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PLAU plasminogen activator, urokinase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5328, updated on 26-Sep-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
PLAUprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
plasminogen activator, urokinaseprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9052
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000122861 MIM:191840
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ATF; QPD; UPA; URK; u-PA; BDPLT5
Summary
This gene encodes a secreted serine protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate A and B polypeptide chains. These chains associate via a single disulfide bond to form the catalytically inactive high molecular weight urokinase-type plasminogen activator (HMW-uPA). HMW-uPA can be further processed into the catalytically active low molecular weight urokinase-type plasminogen activator (LMW-uPA). This low molecular weight form does not bind to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Quebec platelet disorder and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Expression
Broad expression in appendix (RPKM 23.1), urinary bladder (RPKM 22.7) and 23 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See PLAU in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
10q22.2
Exon count:
12
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 10 NC_000010.11 (73909182..73917497)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 10 NC_000010.10 (75670890..75677252)

Chromosome 10 - NC_000010.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene N-deacetylase and N-sulfotransferase 2 Neighboring gene calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II gamma Neighboring gene chromosome 10 putative open reading frame 55 Neighboring gene VISTA enhancer hs2142 Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr10.2661

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Alzheimer disease
MedGen: C0002395 OMIM: 104300 GeneReviews: Alzheimer Disease Overview
Compare labs
Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
GeneReviews: Not available
Quebec platelet disorder
MedGen: C1866423 OMIM: 601709 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), a proteinase that activates plasminogen, cleaves HIV-1 gp120 within the V3 loop PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag The amino-terminal fragment of urokinase-type plasminogen activator is hypothesized to inhibit the assembly of HIV-1 Gag and the budding of HIV-1 from infected cells PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat and methamphetamine enhance the release of MMP-1, MMP-2, and uPA from human brain cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat affects the fibrinolytic activity of tumor cell lines derived from BKV/tat-transgenic mice by upregulating/modulating the production of both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) PubMed
Vif vif HIV-1 Vif upregulates the expression of plasminogen activator, urokinase (PLAU) in Vif-expression T cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables serine-type endopeptidase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables serine-type endopeptidase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in blood coagulation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in chemotaxis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in fibrinolysis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in fibrinolysis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in plasminogen activation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in plasminogen activation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in proteolysis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of cell population proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in regulation of signaling receptor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of smooth muscle cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of smooth muscle cell-matrix adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of wound healing IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in smooth muscle cell migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
urokinase-type plasminogen activator
Names
U-plasminogen activator
plasminogen activator, urinary
NP_001138503.2
NP_001306120.2
NP_002649.2
XP_011538168.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_011904.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..11398
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_593

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001145031.3NP_001138503.2  urokinase-type plasminogen activator isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at an alternate start site compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus, and lacks a predicted signal peptide compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB208961, AK298560, AL596247, BC013575, DC349055
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS44442.1
    Related
    ENSP00000388474.1, ENST00000446342.5
  2. NM_001319191.2NP_001306120.2  urokinase-type plasminogen activator isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream start site compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) has a shorter N-terminus and lacks a predicted signal peptide compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB208961, AK297940, AL596247, BC013575
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00108
    Location:166
    KR; Kringle domain; Kringle domains are believed to play a role in binding mediators, such as peptides, other proteins, membranes, or phospholipids. They are autonomous structural domains, found in a varying number of copies, in blood clotting and ...
    cd00190
    Location:93336
    Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease; Many of these are synthesized as inactive precursor zymogens that are cleaved during limited proteolysis to generate their active forms. Alignment contains also inactive enzymes that have substitutions of the catalytic triad ...
  3. NM_002658.6NP_002649.2  urokinase-type plasminogen activator isoform 1 preproprotein

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AB208961, AL596247, BC013575, DC349055
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7339.1
    Related
    ENSP00000361850.3, ENST00000372764.4
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00108
    Location:67152
    KR; Kringle domain; Kringle domains are believed to play a role in binding mediators, such as peptides, other proteins, membranes, or phospholipids. They are autonomous structural domains, found in a varying number of copies, in blood clotting and ...
    cd00190
    Location:179422
    Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease; Many of these are synthesized as inactive precursor zymogens that are cleaved during limited proteolysis to generate their active forms. Alignment contains also inactive enzymes that have substitutions of the catalytic triad ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000010.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    73909182..73917497
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011539866.2XP_011538168.1  urokinase-type plasminogen activator isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011538168.1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00108
    Location:67152
    KR; Kringle domain; Kringle domains are believed to play a role in binding mediators, such as peptides, other proteins, membranes, or phospholipids. They are autonomous structural domains, found in a varying number of copies, in blood clotting and ...
    cd00190
    Location:179422
    Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease; Many of these are synthesized as inactive precursor zymogens that are cleaved during limited proteolysis to generate their active forms. Alignment contains also inactive enzymes that have substitutions of the catalytic triad ...
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