U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

GTR Home > Conditions/Phenotypes

Refine your search

Results: 1 to 20 of 53


Premature ovarian failure 1

Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) is a condition that affects women and is characterized by reduced function of the ovaries. The ovaries are the female reproductive organs in which egg cells are produced. As a form of primary ovarian insufficiency, FXPOI can cause irregular menstrual cycles, early menopause, an inability to have children (infertility), and elevated levels of a hormone known as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is produced in both males and females and helps regulate the development of reproductive cells (eggs in females and sperm in males). In females, the level of FSH rises and falls, but overall it increases as a woman ages. In younger women, elevated levels may indicate early menopause and fertility problems.\n\nThe severity of FXPOI is variable. The most severely affected women have overt POI (formerly called premature ovarian failure). These women have irregular or absent menstrual periods and elevated FSH levels before age 40. Overt POI often causes infertility. Other women have occult POI; they have normal menstrual periods but reduced fertility, and they may have elevated levels of FSH (in which case, it is called biochemical POI). The reduction in ovarian function caused by FXPOI results in low levels of the hormone estrogen, which leads to many of the common signs and symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, insomnia, and thinning of the bones (osteoporosis). Women with FXPOI undergo menopause an average of 5 years earlier than women without the condition. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]


Lynch syndrome

Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome. [from GeneReviews]


Vemurafenib response

Vemurafenib is a kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E variant. BRAF is an intracellular kinase in the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway. BRAF is involved in regulating important cell functions such as cell growth, division, differentiation, and apoptosis. BRAF is also a proto-oncogene—when mutated it has the ability to transform normal cells into cancerous cells. Variation in the kinase domain of BRAF have been associated with various cancers. The most common BRAF variant, V600E, constitutively activates the kinase, and causes cell proliferation in the absence of growth factors that would normally be required. The V600E variant is detected in approximately 50% of melanomas. The FDA-approved drug label for vemurafenib states that the presence of BRAF V600E mutation in tumor specimens should be confirmed, using an FDA-approved test, before starting treatment with vemurafenib. The label also states that vemurafenib is not indicated for treatment of patients with wild-type BRAF melanoma. Variations in NRAS, also an oncogene, are found in up to 30% of all malignancies and in approximately 15-20% of melanomas. NRAS variants activate MAPK and have been implicated in in acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors. Vemurafenib’s label warns that one adverse effect associated with therapy may be the progression of pre-existing chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with NRAS mutation. Other adverse effects include arthralgia, rash, alopecia, photosensitivity reaction, pruritus, and skin papilloma. [from Medical Genetics Summaries]


Transcription level of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1

Untreated complete plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) deficiency is characterized by mild-to-moderate bleeding, although in some instances bleeding can be life threatening. Most commonly, delayed bleeding is associated with injury, trauma, or surgery; spontaneous bleeding does not occur. While males and females with complete PAI-1 deficiency are affected equally, females may present more frequently with clinical manifestations or earlier in life than males due to menorrhagia and postpartum hemorrhage. Fewer than ten families with complete PAI-1 deficiency have been reported to date. The incidence of complete PAI-1 deficiency is higher than expected in the genetic isolate of the Old Order Amish population of eastern and southern Indiana due to a pathogenic founder variant. In one family from this Old Order Amish population, seven individuals had cardiac fibrosis ranging from minimal-to-moderate (6 individuals) to severe (1). [from GeneReviews]


Hemochromatosis type 1

HFE hemochromatosis is characterized by inappropriately high absorption of iron by the small intestinal mucosa. The phenotypic spectrum of HFE hemochromatosis includes: Persons with clinical HFE hemochromatosis, in whom manifestations of end-organ damage secondary to iron overload are present; Individuals with biochemical HFE hemochromatosis, in whom transferrin-iron saturation is increased and the only evidence of iron overload is increased serum ferritin concentration; and Non-expressing p.Cys282Tyr homozygotes, in whom neither clinical manifestations of HFE hemochromatosis nor iron overload are present. Clinical HFE hemochromatosis is characterized by excessive storage of iron in the liver, skin, pancreas, heart, joints, and anterior pituitary gland. In untreated individuals, early symptoms include: abdominal pain, weakness, lethargy, weight loss, arthralgias, diabetes mellitus; and increased risk of cirrhosis when the serum ferritin is higher than 1,000 ng/mL. Other findings may include progressive increase in skin pigmentation, congestive heart failure, and/or arrhythmias, arthritis, and hypogonadism. Clinical HFE hemochromatosis is more common in men than women. [from GeneReviews]


Hemoglobin Bart hydrops syndrome

Alpha-thalassemia (a-thalassemia) has two clinically significant forms: hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis (Hb Bart) syndrome (caused by deletion/inactivation of all four a-globin genes; --/--), and hemoglobin H (HbH) disease (most frequently caused by deletion/inactivation of three a-globin genes; --/-a). Hb Bart syndrome, the more severe form, is characterized by prenatal onset of generalized edema and pleural and pericardial effusions as a result of congestive heart failure induced by severe anemia. Extramedullary erythropoiesis, marked hepatosplenomegaly, and a massive placenta are common. Death usually occurs in the neonatal period. HbH disease has a broad phenotypic spectrum: although clinical features usually develop in the first years of life, HbH disease may not present until adulthood or may be diagnosed only during routine hematologic analysis in an asymptomatic individual. The majority of individuals have enlargement of the spleen (and less commonly of the liver), mild jaundice, and sometimes thalassemia-like bone changes. Individuals with HbH disease may develop gallstones and experience acute episodes of hemolysis in response to infections or exposure to oxidant drugs. [from GeneReviews]


Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal hematologic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in low blood counts, most commonly anemia, and a risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 601626). Blood smears and bone marrow biopsies show dysplastic changes in myeloid cells, with abnormal proliferation and differentiation of 1 or more lineages (erythroid, myeloid, megakaryocytic). MDS can be subdivided into several categories based on morphologic characteristics, such as low-grade refractory anemia (RA) or high-grade refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB). Bone marrow biopsies of some patients show ringed sideroblasts (RARS), which reflects abnormal iron staining in mitochondria surrounding the nucleus of erythrocyte progenitors (summary by Delhommeau et al., 2009 and Papaemmanuil et al., 2011). [from OMIM]


Thrombocythemia 1

Thrombocythemia, or thrombocytosis, is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by excessive platelet production resulting in increased numbers of circulating platelets. Thrombocythemia can be associated with thrombotic or hemorrhagic episodes and occasional leukemic transformation (summary by Wiestner et al., 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Thrombocythemia THCYT2 (601977) is caused by germline or somatic mutation in the THPO receptor gene (MPL; 159530) on chromosome 1p34, and THCYT3 (614521) is caused by germline or somatic mutation in the JAK2 gene (147796) on chromosome 9p. Somatic mutations in the TET2 (612839), ASXL1 (612990), SH2B3 (605093), and SF3B1 (605590) genes have also been found in cases of essential thrombocythemia. Somatic mutation in the CALR gene (109091) occurs in approximately 70% of essential thrombocythemia patients who lack JAK2 and MPL mutations (Klampfl et al., 2013; Nangalia et al., 2013). [from OMIM]


EGFR-related lung cancer


Hemoglobin H disease

Hemoglobin H disease is a subtype of alpha-thalassemia (see 604131) in which patients have compound heterozygosity for alpha(+)-thalassemia, caused by deletion of one alpha-globin gene, and for alpha(0)-thalassemia, caused by deletion in cis of 2 alpha-globin genes (summary by Lal et al., 2011). When 3 alpha-globin genes become inactive because of deletions with or without concomitant nondeletional mutations, the affected individual has only 1 functional alpha-globin gene. These people usually have moderate anemia and marked microcytosis and hypochromia. In affected adults, there is an excess of beta-globin chains within erythrocytes that will form beta-4 tetramers, also known as hemoglobin H (summary by Chui et al., 2003). Hb H disease is usually caused by the combination of alpha(0)-thalassemia with deletional alpha(+)-thalassemia, a combination referred to as 'deletional' Hb H disease. In a smaller proportion of patients, Hb H disease is caused by an alpha(0)-thalassemia plus an alpha(+)-thalassemia point mutation or small insertion/deletion. Such a situation is labeled 'nondeletional' Hb H disease. Patients with nondeletional Hb H disease are usually more anemic, more symptomatic, more prone to have significant hepatosplenomegaly, and more likely to require transfusions (summary by Lal et al., 2011). [from OMIM]


Sickle cell-hemoglobin D disease

A rare, genetic hemoglobinopathy characterized by all the characteristics of sickle cell anemia (SCA). Clinical course is similar to SCA, including acute episodes of pain, splenic infarction and splenic sequestration crisis, vaso-occlusive crisis, acute chest syndrome, ischemic brain injury, osteomyelitis and avascular bone necrosis. The genotype is characterized by an HbS allele in combination with the HbD variant, beta121Glu>Gln. [from ORDO]


Sickle cell-beta-thalassemia

A heterozygous state in which a person has a hemoglobin S allele along with a beta-thalassemia allele. The severity of the condition is determined to a large extent by the quantity of normal hemoglobin produced by the beta-thalassemia gene. [from NCI]


Thalassemia minor

The inheritance of only one mutated beta-globin allele (beta+ or beta0). [from MONDO]


Beta thalassemia intermedia

Beta-thalassemia (BT) intermedia is a form of BT (see this term) characterized by mild to moderate anemia which does not or only occasionally requires transfusion. [from ORDO]


Panitumumab response

Panitumumab is a monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Panitumumab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonist, which works by blocking the growth of cancer cells. It is administered every 14 days as an intravenous (IV) infusion, often with chemotherapy. Panitumumab is approved for first-line therapy with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) and as monotherapy following disease progression after prior treatment with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin-, and irinotecan-containing chemotherapy. The location of the primary tumor correlates whether an individual with mCRC is likely respond to anti-EGFR therapy. Individuals with left-sided tumors are more likely to respond well to anti-EGFR therapy and have a better prognosis. Individuals with right-sided tumors have a worse prognosis and respond poorly to anti-EGFR therapy. However, only the genetic variation status of the tumor, and not the location of the tumor, is discussed in the FDA drug label’s dosing recommendations. Resistance to panitumumab is associated with specific RAS mutations. The RAS is a family of oncogenes that includes the KRAS and NRAS genes. When mutated, these genes have the ability to transform normal cells into cancerous cells by providing a continual growth stimulus to cells. The KRAS mutations are particularly common, being detectable in 40% of metastatic colorectal tumors. The KRAS mutations often lead to constitutive activation of the EGFR and are associated with resistance to anti-EGFR drugs such as panitumumab. Mutations in NRAS and another gene, BRAF, have also been associated with poor response to anti-EGFR therapy. The 2017 FDA-approved label states that panitumumab is indicated for wild-type RAS (no mutations in either KRAS or NRAS) mCRC. The label states that an FDA-approved test must be used to confirm the absence of RAS mutations before starting panitumumab, and that panitumumab is not indicated for the treatment of individuals with colorectal cancer with RAS mutations (in either NRAS or KRAS), or when the RAS genetic variation status is unknown. Similarly, the 2015 Update from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) states that anti-EGFR therapy should only be considered for the treatment of individuals whose tumor is determined to not have variations detected after extended RAS testing. The 2020 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline also strongly recommends KRAS/NRAS genotyping of tumor tissue in all individuals with mCRC. In addition, the guideline states the V600E mutation in the BRAF gene makes a response to panitumumab highly unlikely, unless given with a BRAF inhibitor. [from Medical Genetics Summaries]


Irinotecan response

Irinotecan (brand name Camptosar) is a topoisomerase I inhibitor widely used in the treatment of cancer. It is most frequently used in combination with other drugs to treat advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. However, irinotecan therapy is associated with a high incidence of toxicity, including severe neutropenia and diarrhea. Irinotecan is converted in the body to an active metabolite known as SN-38, which is then inactivated and detoxified by a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme encoded by the UGT1A1 gene. The UGT enzymes are responsible for glucuronidation, a process that transforms lipophilic metabolites into water-soluble metabolites that can be excreted from the body. The risk of irinotecan toxicity increases with genetic variants associated with reduced UGT enzyme activity, such as UGT1A1*28. The presence of this variant results in reduced excretion of irinotecan metabolites, which leads to increased active irinotecan metabolites in the blood. Approximately 10% of North Americans carry 2 copies of the UGT1A1*28 allele (homozygous, UGT1A1 *28/*28), and are more likely to develop neutropenia following irinotecan therapy. The FDA-approved drug label for irinotecan states that “when administered as a single-agent, a reduction in the starting dose by at least one level of irinotecan hydrochloride injection should be considered for patients known to be homozygous for the UGT1A1*28 allele. However, the precise dose reduction in this patient population is not known and subsequent dose modifications should be considered based on individual patient tolerance to treatment”. The Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG) of the Royal Dutch Association for the Advancement of Pharmacy (KNMP) recommends starting with 70% of the standard dose for homozygous carriers of the UGT1A1*28 allele. If the patient tolerates this initial dose, the dose can be increased guided by the neutrophil count. They state that no action is needed for heterozygous carriers of the UGT1A1*28 allele (e.g., UGT1A1 *1/*28). In addition, the French National Network of Pharmacogenetics (RNPGx) has proposed a decision tree for guiding irinotecan prescribing based on the UGT1A1 genotype and irinotecan dose. [from Medical Genetics Summaries]


Gefitinib response


Erlotinib response

Results: 1 to 20 of 53

IMPORTANT NOTE: NIH does not independently verify information submitted to the GTR; it relies on submitters to provide information that is accurate and not misleading. NIH makes no endorsements of tests or laboratories listed in the GTR. GTR is not a substitute for medical advice. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.