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VEXAS syndrome

VEXAS (vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, autoinflammatory, somatic syndrome) is an adult-onset inflammatory disease that primarily affects males and is caused by somatic, not germline, mutations. The disorder is characterized by adult onset of rheumatologic symptoms at a mean age of 64 years. Features include recurrent fevers, pulmonary and dermatologic inflammatory manifestations, vasculitis, deep vein thrombosis, arthralgias, and ear and nose chondritis. Laboratory studies indicate hematologic abnormalities, including macrocytic anemia, as well as increased levels of acute-phase reactants; about half of patients have positive autoantibodies. Bone marrow biopsy shows degenerative vacuolization restricted to myeloid and erythroid precursor cells, as well as variable hematopoietic dyspoiesis and dysplasias. The condition does not respond to rheumatologic medications and the features may result in premature death (summary by Beck et al., 2020). [from OMIM]


Lynch syndrome

Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome. [from GeneReviews]


Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal hematologic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in low blood counts, most commonly anemia, and a risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 601626). Blood smears and bone marrow biopsies show dysplastic changes in myeloid cells, with abnormal proliferation and differentiation of 1 or more lineages (erythroid, myeloid, megakaryocytic). MDS can be subdivided into several categories based on morphologic characteristics, such as low-grade refractory anemia (RA) or high-grade refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB). Bone marrow biopsies of some patients show ringed sideroblasts (RARS), which reflects abnormal iron staining in mitochondria surrounding the nucleus of erythrocyte progenitors (summary by Delhommeau et al., 2009 and Papaemmanuil et al., 2011). [from OMIM]


Thrombocythemia 1

Thrombocythemia, or thrombocytosis, is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by excessive platelet production resulting in increased numbers of circulating platelets. Thrombocythemia can be associated with thrombotic or hemorrhagic episodes and occasional leukemic transformation (summary by Wiestner et al., 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Thrombocythemia THCYT2 (601977) is caused by germline or somatic mutation in the THPO receptor gene (MPL; 159530) on chromosome 1p34, and THCYT3 (614521) is caused by germline or somatic mutation in the JAK2 gene (147796) on chromosome 9p. Somatic mutations in the TET2 (612839), ASXL1 (612990), SH2B3 (605093), and SF3B1 (605590) genes have also been found in cases of essential thrombocythemia. Somatic mutation in the CALR gene (109091) occurs in approximately 70% of essential thrombocythemia patients who lack JAK2 and MPL mutations (Klampfl et al., 2013; Nangalia et al., 2013). [from OMIM]


D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria 2

2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a condition that causes progressive damage to the brain. The major types of this disorder are called D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA), L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), and combined D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D,L-2-HGA).\n\nThe main features of D-2-HGA are delayed development, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and abnormalities in the largest part of the brain (the cerebrum), which controls many important functions such as muscle movement, speech, vision, thinking, emotion, and memory. Researchers have described two subtypes of D-2-HGA, type I and type II. The two subtypes are distinguished by their genetic cause and pattern of inheritance, although they also have some differences in signs and symptoms. Type II tends to begin earlier and often causes more severe health problems than type I. Type II may also be associated with a weakened and enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy), a feature that is typically not found with type I.\n\nL-2-HGA particularly affects a region of the brain called the cerebellum, which is involved in coordinating movements. As a result, many affected individuals have problems with balance and muscle coordination (ataxia). Additional features of L-2-HGA can include delayed development, seizures, speech difficulties, and an unusually large head (macrocephaly). Typically, signs and symptoms of this disorder begin during infancy or early childhood. The disorder worsens over time, usually leading to severe disability by early adulthood.\n\nCombined D,L-2-HGA causes severe brain abnormalities that become apparent in early infancy. Affected infants have severe seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and breathing and feeding problems. They usually survive only into infancy or early childhood. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]


Glioma susceptibility 1

Gliomas are central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells and comprise astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, and subependymomas. Glial cells can show various degrees of differentiation even within the same tumor (summary by Kyritsis et al., 2010). Ependymomas are rare glial tumors of the brain and spinal cord (Yokota et al., 2003). Subependymomas are unusual tumors believed to arise from the bipotential subependymal cell, which normally differentiates into either ependymal cells or astrocytes. They were characterized as a distinct entity by Scheinker (1945). They tend to be slow-growing, noninvasive, and located in the ventricular system, septum pellucidum, cerebral aqueduct, or proximal spinal cord (summary by Ryken et al., 1994). Gliomas are known to occur in association with several other well-defined hereditary tumor syndromes such as mismatch repair cancer syndrome (see 276300), melanoma-astrocytoma syndrome (155755), neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1; 162200) and neurofibromatosis-2 (see SWNV, 101000), and tuberous sclerosis (TSC1; 191100). Familial clustering of gliomas may occur in the absence of these tumor syndromes, however. Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Glioma Other glioma susceptibilities include GLM2 (613028), caused by variation in the PTEN gene (601728) on chromosome 10q23; GLM3 (613029), caused by variation in the BRCA2 gene (600185) on chromosome 13q13; GLM4 (607248), mapped to chromosome 15q23-q26.3; GLM5 (613030), mapped to chromosome 9p21; GLM6 (613031), mapped to chromosome 20q13; GLM7 (613032), mapped to chromosome 8q24; GLM8 (613033), mapped to chromosome 5p15; and GLM9, caused by variation in the POT1 gene (606478) on chromosome 7q31. Somatic mutation, disruption, or copy number variation of the following genes or loci may also contribute to the formation of glioma: ERBB (EGFR; 131550), ERBB2 (164870), LGI1 (604619), GAS41 (602116), GLI (165220), DMBT1 (601969), IDH1 (147700), IDH2 (147650), BRAF (164757), PARK2 (602544), TP53 (191170), RB1 (614041), PIK3CA (171834), 10p15, 19q, and 17p13.3. [from OMIM]


Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major histologic type of malignant primary liver neoplasm. It is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. The major risk factors for HCC are chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, prolonged dietary aflatoxin exposure, alcoholic cirrhosis, and cirrhosis due to other causes. Hepatoblastomas comprise 1 to 2% of all malignant neoplasms of childhood, most often occurring in children under 3 years of age. Hepatoblastomas are thought to be derived from undifferentiated hepatocytes (Taniguchi et al., 2002). [from OMIM]


Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer

Lynch syndrome, often called hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is an inherited disorder that increases the risk of many types of cancer, particularly cancers of the colon (large intestine) and rectum, which are collectively referred to as colorectal cancer. People with Lynch syndrome also have an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, small intestine, liver, gallbladder ducts, urinary tract, brain, and skin. Additionally, women with this disorder have a high risk of cancer of the ovaries and lining of the uterus (endometrial cancer). Women with Lynch syndrome have a higher overall risk of developing cancer than men with the condition because of these cancers of the female reproductive system. In individuals with Lynch syndrome who develop cancer, the cancer typically occurs in their forties or fifties.\n\nPeople with Lynch syndrome may occasionally have noncancerous (benign) growths in the colon, called colon polyps. In individuals with this disorder, colon polyps occur at a younger age but not in greater numbers than they do in the general population. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]


Myeloproliferative neoplasm

A clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder, characterized by proliferation in the bone marrow of one or more of the myeloid (i.e., granulocytic, erythroid, megakaryocytic, and mast cell) lineages. It is primarily a neoplasm of adults. (WHO 2008) [from NCI]


Lung carcinoma

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. and worldwide. The 2 major forms of lung cancer are nonsmall cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer (see 182280), which account for 85% and 15% of all lung cancers, respectively. Nonsmall cell lung cancer can be divided into 3 major histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung cancer. Cigarette smoking causes all types of lung cancer, but it is most strongly linked with small cell lung cancer and squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type in patients who have never smoked. Nonsmall cell lung cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis (summary by Herbst et al., 2008). [from OMIM]


Cellular mosaicism

The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with mosaicism in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual. [from NCI]


Solid tumor

A benign or malignant neoplasm arising from tissues that do not include fluid areas. Representative examples include epithelial neoplasms (e.g. lung carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma), and neoplasms arising from the soft tissues and bones (e.g. leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma). Neoplasms originating from the blood or bone marrow (leukemias and myeloproliferative disorders) are not considered solid tumors. [from NCI]


Gastrointestinal stromal tumor

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors found in the gastrointestinal tract that originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells that regulate peristalsis in the digestive tract. Approximately 70% of GISTs develop in the stomach, 20% in the small intestine, and less than 10% in the esophagus, colon, and rectum. GISTs are typically more cellular than other gastrointestinal sarcomas. They occur predominantly in patients who are 40 to 70 years old but in rare cases may occur in younger persons (Miettinen et al., 1999, 1999). GISTs are also seen as a feature in several syndromes, e.g., neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1; 162200) and GIST-plus syndrome (175510). [from OMIM]


T-cell lymphoma

A type of lymphoma that originates in T-cells. [from HPO]


Precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

A type of ALL characterized by elevated levels of B-cell lymphoblasts in the bone marrow and the blood. [from HPO]


Colorectal cancer

Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome. [from GeneReviews]


Chronic myelogenous leukemia, BCR-ABL1 positive

A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased proliferation of the granulocytic cell line without the loss of their capacity to differentiate. [from HPO]


Lung cancer

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm involving the lung. [from NCI]


Acquired polycythemia vera

Polycythemia vera (PV), the most common form of primary polycythemia, is caused by somatic mutation in a single hematopoietic stem cell leading to clonal hematopoiesis. PV is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized predominantly by erythroid hyperplasia, but also by myeloid leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, and splenomegaly. Familial cases of PV are very rare and usually manifest in elderly patients (Cario, 2005). PV is distinct from the familial erythrocytoses (see, e.g., ECYT1, 133100), which are caused by inherited mutations resulting in hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to hormonal influences or increased levels of circulating hormones, namely erythropoietin (EPO; 133170) (Prchal, 2005). [from OMIM]

Results: 1 to 20 of 34

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