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A pregnancy that ends at a stage in which the fetus is incapable of surviving on its own, defined as the spontaneous loss of a fetus before the 22th week of pregnancy. [from HPO]


Trisomy 18

Trisomy 18 is a chromosomal abnormality associated with the presence of an extra chromosome 18 and characterized by growth delay, dolichocephaly, a characteristic facies, limb anomalies and visceral malformations. [from ORDO]


Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal hematologic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in low blood counts, most commonly anemia, and a risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 601626). Blood smears and bone marrow biopsies show dysplastic changes in myeloid cells, with abnormal proliferation and differentiation of 1 or more lineages (erythroid, myeloid, megakaryocytic). MDS can be subdivided into several categories based on morphologic characteristics, such as low-grade refractory anemia (RA) or high-grade refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB). Bone marrow biopsies of some patients show ringed sideroblasts (RARS), which reflects abnormal iron staining in mitochondria surrounding the nucleus of erythrocyte progenitors (summary by Delhommeau et al., 2009 and Papaemmanuil et al., 2011). [from OMIM]


Pregnancy loss, recurrent, susceptibility to, 1

Miscarriage, the commonest complication of pregnancy, is the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the fetus has reached viability. The term therefore includes all pregnancy losses from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent miscarriage, defined as 3 or more consecutive pregnancy losses, affects about 1% of couples; when defined as 2 or more losses, the scale of the problem increases to 5% of all couples trying to conceive (summary by Rai and Regan, 2006). Pregnancy losses have traditionally been designated 'spontaneous abortions' if they occur before 20 weeks gestation and 'stillbirths' if they occur after 20 weeks. Subtypes of spontaneous abortions can be further distinguished on the basis of embryonic development and include anembryonic loss in the first 5 weeks after conception (so-called 'blighted ovum'), embryonic loss from 6 to 9 weeks' gestation, and fetal loss from 10 weeks' gestation through the remainder of the pregnancy. These distinctions are important because the causes of pregnancy loss vary over gestational ages, with anembryonic losses being more likely to be associated with chromosomal abnormalities, for example. Possible etiologies for RPRGL include uterine anatomic abnormalities, cytogenetic abnormalities in the parents or fetus, single gene disorders, thrombophilic conditions, and immunologic or endocrine factors as well as environmental or infectious agents (summary by Warren and Silver, 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Susceptibility to RPRGL2 (614390) is conferred by mutation in the coagulation factor II gene (176930) on chromosome 11p11; RPRGL3 (614391) by mutation in the ANXA5 gene (131230) on chromosome 4q27; and RPRGL4 (see 270960) by mutation in the SYCP3 gene (604759) on chromosome 12q23. Genetic variation in the conceptus itself that results in decreased viability of the embryo or fetus is discussed in the respective gene and/or phenotype entry (see, e.g., MTHFR, 607093.0004; NLRP7, 609661; hydatidiform mole, 231090). [from OMIM]


Double Y syndrome

47,XYY syndrome is characterized by an extra copy of the Y chromosome in each of an individual's cells. Although many people with this condition are taller than average, the chromosomal change sometimes causes no unusual physical features. Most individuals with 47,XYY syndrome have normal production of the male sex hormone testosterone and normal male sexual development, and they are usually able to father children.\n\n47,XYY syndrome is associated with an increased risk of learning disabilities and delayed development of speech and language skills. Affected children can have delayed development of motor skills (such as sitting and walking) or weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Other signs and symptoms of this condition include hand tremors or other involuntary movements (motor tics), seizures, and asthma. Individuals with 47,XYY syndrome have an increased risk of behavioral, social, and emotional difficulties compared with their unaffected peers. These problems include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); depression; anxiety; and autism spectrum disorder, which is a group of developmental conditions that affect communication and social interaction.\n\nPhysical features related to 47,XYY syndrome can include increased belly fat, a large head (macrocephaly), unusually large teeth (macrodontia), flat feet (pes planus), fifth fingers that curve inward (clinodactyly), widely spaced eyes (ocular hypertelorism), and abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis). These characteristics vary widely among people with this condition. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]


46,XY disorder of sex development and 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis

People with Swyer syndrome have female external genitalia and some female internal reproductive structures. These individuals usually have a uterus and fallopian tubes, but their gonads (ovaries or testes) are not functional. Instead, the gonads are small and underdeveloped and contain little gonadal tissue. These structures are called  streak gonads. The streak gonadal tissue is at risk of developing cancer that is often hard-to-detect, so it is usually removed surgically. Swyer syndrome is also called 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis; the medical term “dysgenesis” means "abnormal development."\n\nBecause they appear female on the outside, babies with Swyer syndrome are usually raised as girls and develop a female gender identity, which is a person's sense of their gender (girl, boy, a combination, or neither). Swyer syndrome may be identified before birth, at birth, or later when a child does not go through puberty as usual. Because they do not have functional ovaries that produce hormones, affected individuals often begin hormone replacement therapy during early adolescence to start puberty, causing the breasts and uterus to grow, and eventually leading to menstruation. Hormone replacement therapy is also important for bone health and helps reduce the risk of low bone density (osteopenia) and fragile bones (osteoporosis). Women with Swyer syndrome do not produce eggs (ova), but if they have a uterus, they may be able to become pregnant with a donated egg or embryo.\n\nChromosomes contain the genetic instructions for how the body develops and functions. People usually have 46 chromosomes in each cell. Two of the 46 chromosomes, known as X and Y, are called sex chromosomes because they help determine whether a person will develop male or female reproductive structures. Girls and women typically have two X chromosomes (46,XX karyotype), while boys and men typically have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome (46,XY karyotype). In Swyer syndrome, individuals have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome in each cell, which is the pattern typically found in boys and men; however, they have female reproductive structures.\n\nSwyer syndrome is a condition that affects sex development. Sex development usually follows a particular path based on an individual's chromosomes; however, in Swyer syndrome, sex development is not typical for the affected individual's chromosomal pattern. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]


Chromosome 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome

22q11.2 duplication is a condition caused by an extra copy of a small piece of chromosome 22. The duplication occurs near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated q11.2.\n\nThe features of this condition vary widely, even among members of the same family. Affected individuals may have developmental delay, intellectual disability, slow growth leading to short stature, and weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Many people with the duplication have no apparent physical or intellectual disabilities. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]


46,XX testicular disorder of sex development

Nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) are characterized by: the presence of a 46,XX karyotype; external genitalia ranging from typical male to ambiguous; two testicles; azoospermia; absence of müllerian structures; and absence of other syndromic features, such as congenital anomalies outside of the genitourinary system, learning disorders / cognitive impairment, or behavioral issues. Approximately 85% of individuals with nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular DSD present after puberty with normal pubic hair and normal penile size but small testes, gynecomastia, and sterility resulting from azoospermia. Approximately 15% of individuals with nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular DSD present at birth with ambiguous genitalia. Gender role and gender identity are reported as male. If untreated, males with 46,XX testicular DSD experience the consequences of testosterone deficiency. [from GeneReviews]


4p partial monosomy syndrome

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, developmental disability of variable degree, characteristic craniofacial features ('Greek warrior helmet' appearance of the nose, high forehead, prominent glabella, hypertelorism, high-arched eyebrows, protruding eyes, epicanthal folds, short philtrum, distinct mouth with downturned corners, and micrognathia), and a seizure disorder (Battaglia et al., 2008). [from OMIM]


Myeloproliferative disorder, chronic, with eosinophilia

PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type of cancer of blood-forming cells. It is characterized by an elevated number of white blood cells called eosinophils in the blood. These cells help fight infections by certain parasites and are involved in the inflammation associated with allergic reactions. However, these circumstances do not account for the increased number of eosinophils in PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Some people with this condition have an increased number of other types of white blood cells, such as neutrophils or mast cells, in addition to eosinophils. People with this condition can have an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly) or enlarged liver (hepatomegaly). Some affected individuals develop skin rashes, likely as a result of an abnormal immune response due to the increased number of eosinophils. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]


SHOX-related short stature

Idiopathic short stature is usually defined as a height below the third percentile for chronological age or minus 2 standard deviations (SD) of national height standards in the absence of specific causative disorders (Rao et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of quantitative trait loci for stature, see STQTL1 (606255). [from OMIM]


X inactivation, familial skewed, 1

In mammals, the potential imbalance of gene expression for the two X chromosomes in females is resolved by inactivating one X in all somatic tissues. In the embryo proper, the process of X inactivation is considered to be random between the maternal and paternal chromosomes. Thus, most females have mosaic expression of maternal and paternal alleles of X chromosome loci, with a contribution of about 50% from each chromosome. However, some females show a skewed ratio of X inactivation, which can be due to negative or positive selection, or to an underlying primary genetic process. Belmont (1996) observed familial clustering of females with highly skewed patterns of X inactivation and reviewed the genetic control of X inactivation. Genetic Heterogeneity of Skewed X Inactivation See also SXI2 (300179) for a locus that maps to chromosome Xq25-q26. [from OMIM]


Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome

The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features. [from OMIM]


Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 1 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]


Breast neoplasm

A tumor (abnormal growth of tissue) of the breast. [from HPO]


Lung carcinoma

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. and worldwide. The 2 major forms of lung cancer are nonsmall cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer (see 182280), which account for 85% and 15% of all lung cancers, respectively. Nonsmall cell lung cancer can be divided into 3 major histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung cancer. Cigarette smoking causes all types of lung cancer, but it is most strongly linked with small cell lung cancer and squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type in patients who have never smoked. Nonsmall cell lung cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis (summary by Herbst et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

Results: 1 to 20 of 49

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