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Intracranial hemorrhage

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Pathologic Function
Synonyms: Intracranial bleed; Intracranial Hemorrhages
SNOMED CT: Intracranial hemorrhage (1386000)
HPO: HP:0002170


Hemorrhage occurring within the skull. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Menkes kinky-hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Menkes disease (MNK) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by generalized copper deficiency. The clinical features result from the dysfunction of several copper-dependent enzymes.
Glanzmann thrombasthenia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Glanzmann thrombasthenia is a bleeding disorder that is characterized by prolonged or spontaneous bleeding starting from birth. People with Glanzmann thrombasthenia tend to bruise easily, have frequent nosebleeds (epistaxis), and may bleed from the gums. They may also develop red or purple spots on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin (petechiae) or swelling caused by bleeding within tissues (hematoma). Glanzmann thrombasthenia can also cause prolonged bleeding following injury, trauma, or surgery (including dental work). Women with this condition can have prolonged and sometimes abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding. Affected women also have an increased risk of excessive blood loss during pregnancy and childbirth.\n\nAbout a quarter of individuals with Glanzmann thrombasthenia have bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, which often occurs later in life. Rarely, affected individuals have bleeding inside the skull (intracranial hemorrhage) or joints (hemarthrosis).\n\nThe severity and frequency of the bleeding episodes in Glanzmann thrombasthenia can vary greatly among affected individuals, even in the same family. Spontaneous bleeding tends to become less frequent with age.
Infantile hypophosphatasia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hypophosphatasia is characterized by defective mineralization of growing or remodeling bone, with or without root-intact tooth loss, in the presence of low activity of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase. Clinical features range from stillbirth without mineralized bone at the severe end to pathologic fractures of the lower extremities in later adulthood at the mild end. While the disease spectrum is a continuum, seven clinical forms of hypophosphatasia are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features: Perinatal (severe): characterized by pulmonary insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Perinatal (benign): prenatal skeletal manifestations that slowly resolve into one of the milder forms. Infantile: onset between birth and age six months of clinical features of rickets without elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Severe childhood (juvenile): variable presenting features progressing to rickets. Mild childhood: low bone mineral density for age, increased risk of fracture, and premature loss of primary teeth with intact roots. Adult: characterized by stress fractures and pseudofractures of the lower extremities in middle age, sometimes associated with early loss of adult dentition. Odontohypophosphatasia: characterized by premature exfoliation of primary teeth and/or severe dental caries without skeletal manifestations.
Congenital factor VII deficiency
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, congenital vitamin K-dependant coagulation factor deficiency disorder characterized by decreased levels or absence of coagulation factor VII (FVII), resulting in bleeding diathesis of variable severity.
Hereditary factor X deficiency disease
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
A rare inherited bleeding disorder with a decreased antigen and/or activity of factor X (FX) and characterized by mild to severe bleeding symptoms.
Hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Icelandic type
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), defined by the deposition of congophilic material in the vessels of the cortex and leptomeninges, is a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly (Vinters, 1987, Greenberg, 1998). Palsdottir et al. (1988) referred to the disorder in Icelandic patients as hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy (HCCAA).
Circumvallate placenta syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Aneurysm, intracranial berry type 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, an outpouching or sac-like widening of a cerebral artery, leads to a subarachnoid hemorrhage, a sudden-onset disease that can lead to severe disability and death. Several risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and excessive alcohol intake are associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (summary by Krischek and Inoue, 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Intracranial Berry Aneurysm Intracranial berry aneurysm-1 (ANIB1) has been mapped to chromosome 7q11.2. Other mapped loci for intracranial berry aneurysm include ANIB2 (608542) on chromosome 19q13, ANIB3 (609122) on 1p36.13-p34.3, ANIB4 (610213) on 5p15.2-14.3, ANIB5 (300870) on Xp22, ANIB6 (611892) on 9p21, ANIB7 (612161) on 11q24-q25, ANIB8 (612162) on 14q23, ANIB9 (612586) on 2q, ANIB10 (612587) on 8q, and ANIB11 (614252) on 8p22. ANIB12 (618734) is caused by mutation in the THSD1 gene (616821).
Factor XIII, A subunit, deficiency of
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Factor XIII deficiency is an autosomal recessive hematologic disorder characterized by increased bleeding and poor wound healing. Most cases of congenital factor XIII deficiency result from mutation in the A subunit (Kangsadalampai et al., 1999). Ichinose et al. (1996, 2000) proposed a classification of factor XIII deficiency: XIIIA deficiency (formerly 'type II' F13 deficiency) and XIIIB deficiency (formerly 'type I' F13 deficiency), as well as a possible combined deficiency of the 2.
Cerebral cavernous malformation
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular malformations in the brain and spinal cord comprising closely clustered, enlarged capillary channels (caverns) with a single layer of endothelium without mature vessel wall elements or normal intervening brain parenchyma. The diameter of CCMs ranges from a few millimeters to several centimeters. CCMs increase or decrease in size and increase in number over time. Hundreds of lesions may be identified, depending on the person's age and the quality and type of brain imaging used. Although CCMs have been reported in infants and children, the majority become evident between the second and fifth decades with findings such as seizures, focal neurologic deficits, nonspecific headaches, and cerebral hemorrhage. Up to 50% of individuals with FCCM remain symptom free throughout their lives. Cutaneous vascular lesions are found in 9% of those with familial cerebral cavernous malformations (FCCM; see Diagnosis/testing) and retinal vascular lesions in almost 5%.
Joubert syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Porencephaly 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Brain small vessel disease-2 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by variable neurologic impairment resulting from disturbed vascular supply that leads to cerebral degeneration. The disorder is often associated with 'porencephaly' on brain imaging. Affected individuals typically have hemiplegia, seizures, and intellectual disability, although the severity is variable (summary by Yoneda et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of brain small vessel disease, see BSVD1 (175780).
MIRAGE syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
MIRAGE syndrome is an acronym for the major findings of myelodysplasia, infection, restriction of growth, adrenal hypoplasia, genital phenotypes, and enteropathy. Cytopenias are typically seen soon after birth; thrombocytopenia is the most common followed by anemia and pancytopenia. Recurrent infections from early infancy include pneumonia, urinary tract infection, gastroenteritis, meningitis, otitis media, dermatitis, subcutaneous abscess, and sepsis. Reported genital phenotypes in those with 46,XY karyotype included hypospadias, microphallus, bifid shawl scrotum, ambiguous genitalia, or complete female genitalia. Hypoplastic or dysgenetic ovaries have been reported in females. Gastrointestinal complications include chronic diarrhea and esophageal dysfunction. Moderate-to-severe developmental delay is reported in most affected individuals. Autonomic dysfunction and renal dysfunction are also reported.
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).

Professional guidelines


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Clinical prediction guides

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