh, and
ninth lines are blank.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
GBBCT1.SEQ           Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                          15 April 2003

                NCBI-GenBank Flat File Release 139.0

                        Bacterial Sequences (Part 1)

   37811 loci,    97585608 bases, from    37811 reported sequences

---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 1. Sample File Header


3.2 Directory Files

3.2.1 Short Directory File

  The short directory file contains brief descriptions of all of the
sequence entries contained in this release. These descriptions are in
fifteen groups, one group for each of the fifteen sequence entry
data files. The first record at the beginning of a group of entries
contains the name of the group in uppercase characters, beginning in
position 21. The organism groups are PRIMATE, RODENT, OTHER MAMMAL,
OTHER VERTEBRATE, INVERTEBRATE, PLANT, BACTERIAL, STRUCTURAL RNA, VIRAL,
PHAGE, SYNTHETIC, UNANNOTATED, EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAG, PATENT, or
SEQUENCE TAGGED SITE.  The second record is blank.

  Each record in the short directory contains the sequence entry name
(LOCUS) in the first 12 positions, followed by a brief definition of
the sequence beginning in column 13. The definition is truncated (at
the end of a word) to leave room at the right margin for at least one
space, the sequence length, and the letters `bp'. The length of the
sequence is printed right-justified to column 77, followed by the
letters `bp' in columns 78 and 79. The next-to-last record for a group
has `ZZZZZZZZZZ' in its first ten positions (where the entry name
would normally appear). The last record is a blank line. An example of
the short directory file format, showing the descriptions of the last
entries in the Other Vertebrate sequence data file and the first
entries of the Invertebrate sequence data file, is reproduced below:

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
ZEFWNT1G3   B.rerio wnt-1 gene (exon 3) for wnt-1 protein.                266bp
ZEFWNT1G4   B.rerio wnt-1 gene (exon 4) for wnt-1 protein.                647bp
ZEFZF54     Zebrafish homeotic gene ZF-54.                                246bp
ZEFZFEN     Zebrafish engrailed-like homeobox sequence.                   327bp
ZZZZZZZZZZ
 
                    INVERTEBRATE

AAHAV33A    Acanthocheilonema viteae pepsin-inhibitor-like-protein       1048bp
ACAAC01     Acanthamoeba castelani gene encoding actin I.                1571bp
ACAACTPH    Acanthamoeba castellanii actophorin mRNA, complete cds.       671bp
ACAMHCA     A.castellanii non-muscle myosin heavy chain gene, partial    5894bp
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
Example 2. Short Directory File


3.3 Index Files

There are six files containing indices to the entries in this release:

  Accession number index file (Accession and Version)
  Secondary accession number index file
  Keyword phrase index file
  Author name index file
  Journal citation index file
  Gene name index file

  The index keys (accession numbers, keywords, authors, journals, and
gene symbols.) of an index are sorted alphabetically. All index keys
appear in uppercase characters even though they appear in mixed case
in the sequence entries. Following each index key, the identifiers of the
sequence entries containing that key are listed (LOCUS name,
division abbreviation, and primary accession number). The division
abbreviations are:

 1. PRI - primate sequences
 2. ROD - rodent sequences
 3. MAM - other mammalian sequences
 4. VRT - other vertebrate sequences
 5. INV - invertebrate sequences
 6. PLN - plant, fungal, and algal sequences
 7. BCT - bacterial sequences
 8. VRL - viral sequences
 9. PHG - bacteriophage sequences
10. SYN - synthetic sequences
11. UNA - unannotated sequences
12. EST - EST sequences (expressed sequence tags) 
13. PAT - patent sequences
14. STS - STS sequences (sequence tagged sites) 
15. GSS - GSS sequences (genome survey sequences) 
16. HTG - HTGS sequences (high throughput genomic sequences) 
17. HTC - HTC sequences (high throughput cDNA sequences) 

  A line-oriented, TAB-delimited format is utilized for the gbaut.idx,
gbgen.idx,  gbjou.idx, gbkey.idx, and gbsec.idx indexes. Each index
key is presented on its own line, and is followed by a
LOCUS/Division/Accession triplet for every record containing the key:

Indexed-Term 
        LOCUS-name1 Div-code1 Accession1 
        LOCUS-name2 Div-code2 Accession2 
        LOCUS-name3 Div-code3 Accession3 
        .... 

  Here is an example of the format, in which TAB characters are displayed 
as ^I, and carriage-returns/newlines as $ : 

(H+,K+)-ATPASE BETA-SUBUNIT$ 
^IRATHKATPB^IROD^IM55655$ 
^IMUSATP4B1^IROD^IM64685$ 
^IMUSATP4B2^IROD^IM64686$ 
^IMUSATP4B3^IROD^IM64687$ 
^IMUSATP4B4^IROD^IM64688$ 
^IDOGATPASEB^IMAM^IM76486$ 

When viewed by a file browser such as 'less' or 'more' : 

(H+,K+)-ATPASE BETA-SUBUNIT 
        RATHKATPB ROD M55655 
        MUSATP4B1 ROD M64685 
        MUSATP4B2 ROD M64686 
        MUSATP4B3 ROD M64687 
        MUSATP4B4 ROD M64688 
        DOGATPASEB MAM M76486 

  Note that the index keys can be distinguished from LOCUS/DIV/ACCESSION 
by the fact that they do not start with a TAB character. So one can 
extract just the terms via simple text-processing: 

        perl -ne 'print unless /^\s+/' < gbkey.idx > terms.gbkey

  The format of the primary accession number index file is slightly
different, with each indexed key (Accession.Version) present on
the same line as the LOCUS/Division/Accession triplet:

Accession1.Version1 Locus-name1 Div-code1 Accession1 
Accession2.Version2 Locus-name2 Div-code2 Accession2 
.... 

  Here is an example of the format, in which TAB characters are displayed 
as ^I, and carriage-returns/newlines as $ : 

AC000102.1^IAC000102^IPRI^IAC000102$ 
AC000103.1^IAC000103^IPLN^IAC000103$ 
AC000104.1^IF19P19^IPLN^IAC000104$ 
AC000105.40^IAC000105^IPRI^IAC000105$ 
AC000106.1^IF7G19^IPLN^IAC000106$ 
AC000107.1^IAC000107^IPLN^IAC000107$ 
AC000108.1^IAC000108^IBCT^IAC000108$ 
AC000109.1^IHSAC000109^IPRI^IAC000109$ 
AC000110.1^IHSAC000110^IPRI^IAC000110$ 

When viewed by a file browser such as 'less' or 'more' : 

AC000102.1 AC000102 PRI AC000102 
AC000103.1 AC000103 PLN AC000103 
AC000104.1 F19P19 PLN AC000104 
AC000105.40 AC000105 PRI AC000105 
AC000106.1 F7G19 PLN AC000106 
AC000107.1 AC000107 PLN AC000107 
AC000108.1 AC000108 BCT AC000108 
AC000109.1 HSAC000109 PRI AC000109 
AC000110.1 HSAC000110 PRI AC000110 

3.3.1 Accession Number Index File - gbacc.idx

  Accession numbers are unique six character or eight-character alphanumeric
identifiers of GenBank database entries. The six-character accession
number format consists of a single uppercase letter, followed by 5 digits.
The eight-character accession number format consists of two uppercase
letters, followed by 6 digits.  Accessions provide an unchanging identifier
for the data with which they are associated, and we encourage you to cite
accession numbers whenever you refer to data from GenBank.

  GenBank entries can have both 'primary' and 'secondary' accessions
associated with them (see Section 3.5.6). Only primary accessions are present
in the gbacc.idx index.

3.3.2 Keyword Phrase Index File - gbkey.idx

  Keyword phrases consist of names for gene products and other
characteristics of sequence entries.

3.3.3 Author Name Index File - gbaut*.idx

The author name index files list all of the author names that appear
in the references within sequence records.

3.3.4 Journal Citation Index File - gbjou.idx

  The journal citation index file lists all of the citations that appear
in the references within sequence records.. All citations are truncated
to 80 characters.

3.3.5 Gene Name Index - gbgen.idx

  The /gene qualifiers of many GenBank entries contain values other than
official gene symbols, such as the product or the standard name of the gene.
Hence, NCBI has chosen to build an index (gbgen.idx) more like a keyword index
for this field, using both the GenBank /gene qualifier and the 'Gene.locus'
fields from the NCBI internal database as keys.

3.4 Sequence Entry Files

  GenBank releases contain one or more sequence entry data files, one
for each "division" of GenBank.

3.4.1 File Organization

  Each of these files has the same format and consists of two parts:
header information (described in section 3.1) and sequence entries for
that division (described in the following sections).

3.4.2  Entry Organization

  In the second portion of a sequence entry file (containing the
sequence entries for that division), each record (line) consists of
two parts. The first part is found in positions 1 to 10 and may
contain:

1. A keyword, beginning in column 1 of the record (e.g., REFERENCE is
a keyword).

2. A subkeyword beginning in column 3, with columns 1 and 2 blank
(e.g., AUTHORS is a subkeyword of REFERENCE). Or a subkeyword beginning
in column 4, with columns 1, 2, and 3 blank (e.g., PUBMED is a
subkeyword of REFERENCE).

3. Blank characters, indicating that this record is a continuation of
the information under the keyword or subkeyword above it.

4. A code, beginning in column 6, indicating the nature of an entry
(feature key) in the FEATURES table; these codes are described in
Section 3.4.12.1 below.

5. A number, ending in column 9 of the record. This number occurs in
the portion of the entry describing the actual nucleotide sequence and
designates the numbering of sequence positions.

6. Two slashes (//) in positions 1 and 2, marking the end of an entry.

  The second part of each sequence entry record contains the information
appropriate to its keyword, in positions 13 to 80 for keywords and
positions 11 to 80 for the sequence.

  The following is a brief description of each entry field. Detailed
information about each field may be found in Sections 3.4.4 to 3.4.14.

LOCUS	- A short mnemonic name for the entry, chosen to suggest the
sequence's definition. Mandatory keyword/exactly one record.

DEFINITION	- A concise description of the sequence. Mandatory
keyword/one or more records.

ACCESSION	- The primary accession number is a unique, unchanging
code assigned to each entry. (Please use this code when citing
information from GenBank.) Mandatory keyword/one or more records.

VERSION		- A compound identifier consisting of the primary
accession number and a numeric version number associated with the
current version of the sequence data in the record. This is followed
by an integer key (a "GI") assigned to the sequence by NCBI.
Mandatory keyword/exactly one record.

NID		- An alternative method of presenting the NCBI GI
identifier (described above). The NID is obsolete and was removed
from the GenBank flatfile format in December 1999.

KEYWORDS	- Short phrases describing gene products and other
information about an entry. Mandatory keyword in all annotated
entries/one or more records.

SEGMENT	- Information on the order in which this entry appears in a
series of discontinuous sequences from the same molecule. Optional
keyword (only in segmented entries)/exactly one record.

SOURCE	- Common name of the organism or the name most frequently used
in the literature. Mandatory keyword in all annotated entries/one or
more records/includes one subkeyword.

   ORGANISM	- Formal scientific name of the organism (first line)
and taxonomic classification levels (second and subsequent lines).
Mandatory subkeyword in all annotated entries/two or more records.

REFERENCE	- Citations for all articles containing data reported
in this entry. Includes seven subkeywords and may repeat. Mandatory
keyword/one or more records.

   AUTHORS	- Lists the authors of the citation. Optional
subkeyword/one or more records.

   CONSRTM	- Lists the collective names of consortiums associated
with the citation (eg, International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium),
rather than individual author names. Optional subkeyword/one or more records.

   TITLE	- Full title of citation. Optional subkeyword (present
in all but unpublished citations)/one or more records.

   JOURNAL	- Lists the journal name, volume, year, and page
numbers of the citation. Mandatory subkeyword/one or more records.

   MEDLINE	- Provides the Medline unique identifier for a
citation. Optional subkeyword/one record.

    PUBMED 	- Provides the PubMed unique identifier for a
citation. Optional subkeyword/one record.

   REMARK	- Specifies the relevance of a citation to an
entry. Optional subkeyword/one or more records.

COMMENT	- Cross-references to other sequence entries, comparisons to
other collections, notes of changes in LOCUS names, and other remarks.
Optional keyword/one or more records/may include blank records.

FEATURES	- Table containing information on portions of the
sequence that code for proteins and RNA molecules and information on
experimentally determined sites of biological significance. Optional
keyword/one or more records.

BASE COUNT	- Summary of the number of occurrences of each base
code in the sequence. Mandatory keyword/exactly one record.

ORIGIN	- Specification of how the first base of the reported sequence
is operationally located within the genome. Where possible, this
includes its location within a larger genetic map. Mandatory
keyword/exactly one record.

	- The ORIGIN line is followed by sequence data (multiple records).

// 	- Entry termination symbol. Mandatory at the end of an
entry/exactly one record.

3.4.3 Sample Sequence Data File

  An example of a complete sequence entry file follows. (This example
has only two entries.) Note that in this example, as throughout the
data bank, numbers in square brackets indicate items in the REFERENCE
list. For example, in ACARR58S, [1] refers to the paper by Mackay, et
al.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
GBSMP.SEQ          Genetic Sequence Data Bank
                         15 December 1992

                 GenBank Flat File Release 74.0

                     Structural RNA Sequences

      2 loci,       236 bases, from     2 reported sequences

LOCUS       AAURRA        118 bp ss-rRNA            RNA       16-JUN-1986
DEFINITION  A.auricula-judae (mushroom) 5S ribosomal RNA.
ACCESSION   K03160
VERSION     K03160.1  GI:173593
KEYWORDS    5S ribosomal RNA; ribosomal RNA.
SOURCE      A.auricula-judae (mushroom) ribosomal RNA.
  ORGANISM  Auricularia auricula-judae
            Eukaryota; Fungi; Eumycota; Basidiomycotina; Phragmobasidiomycetes;
            Heterobasidiomycetidae; Auriculariales; Auriculariaceae.
REFERENCE   1  (bases 1 to 118)
  AUTHORS   Huysmans,E., Dams,E., Vandenberghe,A. and De Wachter,R.
  TITLE     The nucleotide sequences of the 5S rRNAs of four mushrooms and
            their use in studying the phylogenetic position of basidiomycetes
            among the eukaryotes
  JOURNAL   Nucleic Acids Res. 11, 2871-2880 (1983)
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     rRNA            1..118
                     /note="5S ribosomal RNA"
BASE COUNT       27 a     34 c     34 g     23 t
ORIGIN      5' end of mature rRNA.
        1 atccacggcc ataggactct gaaagcactg catcccgtcc gatctgcaaa gttaaccaga
       61 gtaccgccca gttagtacca cggtggggga ccacgcggga atcctgggtg ctgtggtt
//
LOCUS       ABCRRAA       118 bp ss-rRNA            RNA       15-SEP-1990
DEFINITION  Acetobacter sp. (strain MB 58) 5S ribosomal RNA, complete sequence.
ACCESSION   M34766
VERSION     M34766.1  GI:173603
KEYWORDS    5S ribosomal RNA.
SOURCE      Acetobacter sp. (strain MB 58) rRNA.
  ORGANISM  Acetobacter sp.
            Prokaryotae; Gracilicutes; Scotobacteria; Aerobic rods and cocci;
            Azotobacteraceae.
REFERENCE   1  (bases 1 to 118)
  AUTHORS   Bulygina,E.S., Galchenko,V.F., Govorukhina,N.I., Netrusov,A.I.,
            Nikitin,D.I., Trotsenko,Y.A. and Chumakov,K.M.
  TITLE     Taxonomic studies of methylotrophic bacteria by 5S ribosomal RNA
            sequencing
  JOURNAL   J. Gen. Microbiol. 136, 441-446 (1990)
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     rRNA            1..118
                     /note="5S ribosomal RNA"
BASE COUNT       27 a     40 c     32 g     17 t      2 others
ORIGIN      
        1 gatctggtgg ccatggcggg agcaaatcag ccgatcccat cccgaactcg gccgtcaaat
       61 gccccagcgc ccatgatact ctgcctcaag gcacggaaaa gtcggtcgcc gccagayy
//
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 9. Sample Sequence Data File


3.4.4 LOCUS Format

  The items of information contained in the LOCUS record are always
found in fixed positions. The locus name (or entry name), which is
always sixteen characters or less, begins in position 13. The locus name
is designed to help group entries with similar sequences: the first
three characters usually designate the organism; the fourth and fifth
characters can be used to show other group designations, such as gene
product; for segmented entries the last character is one of a series
of sequential integers.

  The number of bases or base pairs in the sequence ends in position 40.
The letters `bp' are in positions 42 to 43. Positions 45 to 47 provide
the number of strands of the sequence. Positions 48 to 53 indicate the
type of molecule sequenced. Topology of the molecule is indicated in
positions 56 to 63.

  GenBank sequence entries are divided among many different
'divisions'. Each entry's division is specified by a three-letter code
in positions 65 to 67. See Section 3.3 for an explanation of division
codes.

  Positions 69 to 79 of the record contain the date the entry was
entered or underwent any substantial revisions, such as the addition
of newly published data, in the form dd-MMM-yyyy.

The detailed format for the LOCUS line format is as follows:

Positions  Contents
---------  --------
01-05      'LOCUS'
06-12      spaces
13-28      Locus name
29-29      space
30-40      Length of sequence, right-justified
41-41      space
42-43      bp
44-44      space
45-47      spaces, ss- (single-stranded), ds- (double-stranded), or
           ms- (mixed-stranded)
48-53      NA, DNA, RNA, tRNA (transfer RNA), rRNA (ribosomal RNA), 
           mRNA (messenger RNA), uRNA (small nuclear RNA), snRNA,
           snoRNA. Left justified.
54-55      space
56-63      'linear' followed by two spaces, or 'circular'
64-64      space
65-67      The division code (see Section 3.3)
68-68      space
69-79      Date, in the form dd-MMM-yyyy (e.g., 15-MAR-1991)

  Although each of these data values can be found at column-specific
positions, we encourage those who parse the contents of the LOCUS
line to use a token-based approach. This will prevent the need for
software changes if the spacing of the data values ever has to be
modified.

3.4.5 DEFINITION Format

  The DEFINITION record gives a brief description of the sequence,
proceeding from general to specific. It starts with the common name of
the source organism, then gives the criteria by which this sequence is
distinguished from the remainder of the source genome, such as the
gene name and what it codes for, or the protein name and mRNA, or some
description of the sequence's function (if the sequence is
non-coding). If the sequence has a coding region, the description may
be followed by a completeness qualifier, such as cds (complete coding
sequence). There is no limit on the number of lines that may be part
of the DEFINITION.  The last line must end with a period.

3.4.5.1 DEFINITION Format for NLM Entries

  The DEFINITION line for entries derived from journal-scanning at the NLM is
an automatically generated descriptive summary that accompanies each DNA and
protein sequence. It contains information derived from fields in a database 
that summarize the most important attributes of the sequence.  The DEFINITION
lines are designed to supplement the accession number and the sequence itself
as a means of uniquely and completely specifying DNA and protein sequences. The
following are examples of NLM DEFINITION lines:

NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase [swine, mRNA, 1 gene, 1585 nt]

94 kda fiber cell beaded-filament structural protein [rats, lens, mRNA
Partial, 1 gene, 1873 nt]

inhibin alpha {promoter and exons} [mice, Genomic, 1 gene, 1102 nt, segment
1 of 2]

cefEF, cefG=acetyl coenzyme A:deacetylcephalosporin C o-acetyltransferase
[Acremonium chrysogenum, Genomic, 2 genes, 2639 nt]

myogenic factor 3, qmf3=helix-loop-helix protein [Japanese quails,
embryo, Peptide Partial, 246 aa]


  The first part of the definition line contains information describing
the genes and proteins represented by the molecular sequences.  This can
be gene locus names, protein names and descriptions that replace or augment
actual names.  Gene and gene product are linked by "=".  Any special
identifying terms are presented within brackets, such as: {promoter},
{N-terminal}, {EC 2.13.2.4}, {alternatively spliced}, or {3' region}.

  The second part of the definition line is delimited by square brackets, '[]',
and provides details about the molecule type and length.  The biological
source, i.e., genus and species or common name as cited by the author.
Developmental stage, tissue type and strain are included if available.
The molecule types include: Genomic, mRNA, Peptide. and Other Genomic
Material. Genomic molecules are assumed to be partial sequence unless
"Complete" is specified, whereas mRNA and peptide molecules are assumed
to be complete unless "Partial" is noted.

3.4.6 ACCESSION Format

  This field contains a series of six-character and/or eight-character
identifiers called 'accession numbers'. The six-character accession
number format consists of a single uppercase letter, followed by 5 digits.
The eight-character accession number format consists of two uppercase
letters, followed by 6 digits. The 'primary', or first, of the accession
numbers occupies positions 13 to 18 (6-character format) or positions
13 to 20 (8-character format). Subsequent 'secondary' accession numbers
(if present) are separated from the primary, and from each other, by a
single space. In some cases, multiple lines of secondary accession
numbers might be present, starting at position 13.

  The primary accession number of a GenBank entry provides a stable identifier
for the biological object that the entry represents. Accessions do not change
when the underlying sequence data or associated features change.

  Secondary accession numbers arise for a number of reasons. For example, a
single accession number may initially be assigned to a sequence described in
a publication. If it is later discovered that the sequence must be entered
into the database as multiple entries, each entry would receive a new primary
accession number, and the original accession number would appear as a secondary
accession number on each of the new entries.

3.4.7 VERSION Format

  This line contains two types of identifiers for a GenBank database entry:
a compound accession number and an NCBI GI identifier. 

LOCUS       AF181452     1294 bp    DNA             PLN       12-OCT-1999
DEFINITION  Hordeum vulgare dehydrin (Dhn2) gene, complete cds.
ACCESSION   AF181452
VERSION     AF181452.1  GI:6017929
            ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^
            Compound    NCBI GI
            Accession   Identifier
            Number

  A compound accession number consists of two parts: a stable, unchanging
primary-accession number portion (see Section 3.4.6 for a description of
accession numbers), and a sequentially increasing numeric version number.
The accession and version numbers are separated by a period. The initial
version number assigned to a new sequence is one. Compound accessions are
often referred to as "Accession.Version" .

  An accession number allows one to retrieve the same biological object in the
database, regardless of any changes that are made to the entry over time. But
those changes can include changes to the sequence data itself, which is of
fundamental importance to many database users. So a numeric version number is
associated with the sequence data in every database entry. If an entry (for
example, AF181452) undergoes two sequence changes, its compound accession
number on the VERSION line would start as AF181452.1 . After the first sequence
change this would become: AF181452.2 . And after the second change: AF181452.3 .

  The NCBI GI identifier of the VERSION line also serves as a method for
identifying the sequence data that has existed for a database entry over
time. GI identifiers are numeric values of one or more digits. Since they
are integer keys, they are less human-friendly than the Accession.Version
system described above. Returning to our example for AF181452, it was
initially assigned GI 6017929. If the sequence changes, a new integer GI will
be assigned, perhaps 7345003 . And after the second sequence change, perhaps
the GI would become 10456892 .

  Why are both these methods for identifying the version of the sequence
associated with a database entry in use? For two reasons:

- Some data sources processed by NCBI for incorporation into its Entrez
  sequence retrieval system do not version their own sequences.

- GIs provide a uniform, integer identifier system for every sequence
  NCBI has processed. Some products and systems derived from (or reliant
  upon) NCBI products and services prefer to use these integer identifiers
  because they can all be processed in the same manner.

GenBank Releases contain only the most recent versions of all sequences
in the database. However, older versions can be obtained via GI-based or
Accession.Version-based queries with NCBI's web-Entrez and network-Entrez
applications. A sequence revision history web page is also available:

	  http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/htbin-post/Entrez/girevhist

NOTE: All the version numbers for the compound Accession.Version identifier
system were initialized to a value of one in February 1999, when that
system was introduced.

3.4.8 KEYWORDS Format

  The KEYWORDS field does not appear in unannotated entries, but is
required in all annotated entries. Keywords are separated by
semicolons; a "keyword" may be a single word or a phrase consisting of
several words. Each line in the keywords field ends in a semicolon;
the last line ends with a period. If no keywords are included in the
entry, the KEYWORDS record contains only a period.

3.4.9 SEGMENT Format

  The SEGMENT keyword is used when two (or more) entries of known
relative orientation are separated by a short (<10 kb) stretch of DNA.
It is limited to one line of the form `n of m', where `n' is the
segment number of the current entry and `m' is the total number of
segments.

3.4.10 SOURCE Format

  The SOURCE field consists of two parts. The first part is found after
the SOURCE keyword and contains free-format information including an
abbreviated form of the organism name followed by a molecule type;
multiple lines are allowed, but the last line must end with a period.
The second part consists of information found after the ORGANISM
subkeyword. The formal scientific name for the source organism (genus
and species, where appropriate) is found on the same line as ORGANISM.
The records following the ORGANISM line list the taxonomic
classification levels, separated by semicolons and ending with a
period.

3.4.11 REFERENCE Format

  The REFERENCE field consists of five parts: the keyword REFERENCE, and
the subkeywords AUTHORS, TITLE (optional), JOURNAL, MEDLINE (optional),
PUBMED (optional), and REMARK (optional).

  The REFERENCE line contains the number of the particular reference and
(in parentheses) the range of bases in the sequence entry reported in
this citation. Additional prose notes may also be found within the
parentheses. The numbering of the references does not reflect
publication dates or priorities.

  The AUTHORS line lists the authors in the order in which they appear
in the cited article. Last names are separated from initials by a
comma (no space); there is no comma before the final `and'. The list
of authors ends with a period.  The TITLE line is an optional field,
although it appears in the majority of entries. It does not appear in
unpublished sequence data entries that have been deposited directly
into the GenBank data bank, the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library,
or the DNA Data Bank of Japan. The TITLE field does not end with a
period.

  The JOURNAL line gives the appropriate literature citation for the
sequence in the entry. The word `Unpublished' will appear after the
JOURNAL subkeyword if the data did not appear in the scientific
literature, but was directly deposited into the data bank. For
published sequences the JOURNAL line gives the Thesis, Journal, or
Book citation, including the year of publication, the specific
citation, or In press.

  For Book citations, the JOURNAL line is specially-formatted, and
includes:

	editor name(s)
	book title
	page number(s)
	publisher-name/publisher-location
	year

For example:

LOCUS       AY277550                1440 bp    DNA     linear   BCT 17-JUN-2003
DEFINITION  Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain CSC13-6 16S ribosomal RNA gene,
            partial sequence.
ACCESSION   AY277550
....
REFERENCE   1  (bases 1 to 1440)
  AUTHORS   Gonzalez,J.M., Laiz,L. and Saiz-Jimenez,C.
  TITLE     Classifying bacterial isolates from hypogean environments:
            Application of a novel fluorimetric method dor the estimation of
            G+C mol% content in microorganisms by thermal denaturation
            temperature
  JOURNAL   (in) Saiz-Jimenez,C. (Ed.);
            MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND CULTURAL HERITAGE: 47-54;
            A.A. Balkema, The Netherlands (2003)

  The presence of "(in)" signals the fact that the reference is for a book
rather than a journal article. A semi-colon signals the end of the editor
names. The next semi-colon signals the end of the page numbers, and the
colon that immediately *precedes* the page numbers signals the end of the
book title. The publisher name and location are a free-form text string.
Finally, the year appears at the very end of the JOURNAL line, enclosed in
parentheses.

  The MEDLINE line provides the National Library of Medicine's Medline
unique identifier for a citation (if known). Medline UIs are 8 digit
numbers.

  The PUBMED line provides the PubMed unique identifier for a citation
(if known). PUBMED ids are numeric, and are record identifiers for article
abstracts in the PubMed database :

       http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed

  Citations in PubMed that do not fall within Medline's scope will have only
a PUBMED identifier. Similarly, citations that *are* in Medline's scope but
which have not yet been assigned Medline UIs will have only a PUBMED identifier.
If a citation is present in both the PubMed and Medline databases, both a
MEDLINE and a PUBMED line will be present.

  The REMARK line is a textual comment that specifies the relevance
of the citation to the entry.

3.4.12 FEATURES Format

  GenBank releases use a feature table format designed jointly by
GenBank, the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library, and the DNA Data
Bank of Japan. This format is in use by all three databases. The
most complete and accurate Feature Table documentation can be found
on the Web at:

	http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/projects/collab/FT/index.html

  Any discrepancy between the abbreviated feature table description
of these release notes and the complete documentation on the Web
should be resolved in favor of the version at the above URL.

  The Feature Table specification is also available as a printed
document: `The DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank Feature Table: Definition'. Contact
GenBank at the address shown on the first page of these Release Notes
if you would like a copy.

  The feature table contains information about genes and gene products,
as well as regions of biological significance reported in the
sequence. The feature table contains information on regions of the
sequence that code for proteins and RNA molecules. It also enumerates
differences between different reports of the same sequence, and
provides cross-references to other data collections, as described in
more detail below.

  The first line of the feature table is a header that includes the
keyword `FEATURES' and the column header `Location/Qualifier.' Each
feature consists of a descriptor line containing a feature key and a
location (see sections below for details). If the location does not
fit on this line, a continuation line may follow. If further
information about the feature is required, one or more lines
containing feature qualifiers may follow the descriptor line.

  The feature key begins in column 6 and may be no more than 15
characters in length. The location begins in column 22. Feature
qualifiers begin on subsequent lines at column 22. Location,
qualifier, and continuation lines may extend from column 22 to 80.

  Feature tables are required, due to the mandatory presence of the
source feature. The sections below provide a brief introduction to
the feature table format.

3.4.12.1 Feature Key Names

  The first column of the feature descriptor line contains the feature
key. It starts at column 6 and can continue to column 20. The list of
valid feature keys is shown below.

  Remember, the most definitive documentation for the feature table can
be found at:

	http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/projects/collab/FT/index.html

allele		Obsolete; see variation feature key
attenuator	Sequence related to transcription termination
C_region	Span of the C immunological feature
CAAT_signal	`CAAT box' in eukaryotic promoters
CDS		Sequence coding for amino acids in protein (includes
		stop codon)
conflict	Independent sequence determinations differ
D-loop      	Displacement loop
D_segment	Span of the D immunological feature
enhancer	Cis-acting enhancer of promoter function
exon		Region that codes for part of spliced mRNA
gene            Region that defines a functional gene, possibly
                including upstream (promotor, enhancer, etc)
		and downstream control elements, and for which
		a name has been assigned.
GC_signal	`GC box' in eukaryotic promoters
iDNA		Intervening DNA eliminated by recombination
intron		Transcribed region excised by mRNA splicing
J_region	Span of the J immunological feature
LTR		Long terminal repeat
mat_peptide	Mature peptide coding region (does not include stop codon)
misc_binding	Miscellaneous binding site
misc_difference	Miscellaneous difference feature
misc_feature	Region of biological significance that cannot be described
		by any other feature
misc_recomb	Miscellaneous recombination feature
misc_RNA	Miscellaneous transcript feature not defined by other RNA keys
misc_signal	Miscellaneous signal
misc_structure	Miscellaneous DNA or RNA structure
modified_base	The indicated base is a modified nucleotide
mRNA		Messenger RNA
mutation 	Obsolete: see variation feature key
N_region	Span of the N immunological feature
old_sequence	Presented sequence revises a previous version
polyA_signal	Signal for cleavage & polyadenylation
polyA_site	Site at which polyadenine is added to mRNA
precursor_RNA	Any RNA species that is not yet the mature RNA product
prim_transcript	Primary (unprocessed) transcript
primer		Primer binding region used with PCR
primer_bind	Non-covalent primer binding site
promoter	A region involved in transcription initiation
protein_bind	Non-covalent protein binding site on DNA or RNA
RBS		Ribosome binding site
rep_origin	Replication origin for duplex DNA
repeat_region	Sequence containing repeated subsequences
repeat_unit	One repeated unit of a repeat_region
rRNA		Ribosomal RNA
S_region	Span of the S immunological feature
satellite	Satellite repeated sequence
scRNA		Small cytoplasmic RNA
sig_peptide	Signal peptide coding region
snRNA		Small nuclear RNA
source		Biological source of the sequence data represented by
		a GenBank record. Mandatory feature, one or more per record.
		For organisms that have been incorporated within the
		NCBI taxonomy database, an associated /db_xref="taxon:NNNN"
		qualifier will be present (where NNNNN is the numeric
		identifier assigned to the organism within the NCBI taxonomy
		database).
stem_loop	Hair-pin loop structure in DNA or RNA
STS		Sequence Tagged Site; operationally unique sequence that
		identifies the combination of primer spans used in a PCR assay
TATA_signal	`TATA box' in eukaryotic promoters
terminator	Sequence causing transcription termination
transit_peptide	Transit peptide coding region
transposon	Transposable element (TN)
tRNA 		Transfer RNA
unsure		Authors are unsure about the sequence in this region
V_region	Span of the V immunological feature
variation 	A related population contains stable mutation
- (hyphen)	Placeholder
-10_signal	`Pribnow box' in prokaryotic promoters
-35_signal	`-35 box' in prokaryotic promoters
3'clip		3'-most region of a precursor transcript removed in processing
3'UTR		3' untranslated region (trailer)
5'clip		5'-most region of a precursor transcript removed in processing
5'UTR		5' untranslated region (leader)


3.4.12.2 Feature Location

  The second column of the feature descriptor line designates the
location of the feature in the sequence. The location descriptor
begins at position 22. Several conventions are used to indicate
sequence location.

  Base numbers in location descriptors refer to numbering in the entry,
which is not necessarily the same as the numbering scheme used in the
published report. The first base in the presented sequence is numbered
base 1. Sequences are presented in the 5 to 3 direction.

Location descriptors can be one of the following:

1. A single base;

2. A contiguous span of bases;

3. A site between two bases;

4. A single base chosen from a range of bases;

5. A single base chosen from among two or more specified bases;

6. A joining of sequence spans;

7. A reference to an entry other than the one to which the feature
belongs (i.e., a remote entry), followed by a location descriptor
referring to the remote sequence;

  A site between two residues, such as an endonuclease cleavage site, is
indicated by listing the two bases separated by a carat (e.g., 23^24).

  A single residue chosen from a range of residues is indicated by the
number of the first and last bases in the range separated by a single
period (e.g., 23.79). The symbols < and > indicate that the end point
of the range is beyond the specified base number.

  A contiguous span of bases is indicated by the number of the first and
last bases in the range separated by two periods (e.g., 23..79). The
symbols < and > indicate that the end point of the range is beyond the
specified base number. Starting and ending positions can be indicated
by base number or by one of the operators described below.

  Operators are prefixes that specify what must be done to the indicated
sequence to locate the feature. The following are the operators
available, along with their most common format and a description.

complement (location): The feature is complementary to the location
indicated. Complementary strands are read 5 to 3.

join (location, location, .. location): The indicated elements should
be placed end to end to form one contiguous sequence.

order (location, location, .. location): The elements are found in the
specified order in the 5 to 3 direction, but nothing is implied about
the rationality of joining them.

3.4.12.3  Feature Qualifiers

  Qualifiers provide additional information about features. They take
the form of a slash (/) followed by a qualifier name and, if
applicable, an equal sign (=) and a qualifier value. Feature
qualifiers begin at column 22.

Qualifiers convey many types of information. Their values can,
therefore, take several forms:

1. Free text;
2. Controlled vocabulary or enumerated values;
3. Citations or reference numbers;
4. Sequences;
5. Feature labels.

  Text qualifier values must be enclosed in double quotation marks. The
text can consist of any printable characters (ASCII values 32-126
decimal). If the text string includes double quotation marks, each set
must be `escaped' by placing a double quotation mark in front of it
(e.g., /note="This is an example of ""escaped"" quotation marks").

  Some qualifiers require values selected from a limited set of choices.
For example, the `/direction' qualifier has only three values `left,'
`right,' or `both.' These are called controlled vocabulary qualifier
values. Controlled qualifier values are not case sensitive; they can
be entered in any combination of upper- and lowercase without changing
their meaning.

  Citation or published reference numbers for the entry should be
enclosed in square brackets ([]) to distinguish them from other
numbers.

  A literal sequence of bases (e.g., "atgcatt") should be enclosed in
quotation marks. Literal sequences are distinguished from free text by
context. Qualifiers that take free text as their values do not take
literal sequences, and vice versa.

  The `/label=' qualifier takes a feature label as its qualifier.
Although feature labels are optional, they allow unambiguous
references to the feature. The feature label identifies a feature
within an entry; when combined with the accession number and the name
of the data bank from which it came, it is a unique tag for that
feature. Feature labels must be unique within an entry, but can be the
same as a feature label in another entry. Feature labels are not case
sensitive; they can be entered in any combination of upper-and
lowercase without changing their meaning.

The following is a partial list of feature qualifiers.

/anticodon	Location of the anticodon of tRNA and the amino acid
		for which it codes

/bound_moiety	Moiety bound

/citation	Reference to a citation providing the claim of or
		evidence for a feature

/codon		Specifies a codon that is different from any found in the
		reference genetic code

/codon_start	Indicates the first base of the first complete codon
		in a CDS (as 1 or 2 or 3)

/cons_splice	Identifies intron splice sites that do not conform to
		the 5'-GT... AG-3' splice site consensus

/db_xref	A database cross-reference; pointer to related information
		in another database. A description of all cross-references
		can be found at:

		http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/collab/db_xref.html

/direction	Direction of DNA replication

/EC_number	Enzyme Commission number for the enzyme product of the
		sequence

/evidence	Value indicating the nature of supporting evidence

/frequency	Frequency of the occurrence of a feature

/function	Function attributed to a sequence

/gene		Symbol of the gene corresponding to a sequence region (usable
		with all features)

/label		A label used to permanently identify a feature

/map		Map position of the feature in free-format text

/mod_base	Abbreviation for a modified nucleotide base

/note		Any comment or additional information

/number		A number indicating the order of genetic elements
		(e.g., exons or introns) in the 5 to 3 direction

/organism	Name of the organism that is the source of the
		sequence data in the record. 

/partial	Differentiates between complete regions and partial ones

/phenotype	Phenotype conferred by the feature

/product	Name of a product encoded by a coding region (CDS)
		feature

/pseudo		Indicates that this feature is a non-functional
		version of the element named by the feature key

/rpt_family	Type of repeated sequence; Alu or Kpn, for example

/rpt_type	Organization of repeated sequence

/rpt_unit	Identity of repeat unit that constitutes a repeat_region

/standard_name	Accepted standard name for this feature

/transl_except	Translational exception: single codon, the translation
		of which does not conform to the reference genetic code

/translation	Amino acid translation of a coding region

/type		Name of a strain if different from that in the SOURCE field

/usedin		Indicates that feature is used in a compound feature
		in another entry

3.4.12.4 Cross-Reference Information

  One type of information in the feature table lists cross-references to
the annual compilation of transfer RNA sequences in Nucleic Acids
Research, which has kindly been sent to us on CD-ROM by Dr. Sprinzl.
Each tRNA entry of the feature table contains a /note= qualifier that
includes a reference such as `(NAR: 1234)' to identify code 1234 in
the NAR compilation. When such a cross-reference appears in an entry
that contains a gene coding for a transfer RNA molecule, it refers to
the code in the tRNA gene compilation. Similar cross-references in
entries containing mature transfer RNA sequences refer to the
companion compilation of tRNA sequences published by D.H. Gauss and M.
Sprinzl in Nucleic Acids Research.

3.4.12.5 Feature Table Examples

  In the first example a number of key names, feature locations, and
qualifiers are illustrated, taken from different sequences. The first
table entry is a coding region consisting of a simple span of bases
and including a /gene qualifier. In the second table entry, an NAR
cross-reference is given (see the previous section for a discussion of
these cross-references). The third and fourth table entries use the
symbols `<`and `>' to indicate that the beginning or end of the
feature is beyond the range of the presented sequence. In the fifth
table entry, the symbol `^' indicates that the feature is between
bases.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
     CDS             5..1261
                     /product="alpha-1-antitrypsin precursor"
                     /map="14q32.1"
                     /gene="PI"
     tRNA            1..87
                     /note="Leu-tRNA-CAA (NAR: 1057)"
                     /anticodon=(pos:35..37,aa:Leu)
     mRNA            1..>66
                     /note="alpha-1-acid glycoprotein mRNA"
     transposon      <1..267
                     /note="insertion element IS5"
     misc_recomb     105^106
                     /note="B.subtilis DNA end/IS5 DNA start"
     conflict        258
                     /replace="t"
                     /citation=[2]
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 10. Feature Table Entries


The next example shows the representation for a CDS that spans more
than one entry.

1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
LOCUS       HUMPGAMM1    3688 bp ds-DNA             PRI       15-OCT-1990
DEFINITION  Human phosphoglycerate mutase (muscle specific isozyme) (PGAM-M)
            gene, 5' end.
ACCESSION   M55673 M25818 M27095
KEYWORDS    phosphoglycerate mutase.
SEGMENT     1 of 2
  .
  .
  .
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     CAAT_signal     1751..1755
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     TATA_signal     1791..1799
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     exon            1820..2274
                     /number=1
                     /EC_number="5.4.2.1"
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     intron          2275..2377
                     /number=1
                     /gene="PGAM2"
     exon            2378..2558
                     /number=2
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
  .
  .
  .
//
LOCUS       HUMPGAMM2     677 bp ds-DNA             PRI       15-OCT-1990
DEFINITION  Human phosphoglycerate mutase (muscle specific isozyme) (PGAM-M),
            exon 3.
ACCESSION   M55674 M25818 M27096
KEYWORDS    phosphoglycerate mutase.
SEGMENT     2 of 2
  .
  .
  .
FEATURES             Location/Qualifiers
     exon            255..457
                     /number=3
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     intron          order(M55673:2559..>3688,<1..254)
                     /number=2
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     mRNA            join(M55673:1820..2274,M55673:2378..2558,255..457)
                     /gene="PGAM-M"
     CDS             join(M55673:1861..2274,M55673:2378..2558,255..421)
                     /note="muscle-specific isozyme"
                     /gene="PGAM2"
                     /product="phosphoglycerate mutase"
                     /codon_start=1
                     /translation="MATHRLVMVRHGESTWNQENRFCGWFDAELSEKGTEEAKRGAKA
                     IKDAKMEFDICYTSVLKRAIRTLWAILDGTDQMWLPVVRTWRLNERHYGGLTGLNKAE
                     TAAKHGEEQVKIWRRSFDIPPPPMDEKHPYYNSISKERRYAGLKPGELPTCESLKDTI
                     ARALPFWNEEIVPQIKAGKRVLIAAHGNSLRGIVKHLEGMSDQAIMELNLPTGIPIVY
                     ELNKELKPTKPMQFLGDEETVRKAMEAVAAQGKAK"
  .
  .
  .
//
---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------
1       10        20        30        40        50        60        70       79

Example 11. Joining Sequences


3.4.13 ORIGIN Format

  The ORIGIN record may be left blank, may appear as `Unreported.' or
may give a local pointer to the sequence start, usually involving an
experimentally determined restriction cleavage site or the genetic
locus (if available). The ORIGIN record ends in a period if it
contains data, but does not include the period if the record is left
empty (in contrast to the KEYWORDS field which contains a period
rather than being left blank).

3.4.14 SEQUENCE Format

  The nucleotide sequence for an entry is found in the records following
the ORIGIN record. The sequence is reported in the 5 to 3 direction.
There are sixty bases per record, listed in groups of ten bases
followed by a blank, starting at position 11 of each record. The
number of the first nucleotide in the record is given in columns 4 to
9 (right justified) of the record.


4. ALTERNATE RELEASES

  NCBI is supplying sequence data in the GenBank flat file format to
maintain compatibility with existing software which require that
particular format.  Although we have made every effort to ensure
that these data are presented in the traditional flat file format,
if you encounter any problems in using these data with software which
is based upon the flat file format, please contact us at:

              info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  The flat file is just one of many possible report formats that can be
generated from the richer representation supported by the ASN.1 form of the
data.  Developers of new software tools should consider using the ASN.1 form
directly to take advantage of those features.  Documentation and a Software
Developer's Toolkit for ASN.1 are available through NCBI.  You may call NCBI
at (301)496-2475, or subscribe to a developers' electronic newsgroup by
sending your name, address, affiliation, and e-mail address to:

              bits-request@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  The Software Developer's Toolkit and PostScript documentation for UNIX,
VMS, Ultrix, AIX, MacOS, DOS, and Microsoft Windows systems is available
in a compressed UNIX tar file by anonymous ftp from 'ftp.ncbi.nih.gov',
in the toolbox/ncbi_tools directory. The file is 'ncbi.tar.Z'.


5. KNOWN PROBLEMS OF THE GENBANK DATABASE

5.1 Incorrect Gene Symbols in Entries and Index

  The /gene qualifier for many GenBank entries contains values other than the
official gene symbol, such as the product or the standard name of the gene. The
gene symbol index (gbgen.idx) is created from the data in the /gene qualifier
and therefore may contain data other than official gene symbols.


6. GENBANK ADMINISTRATION 

  The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), National Library
of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, is responsible for the production
and distribution of the NIH GenBank Sequence Database.  NCBI distributes
GenBank sequence data by anonymous FTP, e-mail servers and other
network services.  For more information, you may contact NCBI at the
e-mail address:  info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov  or by phone: 301-496-2475.

6.1 Registered Trademark Notice

  GenBank (R) is a registered trademark of the U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services for the Genetic Sequence Data Bank.

6.2 Citing GenBank

  If you have used GenBank in your research, we would appreciate it if
you would include a reference to GenBank in all publications related
to that research.

  When citing data in GenBank, it is appropriate to give the sequence
name, primary accession number, and the publication in which the
sequence first appeared.  If the data are unpublished, we urge you to
contact the group which submitted the data to GenBank to see if there
is a recent publication or if they have determined any revisions or
extensions of the data.

  It is also appropriate to list a reference for GenBank itself.  The
following publication, which describes the GenBank database, should
be cited:

    Benson D.A., Karsch-Mizrachi I., Lipman D.J., Ostell J., Rapp B.A., 
    Wheeler D.L.  GenBank. Nucl. Acids Res. 28(1):15-18 (2000)

  The following statement is an example of how you may cite GenBank
data.  It cites the sequence, its primary accession number, the group
who determined the sequence, and GenBank.  The numbers in parentheses
refer to the GenBank citation above and to the REFERENCE in the
GenBank sequence entry.

`We scanned the GenBank (1) database for sequence similarities and
found one sequence (2), GenBank accession number J01016, which showed
significant similarity...'

  (1) Benson, D.A. et al. Nucl. Acids Res. 28(1):15-18 (2000)
  (2) Nellen, W. and Gallwitz, D. J. Mol. Biol. 159, 1-18 (1982)

6.3 GenBank Distribution Formats and Media

  Complete flat file releases of the GenBank database are available via
NCBI's anonymous ftp server:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov

  Each release is cumulative, incorporating all previous GenBank data.
No retrieval software is provided. GenBank distribution via CD-ROM
ceased as of GenBank Release 106.0 (April, 1998).

  Mirrors of the GenBank FTP site at the NCBI are available from the
San Diego Supercomputer Center and the University of Indiana:

	ftp://genbank.sdsc.edu/pub
	ftp://bio-mirror.net/biomirror/genbank/

6.4 Other Methods of Accessing GenBank Data

  Entrez is a molecular biology database system that presents an integrated
view of DNA and protein sequence data, 3D structure data, complete genomes,
and associated MEDLINE entries. The system is produced by the National
Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and is available only via
the Internet (using the Web-Entrez and Network-Entrez applications).

  Accessing Entrez is easy: if you have a World Wide Web browser, such as
Netscape or Internet-Explorer, simply point your browser to:

	 http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/

  The Web version of Entrez has all the capabilities of the network version,
but with the visual style of the World Wide Web. If you prefer the "look and
feel" of Network-Entrez, you may download Network-Entrez from the NCBI's
FTP server:

	ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/

Versions are available for PC/Windows, Macintosh and several Unix variants.

  For information about Network-Entrez, Web-Entrez or any other NCBI
services, you may contact NCBI by e-mail at info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov or by
phone at 301-496-2475.

6.5 Request for Corrections and Comments

  We welcome your suggestions for improvements to GenBank. We are
especially interested to learn of errors or inconsistencies in the
data.  BankIt or Sequin can be used to submit revisions to previous
submissions.  In addition, suggestions and corrections can be sent by
electronic mail to:  update@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.  Please be certain to
indicate the GenBank release number (e.g., Release 139.0) and the
primary accession number of the entry to which your comments apply; it
is helpful if you also give the entry name and the current contents of
any data field for which you are recommending a change.

6.6  Credits and Acknowledgments

Credits -

GenBank Release Coordination	
	Mark Cavanaugh

GenBank Submission Coordination	
	Ilene Mizrachi

GenBank Annotation Staff
	Lori Black, Larissa Brown, Larry Chlumsky, Karen Clark, Irene Fang,
	Linda Frisse, Michael Fetchko, Anjanette Johnston, William Klimke,
	Pierre Ledoux, Richard McVeigh, Ilene Mizrachi, DeAnne Olsen Cravaritis,
	Chris O'Sullivan, Leigh Riley, Gert Roosen, MJ Rosovitz, Susan Schafer,
	Suh-suh Wang, and Linda Yankie

Data Management and Preparation
	Vladimir Alekseyev, Serge Bazhin, Anton Butanaev, Mark Cavanaugh,
	Hsiu-Chuan Chen, Olga Cherenkov, Jonathan Kans, Michael Kimelman,
	Jim Ostell, Karl Sirotkin, Vladimir Soussov, Elena Starchenko,
	Hanzhen Sun, Tatiana Tatusova, Carolyn Tolstoshev, Jane Weisemann,
	Eugene Yaschenko

Database Administration
	Ron Chen, Slava Khotomliansky, Tony Stearman

User Support
	Medha Bhagwat, Peter Cooper, Susan Dombrowski, Andrei Gabrielian
	Renata Geer, Scott McGinnis, Donna Messersmith, Rana Morris, Vyvy Pham,
	Monica Romiti, Eric Sayers, Tao Tao, David Wheeler 

Project Direction
	David Lipman


Acknowledgments - 

  Contractor support for GenBank production and distribution has been
provided by Management Systems Designers, Inc., ComputerCraft Corporation,
and The KEVRIC Company, Inc.

6.7 Disclaimer

  The United States Government makes no representations or warranties
regarding the content or accuracy of the information.  The United States
Government also makes no representations or warranties of merchantability
or fitness for a particular purpose or that the use of the sequences will
not infringe any patent, copyright, trademark, or other rights.  The
United States Government accepts no responsibility for any consequence
of the receipt or use of the information.

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