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Excerpted from the GeneReview: Lynch Syndrome
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.

Genes See tests for all associated and related genes

  • Also known as: COCA2, FCC2, HNPCC, HNPCC2, LYNCH2, MLH-1, MMRCS1, hMLH1, MLH1
    Summary: mutL homolog 1

  • Also known as: COCA1, FCC1, HNPCC, HNPCC1, LCFS2, LYNCH1, MMRCS2, MSH-2, hMSH2, MSH2
    Summary: mutS homolog 2

  • Also known as: GTBP, GTMBP, HNPCC5, HSAP, LYNCH5, MMRCS3, MSH-6, p160, MSH6
    Summary: mutS homolog 6

  • Also known as: HNPCC4, LYNCH4, MLH4, MMRCS4, PMS-2, PMS2CL, PMSL2, PMS2
    Summary: PMS1 homolog 2, mismatch repair system component

Suggested reading

Practice guidelines

  • EHTG/ESCP, 2021
    European guidelines from the EHTG and ESCP for Lynch syndrome: an updated third edition of the Mallorca guidelines based on gene and gender
  • ACMG, 2016
    Recommendations for reporting of secondary findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing, 2016 update (ACMG SF v2.0): a policy statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.
  • ASCO, 2015
    American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement Update: Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility
  • Mork et al., 2015
    Lynch Syndrome: A Primer for Urologists and Panel Recommendations.
  • ACG, 2015
    ACG clinical guideline: Genetic testing and management of hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes.
  • ASCO/ESMO, 2015
    Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline endorsement of the familial risk-colorectal cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines.
  • ACMG, 2015
    ACMG policy statement: updated recommendations regarding analysis and reporting of secondary findings in clinical genome-scale sequencing.
  • MSTF, 2014
    Guidelines on genetic evaluation and management of Lynch syndrome: a consensus statement by the US Multi-society Task Force on colorectal cancer.
  • ASCO, 2014
    American Society of Clinical Oncology Expert Statement: collection and use of a cancer family history for oncology providers.
  • SGO, 2014
    Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) Clinical Practice Statement: Screening for Lynch Syndrome in Endometrial Cancer
  • ACMG, 2014
    ACMG technical standards and guidelines for genetic testing for inherited colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, and MYH-associated polyposis).
  • ACMG, 2013
    ACMG recommendations for reporting of incidental findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing.
  • Dutch SCG, 2013
    Informing family members of individuals with Lynch syndrome: a guideline for clinical geneticists.
  • Mallorca group, 2013
    Revised guidelines for the clinical management of Lynch syndrome (HNPCC): recommendations by a group of European experts. (See EHTG/ESCP, 2021 Update)
  • CAPS, 2013
    International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) Consortium summit on the management of patients with increased risk for familial pancreatic cancer (See 2020 Update)
  • EGAPP, 2009
    Recommendations from the EGAPP Working Group: genetic testing strategies in newly diagnosed individuals with colorectal cancer aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality from Lynch syndrome in relatives
  • NSGC, 2004
    Genetic cancer risk assessment and counseling: recommendations of the National Society of Genetic Counselors. (Retired following 2012 Update)
  • ASCRS, 2001
    Practice parameters for the identification and testing of patients at risk for dominantly inherited colorectal cancer--supporting documentation.

Consumer resources

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