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Lissencephaly due to LIS1 mutation

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]


Noonan syndrome 1

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population. [from GeneReviews]


LEOPARD syndrome 1

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck, and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth restriction resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th centile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20% of affected individuals, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML. [from GeneReviews]


SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation

Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021). [from OMIM]


Familial idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome with often-early onset defined by severe proteinuria with low serum albumin and possible edema. This disease is rare but severe as it usually progresses to end-stage renal failure. Mutations in the NPHS2 gene (chromosome 1q25-q31 and encoding podocine) have been found to be involved in autosomal recessive forms of the disease. Mutations in the podocine gene have also been detected in later-onset forms and in apparently sporadic forms. Mutations in the ACTN4 gene, coding for alpha-actinine 4, have been reported in autosomal dominant forms. Familial forms of idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome do not respond to any treatment with steroids or immunosuppressive drugs and the disease progress to terminal renal failure. [from SNOMEDCT_US]


Chromosome 17q21.31 duplication syndrome

The syndrome is associated with a broad clinical spectrum, of which behavioral disorders and poor social interaction seem to be the most consistent. Only five patients have been reported to date. All patients have behavioral disorders suggesting that some of the genes within the duplication interval may be candidates for the autistic spectrum. Intellectual skills range from normal to mild intellectual deficiency. Other features are variable with no striking common phenotypic features. [from SNOMEDCT_US]


Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) includes the following phenotypes: MEN2A, FMTC (familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, which may be a variant of MEN2A), and MEN2B. All three phenotypes involve high risk for development of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC); MEN2A and MEN2B involve an increased risk for pheochromocytoma; MEN2A involves an increased risk for parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia. Additional features in MEN2B include mucosal neuromas of the lips and tongue, distinctive facies with enlarged lips, ganglioneuromatosis of the gastrointestinal tract, and a marfanoid habitus. MTC typically occurs in early childhood in MEN2B, early adulthood in MEN2A, and middle age in FMTC. [from GeneReviews]


Steinert myotonic dystrophy syndrome

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystem disorder that affects skeletal and smooth muscle as well as the eye, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system. The clinical findings, which span a continuum from mild to severe, have been categorized into three somewhat overlapping phenotypes: mild, classic, and congenital. Mild DM1 is characterized by cataract and mild myotonia (sustained muscle contraction); life span is normal. Classic DM1 is characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, myotonia, cataract, and often cardiac conduction abnormalities; adults may become physically disabled and may have a shortened life span. Congenital DM1 is characterized by hypotonia and severe generalized weakness at birth, often with respiratory insufficiency and early death; intellectual disability is common. [from GeneReviews]


Glucocorticoid deficiency 1

Familial glucocorticoid deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defects in the action of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) to stimulate glucocorticoid synthesis in the adrenal. Production of mineralocorticoids by the adrenal is normal. Patients present in early life with low or undetectable cortisol and, because of the failure of the negative feedback loop to the pituitary and hypothalamus, grossly elevated ACTH levels (summary by Clark et al., 2009). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency Familial glucocorticoid deficiency-2 (GCCD2; 607398) is caused by mutation in the MRAP gene (609196) on chromosome 21q22. GCCD3 (609197) has been mapped to chromosome 8q11.2-q13.2. GCCD4 with or without mineralocorticoid deficiency (614736) is caused by mutation in the NNT gene (607878) on chromosome 5p12. GCCD5 (617825) is caused by mutation in the TXNRD2 gene (606448) on chromosome 22q11. [from OMIM]


Abnormality of mitochondrial metabolism

A functional anomaly of mitochondria. [from HPO]


Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism

Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, variable hyperaldosteronism, and abnormal adrenal steroid production, including 18-oxocortisol and 18-hydroxycortisol (Lifton et al., 1992). There is significant phenotypic heterogeneity, and some individuals never develop hypertension (Stowasser et al., 2000). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Hyperaldosteronism Familial hyperaldosteronism type II (HALD2; 605635) is caused by mutation in the CLCN2 gene (600570) on chromosome 3q27. Familial hyperaldosteronism type III (HALD3; 613677) is caused by mutation in the KCNJ5 gene (600734) on chromosome 11q24. Familial hyperaldosteronism type IV (HALD4; 617027) is caused by mutation in the CACNA1H gene (607904) on chromosome 16p13. [from OMIM]


Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70. [from HPO]


Monosomy 9q22.3

About 20 percent of people with a 9q22.3 microdeletion experience overgrowth (macrosomia), which results in increased height and weight compared to unaffected peers. The macrosomia often begins before birth and continues into childhood. Other physical changes that are sometimes associated with a 9q22.3 microdeletion include the premature fusion of certain bones in the skull (metopic craniosynostosis) and a buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus). Affected individuals can also have distinctive facial features such as a prominent forehead with vertical skin creases, upward- or downward-slanting eyes, a short nose, and a long space between the nose and upper lip (philtrum).\n\n9q22.3 microdeletions also cause the characteristic features of Gorlin syndrome (also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome). This genetic condition affects many areas of the body and increases the risk of developing various cancerous and noncancerous tumors. In people with Gorlin syndrome, the type of cancer diagnosed most often is basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer. Most people with this condition also develop noncancerous (benign) tumors of the jaw, called keratocystic odontogenic tumors, which can cause facial swelling and tooth displacement. Other types of tumors that occur in some people with Gorlin syndrome include a form of childhood brain cancer called a medulloblastoma and a type of benign tumor called a fibroma that occurs in the heart or in a woman's ovaries. Other features of Gorlin syndrome include small depressions (pits) in the skin of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet; an unusually large head size (macrocephaly) with a prominent forehead; and skeletal abnormalities involving the spine, ribs, or skull.\n\nMany individuals with a 9q22.3 microdeletion have delayed development, particularly affecting the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. In some people, the delays are temporary and improve in childhood. More severely affected individuals have permanent developmental disabilities along with intellectual impairment and learning problems. Rarely, seizures have been reported in people with a 9q22.3 microdeletion.\n\n9q22.3 microdeletion is a chromosomal change in which a small piece of chromosome 9 is deleted in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome in a region designated q22.3. This chromosomal change is associated with delayed development, intellectual disability, certain physical abnormalities, and the characteristic features of a genetic condition called Gorlin syndrome. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]


17q11.2 microduplication syndrome

Syndrome that has characteristics of dysmorphic features and intellectual deficit. It has been described in seven patients within one family. 17q11.2 microduplication encompasses the NF1 region. The underlying mechanism may be non-allelic homologous recombination. The study of pedigree suggests that this microduplication segregates within the family for at least two generations. Two patients displayed a normal clinical presentation, suggesting an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. [from SNOMEDCT_US]


Platelet-type bleeding disorder 11

Platelet-type bleeding disorder-11 is an autosomal recessive mild to moderate bleeding disorder caused by defective platelet activation and aggregation in response to collagen (summary by Dumont et al., 2009). [from OMIM]


Mitochondrial non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss

Mitochondrial nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) of variable onset and severity. Pathogenic variants in MT-RNR1 can be associated with predisposition to aminoglycoside ototoxicity and/or late-onset SNHL. Hearing loss associated with aminoglycoside ototoxicity is bilateral and severe to profound, occurring within a few days to weeks after administration of any amount (even a single dose) of an aminoglycoside antibiotic such as gentamycin, tobramycin, amikacin, kanamycin, or streptomycin. Pathogenic variants in MT-TS1 are usually associated with childhood onset of SNHL that is generally nonsyndromic – although the MT-TS1 substitution m.7445A>G has been found in some families who also have palmoplantar keratoderma (scaling, hyperkeratosis, and honeycomb appearance of the skin of the palms, soles, and heels). [from GeneReviews]


Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic, susceptibility to, 2

NAFLD and NASH are thought to account for many cases of cirrhosis that have no obvious underlying cause (cryptogenic cirrhosis); at least one-third of people with NASH eventually develop cirrhosis. People with NAFLD, NASH, and cirrhosis are also at increased risk of developing liver cancer (hepatocellular cancer).\n\nNAFLD is most common in middle-aged or older people, although younger people, including children, are also affected. It is often considered as part of a group of conditions known collectively as the metabolic syndrome; in addition to NAFLD, the metabolic syndrome includes obesity, type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes (insulin resistance), high levels of fats (lipids) such as cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, and high blood pressure (hypertension). However, a person with NAFLD may not have all or any of the other conditions that make up the metabolic syndrome, and individuals with some or all of those conditions may not have NAFLD.\n\nBetween 7 and 30 percent of people with NAFLD develop inflammation of the liver (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, also known as NASH), leading to liver damage. Minor damage to the liver can be repaired by the body. However, severe or long-term damage can lead to the replacement of normal liver tissue with scar tissue (fibrosis), resulting in irreversible liver disease (cirrhosis) that causes the liver to stop working properly. Signs and symptoms of cirrhosis, which get worse as fibrosis affects more of the liver, include fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea, swelling (edema), and yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice). Scarring in the vein that carries blood into the liver from the other digestive organs (the portal vein) can lead to increased pressure in that blood vessel (portal hypertension), resulting in swollen blood vessels (varices) within the digestive system. Rupture of these varices can cause life-threatening bleeding.\n\nThe fat deposits in the liver associated with NAFLD usually cause no symptoms, although they may cause increased levels of liver enzymes that are detected in routine blood tests. Some affected individuals have abdominal pain or fatigue. During a physical examination, the liver may be found to be slightly enlarged.\n\nNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a buildup of excessive fat in the liver that can lead to liver damage resembling the damage caused by alcohol abuse, but that occurs in people who do not drink heavily. The liver is a part of the digestive system that helps break down food, store energy, and remove waste products, including toxins. The liver normally contains some fat; an individual is considered to have a fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) if the liver contains more than 5 to 10 percent fat. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]


Potocki-Lupski syndrome

Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) is characterized by cognitive, behavioral, and medical manifestations. Cognitively, most individuals present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for moderate intellectual disability. Behaviorally, issues with attention, hyperactivity, withdrawal, and anxiety may be seen. Some individuals meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Medically, hypotonia, oropharyngeal dysphagia leading to failure to thrive, congenital heart disease, hypoglycemia associated with growth hormone deficiency, and mildly dysmorphic facial features are observed. Medical manifestations typically lead to identification of PTLS in infancy; however, those with only behavioral and cognitive manifestations may be identified in later childhood. [from GeneReviews]

Results: 1 to 20 of 86

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