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INS insulin [ Bos taurus (cattle) ]

Gene ID: 280829, updated on 12-May-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
INSprovided by VGNC
Official Full Name
insulinprovided by VGNC
Primary source
VGNC:VGNC:56268
See related
BGD:BT10074; Ensembl:ENSBTAG00000013003
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
VALIDATED
Organism
Bos taurus
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia; Pecora; Bovidae; Bovinae; Bos
Orthologs

Genomic context

See INS in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
chromosome: 29
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current ARS-UCD1.2 (GCF_002263795.1) 29 NC_037356.1 (49392917..49394536)
105 previous assembly Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1 (GCF_000003055.6) 29 AC_000186.1 (50035655..50037262)

Chromosome 29 - NC_037356.1Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 2 Neighboring gene tyrosine hydroxylase Neighboring gene insulin like growth factor 2 Neighboring gene microRNA mir-483 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101902537

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • AMPK Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    AMPK Signaling, organism-specific biosystemAMPK signaling pathway, a fuel sensor and regulator, promotes ATP-producing and inhibits ATP-consuming pathways in various tissues. AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of alpha-catalytic and beta and gam...
  • AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
  • AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
  • Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, organism-specific biosystemSodium transport across the tight epithelia of Na+ reabsorbing tissues such as the distal part of the kidney nephron and colon is the major factor determining total-body Na+ levels, and thus, long-te...
  • Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, conserved biosystemSodium transport across the tight epithelia of Na+ reabsorbing tissues such as the distal part of the kidney nephron and colon is the major factor determining total-body Na+ levels, and thus, long-te...
  • Asparagine N-linked glycosylation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Asparagine N-linked glycosylation, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
  • Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
  • COPI-mediated anterograde transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    COPI-mediated anterograde transport, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • ER to Golgi Anterograde Transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ER to Golgi Anterograde Transport, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str...
  • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a c...
  • IRS activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS activation, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Insulin processing, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin processing, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Insulin receptor recycling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin receptor recycling, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic...
  • Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. Glucose-...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystemRegulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible ...
  • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
  • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
  • Maturity onset diabetes of the young, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Maturity onset diabetes of the young, organism-specific biosystemAbout 2-5% of type II diabetic patients suffer from a monogenic disease with autosomal dominant inheritance. This monogenic form of type II diabetes is called maturity onset diabetes of the young (MO...
  • Maturity onset diabetes of the young, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Maturity onset diabetes of the young, conserved biosystemAbout 2-5% of type II diabetic patients suffer from a monogenic disease with autosomal dominant inheritance. This monogenic form of type II diabetes is called maturity onset diabetes of the young (MO...
  • Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
  • Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
  • Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
  • Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
  • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystemLipolysis in adipocytes, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) to release fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol for use by other organs as energy substrates, is a unique function of white adipose tissue. ...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Signal attenuation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal attenuation, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • Type I diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type I diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemType I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-pre...
  • Type I diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type I diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystemType I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-pre...
  • Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
  • Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
  • Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
  • Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemcomputationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)
  • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
  • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
  • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
  • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC159719

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
hormone activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
insulin receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
estradiol secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
feeding behavior IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
glucose import in response to insulin stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
glucose metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of appetite IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lactation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipid catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of Rho protein signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of blood circulation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell maturation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of insulin secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of lactation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptide hormone secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein secretion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
response to L-arginine IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to butyrate IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to food IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to glucose IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
response to growth hormone IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to heat IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to nutrient levels IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
signal transduction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001185126.1NP_001172055.1  insulin preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001172055.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    EH379095, EV652245
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A5PJB2
    Related
    ENSBTAP00000017289.4, ENSBTAT00000017289.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd04367
    Location:26105
    IlGF_insulin_like; IlGF_like family, insulin_like subgroup, specific to vertebrates. Members include a number of peptides including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, which play a variety of roles in controlling processes such as metabolism, growth and ...
  2. NM_173926.2NP_776351.2  insulin preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_776351.2

    Status: VALIDATED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This transcript (1) represents the shorter variant. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    EV652245
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A5PJB2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd04367
    Location:26105
    IlGF_insulin_like; IlGF_like family, insulin_like subgroup, specific to vertebrates. Members include a number of peptides including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, which play a variety of roles in controlling processes such as metabolism, growth and ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Bos taurus Annotation Release 106 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference ARS-UCD1.2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_037356.1 Reference ARS-UCD1.2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    49392917..49394536
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_015461330.2XP_015316816.2  insulin isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd04367
    Location:142221
    IlGF_insulin_like; IlGF_like family, insulin_like subgroup, specific to vertebrates. Members include a number of peptides including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, which play a variety of roles in controlling processes such as metabolism, growth and ...
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