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GTR Home > Conditions/Phenotypes > Hypospadias 1, X-linked


Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the penis, affecting approximately 1 in 750 births in Europe. Due to developmental arrest of urethral fusion, the urethral opening is displaced along the ventral side of the penis. The opening can be located glanular, penile, or even more posterior in the scrotum or perineum. Although most children with this condition undergo surgery in their second year of life, serious medical, social, and sexual problems may still exist later in life (summary by van der Zanden et al., 2011). Hypospadias is a feature of several syndromic disorders, including the androgen insensitivity syndrome (300068) and Opitz syndrome (300000). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hypospadias See also HYSP2 (300758), caused by mutation in the MAMLD1 gene (300120) on chromosome Xq28; HYSP3 (146450), a familial form which has been mapped to chromosome 7q32.2-q36.1; and HYSP4 (300856), a susceptibility locus mapped to chromosome Xp11.22 and associated with variation in the DGKK gene (300837). [from OMIM]

Genes See tests for all associated and related genes

  • Also known as: AIS, AR8, DHTR, HUMARA, HYSP1, KD, NR3C4, SBMA, SMAX1, TFM, AR
    Summary: androgen receptor

Clinical features


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