U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

GTR Home > Conditions/Phenotypes > Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A, 4


Excerpted from the GeneReview: Fukuyama Congenital Muscular Dystrophy
Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is characterized by hypotonia, symmetric generalized muscle weakness, and CNS migration disturbances that result in changes consistent with cobblestone lissencephaly with cerebral and cerebellar cortical dysplasia. Mild, typical, and severe phenotypes are recognized. Onset typically occurs in early infancy with poor suck, weak cry, and floppiness. Affected individuals have contractures of the hips, knees, and interphalangeal joints. Later features include myopathic facial appearance, pseudohypertrophy of the calves and forearms, motor and speech delays, intellectual disability, seizures, ophthalmologic abnormalities including visual impairment and retinal dysplasia, and progressive cardiac involvement after age ten years. Swallowing disturbance occurs in individuals with severe FCMD and in individuals older than age ten years, leading to recurrent aspiration pneumonia and death.

Available tests

151 tests are in the database for this condition.

Check Related conditions for additional relevant tests.

Genes See tests for all associated and related genes

  • Also known as: CMD1X, FCMD, LGMD2M, LGMDR13, MDDGA4, MDDGB4, MDDGC4, FKTN
    Summary: fukutin

Clinical features


Show allHide all

IMPORTANT NOTE: NIH does not independently verify information submitted to the GTR; it relies on submitters to provide information that is accurate and not misleading. NIH makes no endorsements of tests or laboratories listed in the GTR. GTR is not a substitute for medical advice. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.