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Myocardial infarction

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Cardiovascular Stroke; Cardiovascular Strokes; Heart Attack; Heart Attacks; Infarct, Myocardial; Infarction, Myocardial; Infarctions, Myocardial; Infarcts, Myocardial; Myocardial Infarct; Myocardial Infarction; Myocardial Infarctions; Myocardial Infarcts; Stroke, Cardiovascular; Strokes, Cardiovascular
SNOMED CT: Myocardial infarct (22298006); MI - myocardial infarction (22298006); Myocardial infarction (22298006); Infarction of heart (22298006); Cardiac infarction (22298006); Heart attack (22298006)
HPO: HP:0001658
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005068


Necrosis of the myocardium caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart and often associated with chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, and anxiety as well as characteristic EKG findings and elevation of serum markers including creatine kinase-MB fraction and troponin. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Fabry disease
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Fabry disease is the most common of the lysosomal storage disorders and results from deficient activity of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (a-Gal A), leading to progressive lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide and its derivatives in cells throughout the body. The classic form, occurring in males with less than 1% a-Gal A enzyme activity, usually has its onset in childhood or adolescence with periodic crises of severe pain in the extremities (acroparesthesia), the appearance of vascular cutaneous lesions (angiokeratomas), sweating abnormalities (anhidrosis, hypohidrosis, and rarely hyperhidrosis), characteristic corneal and lenticular opacities, and proteinuria. Gradual deterioration of renal function to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually occurs in men in the third to fifth decade. In middle age, most males successfully treated for ESRD develop cardiac and/or cerebrovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Heterozygous females typically have milder symptoms at a later age of onset than males. Rarely, females may be relatively asymptomatic throughout a normal life span or may have symptoms as severe as those observed in males with the classic phenotype. In contrast, late-onset forms occur in males with greater than 1% a-Gal A activity. Clinical manifestations include cardiac disease, which usually presents in the sixth to eighth decade with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, and proteinuria; renal failure, associated with ESRD but without the skin lesions or pain; or cerebrovascular disease presenting as stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Fibromuscular dysplasia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMDA) is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory arterial disease that most commonly involves the renal and carotid arteries. The prevalence of symptomatic renal artery FMDA is about 4 in 1,000 and the prevalence of cervicocranial FMDA is about half of that. Histologic classification includes 3 main subtypes, intimal, medial, and perimedial, which may be associated in a single patient. Angiographic classification includes the multifocal type, with multiple stenoses and the 'string of beads' appearance that is related to medial FMDA, and tubular and focal types, which are not clearly related to specific histologic lesions (summary by Plouin et al., 2007)
Hyperlipidemia, familial combined, LPL related
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is characterized by fluctuations in serum lipid concentrations and may present as mixed hyperlipidemia, isolated hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or as a normal serum lipid profile in combination with abnormally elevated levels of apolipoprotein B (APOB; 107730). Patients with FCHL are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality and have a high frequency of comorbidity with other metabolic conditions such as type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome (summary by Bello-Chavolla et al., 2018). Goldstein et al. (1973) gave the designation 'familial combined hyperlipidemia' to the most common genetic form of hyperlipidemia identified in a study of survivors of myocardial infarction. Affected persons characteristically showed elevation of both cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. The combined disorder was shown to be distinct from familial hypercholesterolemia (143890) and from familial hypertriglyceridemia (145750) for the following reasons: (1) lipid distributions in relatives were unique; (2) unlike familial hypercholesterolemia, children of affected persons did not express hypercholesterolemia; and (3) informative matings suggested that variable expression of a single gene rather than segregation for 2 separate genes was responsible. This disorder leads to elevated levels of VLDL, LDL, or both in plasma. From time to time the pattern can change in a given person. Unlike familial hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia appears in only 10 to 20% of patients in childhood, usually in the form of hypertriglyceridemia. Xanthomas are rare. Increased production of VLDL may be a common underlying metabolic characteristic in this disorder, which may be heterogeneous. The disorder may be 5 times as frequent as familial hypercholesterolemia, occurring in 1% of the U.S. population. Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia Also see FCHL1 (602491), associated with variation in the USF1 gene (191523) on chromosome 1q23, and FCHL2 (604499), mapped to chromosome 11.
Langer-Giedion syndrome
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Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) comprises TRPS I (caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in TRPS1) and TRPS II (caused by contiguous gene deletion of TRPS1, RAD21, and EXT1). Both types of TRPS are characterized by distinctive facial features; ectodermal features (fine, sparse, depigmented, and slow growing hair; dystrophic nails; and small breasts); and skeletal findings (short stature; short feet; brachydactyly with ulnar or radial deviation of the fingers; and early, marked hip dysplasia). TRPS II is characterized by multiple osteochondromas (typically first observed clinically on the scapulae and around the elbows and knees between ages 1 month and 6 years) and an increased risk of mild-to-moderate intellectual disability.
Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is characterized by clinical features that typically develop in childhood and resemble some features of accelerated aging. Children with HGPS usually appear normal at birth. Profound failure to thrive occurs during the first year. Characteristic facial features include head that is disproportionately large for the face, narrow nasal ridge, narrow nasal tip, thin vermilion of the upper and lower lips, small mouth, and retro- and micrognathia. Common features include loss of subcutaneous fat, delayed eruption and loss of primary teeth, abnormal skin with small outpouchings over the abdomen and upper thighs, alopecia, nail dystrophy, coxa valga, and progressive joint contractures. Later findings include low-frequency conductive hearing loss, dental crowding, and partial lack of secondary tooth eruption. Motor and mental development is normal. Death occurs as a result of complications of severe atherosclerosis, either cardiac disease (myocardial infarction or heart failure) or cerebrovascular disease (stroke), generally between ages six and 20 years. Average life span is approximately 14.5 years.
Tangier disease
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Tangier disease is characterized by severe deficiency or absence of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the circulation resulting in tissue accumulation of cholesteryl esters throughout the body, particularly in the reticuloendothelial system. The major clinical signs of Tangier disease include hyperplastic yellow-orange tonsils, hepatosplenomegaly, and peripheral neuropathy, which may be either relapsing-remitting or chronic progressive in nature. Rarer complications may include corneal opacities that typically do not affect vision, premature atherosclerotic coronary artery disease occurring in the sixth and seventh decades of life (not usually before age 40 years), and mild hematologic manifestations, such as mild thrombocytopenia, reticulocytosis, stomatocytosis, or hemolytic anemia. The clinical expression of Tangier disease is variable, with some affected individuals only showing biochemical perturbations.
Cholestanol storage disease
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid storage disease characterized by infantile-onset diarrhea, childhood-onset cataract, adolescent- to young adult-onset tendon xanthomas, and adult-onset progressive neurologic dysfunction (dementia, psychiatric disturbances, pyramidal and/or cerebellar signs, dystonia, atypical parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures). Chronic diarrhea from infancy and/or neonatal cholestasis may be the earliest clinical manifestation. In approximately 75% of affected individuals, cataracts are the first finding, often appearing in the first decade of life. Xanthomas appear in the second or third decade; they occur on the Achilles tendon, the extensor tendons of the elbow and hand, the patellar tendon, and the neck tendons. Xanthomas have been reported in the lung, bones, and central nervous system. Some individuals show cognitive impairment from early infancy, whereas the majority have normal or only slightly impaired intellectual function until puberty; dementia with slow deterioration in intellectual abilities occurs in the third decade in more than 50% of individuals. Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as behavioral changes, hallucinations, agitation, aggression, depression, and suicide attempts may be prominent. Pyramidal signs (i.e., spasticity) and/or cerebellar signs almost invariably become evident between ages 20 and 30 years. The biochemical abnormalities that distinguish CTX from other conditions with xanthomas include high plasma and tissue cholestanol concentration, normal-to-low plasma cholesterol concentration, decreased chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), increased concentration of bile alcohols and their glyconjugates, and increased concentrations of cholestanol and apolipoprotein B in cerebrospinal fluid.
Classic homocystinuria
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Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Homocystinuria caused by cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) deficiency is characterized by involvement of the eye (ectopia lentis and/or severe myopia), skeletal system (excessive height, long limbs, scolioisis, and pectus excavatum), vascular system (thromboembolism), and CNS (developmental delay/intellectual disability). All four ? or only one ? of the systems can be involved; expressivity is variable for all of the clinical signs. It is not unusual for a previously asymptomatic individual to present in adult years with only a thromboembolic event that is often cerebrovascular. Two phenotypic variants are recognized, B6-responsive homocystinuria and B6-non-responsive homocystinuria. B6-responsive homocystinuria is usually milder than the non-responsive variant. Thromboembolism is the major cause of early death and morbidity. IQ in individuals with untreated homocystinuria ranges widely, from 10 to 138. In B6-responsive individuals the mean IQ is 79 versus 57 for those who are B6-non-responsive. Other features that may occur include: seizures, psychiatric problems, extrapyramidal signs (e.g., dystonia), hypopigmentation of the skin and hair, malar flush, livedo reticularis, and pancreatitis.
Upshaw-Schulman syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), also known as Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS), is a rare autosomal recessive thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Clinically, acute phases of TTP are defined by microangiopathic mechanical hemolytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and visceral ischemia. Hereditary TTP makes up 5% of TTP cases and is caused mostly by biallelic mutation in the ADAMTS13 gene, or in very rare cases, by monoallelic ADAMTS13 mutation associated with a cluster of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); most cases of all TTP (95%) are acquired via an autoimmune mechanism (see 188030). Hereditary TTP is more frequent among child-onset TTP compared with adult-onset TTP, and its clinical presentation is significantly different as a function of its age of onset. Child-onset TTP usually starts in the neonatal period with hematological features and severe jaundice. In contrast, almost all cases of adult-onset hereditary TTP are unmasked during the first pregnancy of a woman whose disease was silent during childhood (summary by Joly et al., 2018).
Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
The atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype (ALP) is a common heritable trait characterized by a preponderance of small, dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles (subclass pattern B), increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, reduction in high density lipoprotein, and a 3-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction (summary by Nishina et al., 1992). The so-called atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype was shown by Austin et al. (1988) to be independently associated with an increased risk for coronary artery disease. Allayee et al. (1998) concluded, furthermore, that there is a genetically based association between familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL; 144250) and small, dense LDL particles and that the genetic determinants for LDL particle size are shared, at least in part, among FCHL families and the more general population at risk for coronary artery disease. Juo et al. (1998) concluded from a bivariate segregation analysis of small, dense LDL particles and elevated apolipoprotein B levels (APOB; 107730), which are commonly found together in members of FCHL families, that the 2 traits share a common major gene plus individual polygenic components. The common major gene was estimated to explain 37% of the variance of adjusted LDL particle size and 23% of the variance of adjusted apoB levels.
Coronary artery disease, autosomal dominant, 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its most important complication, acute myocardial infarction (MI), are leading causes of death and disability in the developed world. Multiple risk factors for CAD/MI have been identified, including family history, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, smoking, and diabetes. Several genomewide scans of affected sib pairs have identified susceptibility loci for CAD, e.g., 607339 and 300464.
Arteriosclerosis, severe juvenile
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Coronary artery disease, autosomal dominant 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Any coronary artery disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the LRP6 gene.
Arterial calcification, generalized, of infancy, 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is characterized by infantile onset of widespread arterial calcification and/or narrowing of large and medium-sized vessels resulting in cardiovascular findings (which can include heart failure, respiratory distress, edema, cyanosis, hypertension, and/or cardiomegaly). Additional findings can include typical skin and retinal manifestations of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), periarticular calcifications, development of rickets after infancy, cervical spine fusion, and hearing loss. While mortality in infancy is high, survival into the third and fourth decades has occurred.
Obesity due to CEP19 deficiency
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic form of obesity characterized by morbid obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia leading to early coronary disease, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Intellectual disability and decreased sperm counts or azoospermia have also been reported.
Abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Any metabolic syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DYRK1B gene.
Primary familial polycythemia due to EPO receptor mutation
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP) is characterized by isolated erythrocytosis in an individual with a normal-sized spleen and absence of disorders causing secondary erythrocytosis. Clinical manifestations relate to the erythrocytosis and can include plethora, the hyperviscosity syndrome (headache, dizziness, fatigue, lassitude, visual and auditory disturbances, paresthesia, myalgia), altered mental status caused by hypoperfusion and local hypoxia, and arterial and/or venous thromboembolic events. Although the majority of individuals with PFCP have only mild manifestations of hyperviscosity such as dizziness or headache, some affected individuals have had severe and even fatal complications including arterial hypertension, intracerebral hemorrhage, deep vein thrombosis, coronary disease, and myocardial infarction. To date 116 affected individuals from 24 families have been reported.
Arterial calcification, generalized, of infancy, 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is characterized by infantile onset of widespread arterial calcification and/or narrowing of large and medium-sized vessels resulting in cardiovascular findings (which can include heart failure, respiratory distress, edema, cyanosis, hypertension, and/or cardiomegaly). Additional findings can include typical skin and retinal manifestations of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), periarticular calcifications, development of rickets after infancy, cervical spine fusion, and hearing loss. While mortality in infancy is high, survival into the third and fourth decades has occurred.
Macrothrombocytopenia and granulocyte inclusions with or without nephritis or sensorineural hearing loss
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is characterized in all affected individuals by hematologic features present from birth consisting of platelet macrocytosis (i.e., >40% of platelets larger than 3.9 µm in diameter), thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150 x 109/L), and aggregates of the MYH9 protein in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes. Most affected individuals develop one or more additional extrahematologic manifestations of the disease over their lifetime, including sensorineural hearing loss, renal disease (manifesting initially as glomerular nephropathy), presenile cataracts, and/or elevation of liver enzymes.
Abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome-4 (AOMS4) is characterized by obesity, hypertension, and early-onset coronary artery disease. Most affected individuals meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome, including elevated triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein levels, and type 2 diabetes (Esteghamat et al., 2019). For a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome, see AOMS1 (605552).
Hypoalphalipoproteinemia, primary, 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Any ypoalphalipoproteinemia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ABCA1 gene.

Professional guidelines


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Clinical prediction guides

Nagel E, Pappas L
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Recent systematic reviews

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