U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Limb muscle weakness

MedGen UID:
107956
Concept ID:
C0587246
Finding; Finding
Synonym: Limb weakness
SNOMED CT: Muscle weakness of limb (713514005); Loss of power in limb (713514005)
 
HPO: HP:0003690

Definition

Reduced strength and weakness of the muscles of the arms and legs. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Glycogen storage disease, type II
MedGen UID:
5340
Concept ID:
C0017921
Disease or Syndrome
Pompe disease is classified by age of onset, organ involvement, severity, and rate of progression. Infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD; individuals with onset before age 12 months with cardiomyopathy) may be apparent in utero but more typically onset is at the median age of four months with hypotonia, generalized muscle weakness, feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, respiratory distress, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Without treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), IOPD commonly results in death by age two years from progressive left ventricular outflow obstruction and respiratory insufficiency. Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD; including: (a) individuals with onset before age 12 months without cardiomyopathy; and (b) all individuals with onset after age 12 months) is characterized by proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency; clinically significant cardiac involvement is uncommon.
Wilson disease
MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to older than 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body.
Myasthenia gravis
MedGen UID:
7764
Concept ID:
C0026896
Disease or Syndrome
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies bind to acetylcholine receptors or to functionally related molecules in the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction. The antibodies induce weakness of skeletal muscles, which is the sole disease manifestation. The weakness can be generalized or localized, is more proximal than distal, and nearly always includes eye muscles, with diplopia and ptosis. The pattern of involvement is usually symmetric, apart from the eye involvement, which is often markedly asymmetric and involves several eye muscles. The weakness typically increases with exercise and repetitive muscle use (fatigue) and varies over the course of a day and from day to day, often with nearly normal muscle strength in the morning (summary by Gilhus, 2016).
Phytanic acid storage disease
MedGen UID:
11161
Concept ID:
C0034960
Disease or Syndrome
Adult Refsum disease (ARD is associated with elevated plasma phytanic acid levels, late childhood-onset (or later) retinitis pigmentosa, and variable combinations of anosmia, polyneuropathy, deafness, ataxia, and ichthyosis. Onset of symptoms ranges from age seven months to older than age 50 years. Cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure caused by cardiomyopathy are potentially severe health problems that develop later in life.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type IA
MedGen UID:
75727
Concept ID:
C0270911
Disease or Syndrome
For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1, see CMT1B (118200). CMT1A is the most common form of CMT. The average age of onset of clinical symptoms is 12.2 +/- 7.3 years. Slow nerve conduction velocity (NCV) less than 38 m/s is highly diagnostic and is a 100% penetrant phenotype independent of age (Lupski et al., 1991, 1992).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B
MedGen UID:
124377
Concept ID:
C0270912
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a sensorineural peripheral polyneuropathy. Affecting approximately 1 in 2,500 individuals, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is the most common inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system (Skre, 1974). Autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked forms have been recognized. Classification On the basis of electrophysiologic properties and histopathology, CMT has been divided into primary peripheral demyelinating (type 1, or HMSNI) and primary peripheral axonal (type 2, or HMSNII) neuropathies. The demyelinating neuropathies classified as CMT type 1 are characterized by severely reduced motor NCVs (less than 38 m/s) and segmental demyelination and remyelination with onion bulb formations on nerve biopsy. The axonal neuropathies classified as CMT type 2 are characterized by normal or mildly reduced NCVs and chronic axonal degeneration and regeneration on nerve biopsy (see CMT2A1; 118210). Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) (see 158590), or spinal CMT, is characterized by exclusive motor involvement and sparing of sensory nerves (Pareyson, 1999). McAlpine (1989) proposed that the forms of CMT with very slow nerve conduction be given the gene symbol CMT1A (118220) and CMT1B, CMT1A being the gene on chromosome 17 and CMT1B being the gene on chromosome 1. CMT2 was the proposed symbol for the autosomal locus responsible for the moderately slow nerve conduction form of the disease (axonal). For a phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the various subtypes of CMT, see CMTX1 (302800), CMT2A1 (118210), CMT3 (DSS; 145900), CMT4A (214400), and CMTDIB (606482). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Demyelinating CMT1 Autosomal dominant demyelinating CMT1 is a genetically heterogeneous disorder and can be caused by mutations in different genes; see CMT1A (118220), CMT1C (601098), CMT1D (607678), CMT1E (607734), CMT1F (607734), CMT1G (618279), CMT1H (619764), CMT1I (619742), and CMT1J (620111). See also 608236 for a related phenotype characterized by isolated slowed nerve conduction velocities (NCVs).
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
75730
Concept ID:
C0270952
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is characterized by ptosis and dysphagia due to selective involvement of the muscles of the eyelids and pharynx, respectively. For the vast majority of individuals with typical OPMD, the mean age of onset of ptosis is usually 48 years and of dysphagia 50 years; in 5%-10% of individuals with severe OPMD, onset of ptosis and dysphagia occur before age 45 years and is associated with lower limb girdle weakness starting around age 60 years. Swallowing difficulties, which determine prognosis, increase the risk for potentially life-threatening aspiration pneumonia and poor nutrition. Other manifestations as the disease progresses can include limitation of upward gaze, tongue atrophy and weakness, chewing difficulties, wet voice, facial muscle weakness, axial muscle weakness, and proximal limb girdle weakness predominantly in lower limbs. Some individuals with severe involvement will eventually need a wheelchair. Neuropsychological tests have shown altered scores in executive functions in some.
Chorea-acanthocytosis
MedGen UID:
98277
Concept ID:
C0393576
Disease or Syndrome
Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is characterized by a progressive movement disorder, cognitive and behavior changes, a myopathy that can be subclinical, and chronic hyperCKemia in serum. Although the disorder is named for acanthocytosis of the red blood cells, this feature is variable. The movement disorder is mostly limb chorea, but some individuals present with parkinsonism. Dystonia is common and affects the oral region and especially the tongue, causing dysarthria and serious dysphagia with resultant weight loss. Habitual tongue and lip biting are characteristic, as well as tongue protrusion dystonia. Progressive cognitive and behavioral changes resemble those in a frontal lobe syndrome. Seizures are observed in almost half of affected individuals and can be the initial manifestation. Myopathy results in progressive distal muscle wasting and weakness. Mean age of onset in ChAc is about 30 years, although ChAc can develop as early as the first decade or as late as the seventh decade. It runs a chronic progressive course and may lead to major disability within a few years. Life expectancy is reduced, with age of death ranging from 28 to 61 years.
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
140747
Concept ID:
C0393807
Disease or Syndrome
MFN2 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (MFN2-HMSN) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, inherited in either an autosomal dominant (AD) manner (~90%) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner (~10%). MFN2-HMSN is characterized by more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Median onset is age 12 years in the AD form and age eight years in the AR form. The prevalence of optic atrophy is approximately 7% in the AD form and approximately 20% in the AR form.
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 2, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
98048
Concept ID:
C0410190
Disease or Syndrome
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is characterized by the clinical triad of: joint contractures that begin in early childhood; slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting initially in a humero-peroneal distribution that later extends to the scapular and pelvic girdle muscles; and cardiac involvement that may manifest as palpitations, presyncope and syncope, poor exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure along with variable cardiac rhythm disturbances. Age of onset, severity, and progression of muscle and cardiac involvement demonstrate both inter- and intrafamilial variability. Clinical variability ranges from early onset with severe presentation in childhood to late onset with slow progression in adulthood. In general, joint contractures appear during the first two decades, followed by muscle weakness and wasting. Cardiac involvement usually occurs after the second decade and respiratory function may be impaired in some individuals.
Chiari type II malformation
MedGen UID:
108222
Concept ID:
C0555206
Congenital Abnormality
Chiari malformation type II (CM2), also known as the Arnold-Chiari malformation, consists of elongation and descent of the inferior cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemispheres, pons, medulla, and fourth ventricle through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal. CM2 is uniquely associated with myelomeningocele (open spina bifida; see 182940) and is found only in this population (Stevenson, 2004). It is believed to be a disorder of neuroectodermal origin (Schijman, 2004). For a general phenotypic description of the different forms of Chiari malformations, see Chiari malformation type I (CM1; 118420).
Chiari type I malformation
MedGen UID:
196689
Concept ID:
C0750929
Congenital Abnormality
Arnold-Chiari type I malformation refers to a relatively mild degree of herniation of the posteroinferior region of the cerebellum (the cerebellar tonsils) into the cervical canal with little or no displacement of the fourth ventricle. It is characterized by one or both pointed (not rounded) cerebellar tonsils that project 5 mm below the foramen magnum, measured by a line drawn from the basion to the opisthion (McRae Line)
Agenesis of the corpus callosum with peripheral neuropathy
MedGen UID:
162893
Concept ID:
C0795950
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC), a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by severe progressive sensorimotor neuropathy with resulting hypotonia, areflexia, and amyotrophy, and by variable degrees of dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. Mild-to-severe intellectual disability and "psychotic episodes" during adolescence are observed. Sensory modalities are moderately to severely affected beginning in infancy. The average age of onset of walking is 3.8 years; the average age of loss of walking is 13.8 years; the average age of death is 33 years.
Danon disease
MedGen UID:
209235
Concept ID:
C0878677
Disease or Syndrome
Danon disease is a multisystem condition with predominant involvement of the heart, skeletal muscles, and retina, with overlying cognitive dysfunction. Males are typically more severely affected than females. Males usually present with childhood onset concentric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that is progressive and often requires heart transplantation. Rarely, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can evolve to resemble dilated cardiomyopathy. Most affected males also have cardiac conduction abnormalities. Skeletal muscle weakness may lead to delayed acquisition of motor milestones. Learning disability and intellectual disability, most often in the mild range, are common. Additionally, affected males can develop retinopathy with subsequent visual impairment. The clinical features in females are broader and more variable. Females are more likely to have dilated cardiomyopathy, with a smaller proportion requiring heart transplantation compared to affected males. Cardiac conduction abnormalities, skeletal muscle weakness, mild cognitive impairment, and pigmentary retinopathy are variably seen in affected females.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Reardon type
MedGen UID:
322238
Concept ID:
C1833603
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Reardon type is an extremely rare type of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (see this term) described in several members of a single family to date and characterized by short stature, vertebral and femoral abnormalities, cervical instability and neurologic manifestations secondary to anomalies of the odontoid process.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
371919
Concept ID:
C1834846
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
373087
Concept ID:
C1836439
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. The most common clinical features include adult onset of weakness of the external eye muscles and exercise intolerance. Patients with C10ORF2-linked adPEO may have other clinical features including proximal muscle weakness, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, cataracts, depression, and endocrine abnormalities (summary by Fratter et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640). PEO caused by mutations in the POLG gene (174763) are associated with more complicated phenotypes than those forms caused by mutations in the SLC25A4 (103220) or C10ORF2 genes (Lamantea et al., 2002).
Congenital myopathy 23
MedGen UID:
324513
Concept ID:
C1836447
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy is a disorder that primarily affects skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement. People with nemaline myopathy have muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body, but it is typically most severe in the muscles of the face; neck; trunk; and other muscles close to the center of the body (proximal muscles), such as those of the upper arms and legs. This weakness can worsen over time. Affected individuals may have feeding and swallowing difficulties, foot deformities, abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis), and joint deformities (contractures). Most people with nemaline myopathy are able to walk, although some affected children may begin walking later than usual. As the condition progresses, some people may require wheelchair assistance. In severe cases, the muscles used for breathing are affected and life-threatening breathing difficulties can occur.\n\nNemaline myopathy is divided into six types. In order of decreasing severity, the types are: severe congenital, Amish, intermediate congenital, typical congenital, childhood-onset, and adult-onset. The types are distinguished by the age when symptoms first appear and the severity of symptoms; however, there is overlap among the various types. The severe congenital type is the most life-threatening. Most individuals with this type do not survive past early childhood due to respiratory failure. The Amish type solely affects the Old Order Amish population of Pennsylvania and is typically fatal in early childhood. The most common type of nemaline myopathy is the typical congenital type, which is characterized by muscle weakness and feeding problems beginning in infancy. Most of these individuals do not have severe breathing problems and can walk unassisted. People with the childhood-onset type usually develop muscle weakness in adolescence. The adult-onset type is the mildest of all the various types. People with this type usually develop muscle weakness between ages 20 and 50.
Nemaline myopathy 6
MedGen UID:
373095
Concept ID:
C1836472
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-6 is an autosomal dominant skeletal muscle disorder characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and slow movements with stiff muscles. Patients are unable to run or correct themselves from falling over. Histopathologic changes seen on skeletal muscle biopsy include nemaline rods, cores devoid of oxidative enzyme activity, and predominance of hypertrophic type 1 fibers. There is no cardiac or respiratory involvement (summary by Sambuughin et al., 2010).
Mitochondrial myopathy with diabetes
MedGen UID:
333236
Concept ID:
C1839028
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, mitochondrial DNA-related mitochondrial myopathy disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscular weakness (proximal greater than distal), predominantly involving the facial muscles and scapular girdle, associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Neurological involvement and congenital myopathy may be variably observed.
Kennedy disease
MedGen UID:
333282
Concept ID:
C1839259
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a gradually progressive neuromuscular disorder in which degeneration of lower motor neurons results in muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, and fasciculations. SBMA occurs only in males. Affected individuals often show gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and reduced fertility as a result of mild androgen insensitivity.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease recessive intermediate A
MedGen UID:
334012
Concept ID:
C1842197
Disease or Syndrome
GDAP1-related hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (GDAP1-HMSN) is a peripheral neuropathy (also known as a subtype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease) that typically affects the lower extremities earlier and more severely than the upper extremities. As the neuropathy progresses, the distal upper extremities also become severely affected. Proximal muscles can also become weak. Age at onset ranges from infancy to early childhood. In most cases, disease progression causes disabilities within the first or second decade of life. At the end of the second decade, most individuals are wheelchair bound. Disease progression varies considerably even within the same family. The neuropathy can be either of the demyelinating type with reduced nerve conduction velocities or the axonal type with normal nerve conduction velocities. Vocal cord paresis is common. Intelligence is normal. Life expectancy is usually normal, but on occasion may be reduced because of secondary complications.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 18
MedGen UID:
336066
Concept ID:
C1843884
Disease or Syndrome
Disease with characteristics of sensory neuropathy and cerebellar ataxia. Prevalence is unknown. Only 26 cases in a 5-generation American family of Irish ancestry have been reported to date. Onset is in the second and third decades of life with symptomatic onset ranging from 13 to 27 years. Patients initially present with axonal sensory neuropathy, while cerebellar ataxia and motor neuron dysfunction develop later. Linked to chromosome 7q22-q23 but the responsible gene mutation has not yet been identified.
Cardioneuromyopathy with hyaline masses and nemaline rods
MedGen UID:
339747
Concept ID:
C1847387
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant intermediate A
MedGen UID:
376235
Concept ID:
C1847896
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant intermediate-A (CMTDIA) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy characterized by onset of symptoms in the first or second decades of life. Affected individuals have difficulty walking with muscle cramps of the lower limbs; the motor symptoms may be worsened by cold. The disorder is slowly progressive, eventually involving all 4 limbs, but patients remain ambulatory. After age 40, patients develop more severe features, including distal muscle weakness and atrophy, pes cavus, areflexia, and distal sensory loss. Electrophysiologic studies yield nerve conduction velocities with 'intermediate' values between demyelinating and axonal neuropathy (see below). One such family has been reported (Rossi et al., 1985).
Nemaline myopathy 2
MedGen UID:
342534
Concept ID:
C1850569
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-2 (NEM2) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder with a wide range of severity. The most common clinical presentation is early-onset (in infancy or childhood) muscle weakness predominantly affecting proximal limb muscles. Muscle biopsy shows accumulation of Z-disc and thin filament proteins into aggregates named 'nemaline bodies' or 'nemaline rods,' usually accompanied by disorganization of the muscle Z discs. The clinical and histologic spectrum of entities caused by variants in the NEB gene is a continuum, ranging in severity. The distribution of weakness can vary from generalized muscle weakness, more pronounced in proximal limb muscles, to distal-only involvement, although neck flexor weakness appears to be rather consistent. Histologic patterns range from a severe usually nondystrophic disturbance of the myofibrillar pattern to an almost normal pattern, with or without nemaline bodies, sometimes combined with cores (summary by Lehtokari et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nemaline Myopathy See also NEM1 (255310), caused by mutation in the tropomyosin-3 gene (TPM3; 191030) on chromosome 1q22; NEM3 (161800), caused by mutation in the alpha-actin-1 gene (ACTA1; 102610) on chromosome 1q42; NEM4 (609285), caused by mutation in the beta-tropomyosin gene (TPM2; 190990) on chromosome 9p13; NEM5A (605355), also known as Amish nemaline myopathy, NEM5B (620386), and NEM5C (620389), all caused by mutation in the troponin T1 gene (TNNT1; 191041) on chromosome 19q13; NEM6 (609273), caused by mutation in the KBTBD13 gene (613727) on chromosome 15q22; NEM7 (610687), caused by mutation in the cofilin-2 gene (CFL2; 601443) on chromosome 14q13; NEM8 (615348), caused by mutation in the KLHL40 gene (615340), on chromosome 3p22; NEM9 (615731), caused by mutation in the KLHL41 gene (607701) on chromosome 2q31; NEM10 (616165), caused by mutation in the LMOD3 gene (616112) on chromosome 3p14; and NEM11 (617336), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21. Several of the genes encode components of skeletal muscle sarcomeric thin filaments (Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001). Mutations in the NEB gene are the most common cause of nemaline myopathy (Lehtokari et al., 2006).
Nemaline myopathy 7
MedGen UID:
343979
Concept ID:
C1853154
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-7 is an autosomal recessive congenital myopathy characterized by very early onset of hypotonia and delayed motor development. Affected individuals have difficulty walking and running due to proximal muscle weakness. The disorder is slowly progressive, and patients may lose independent ambulation. Muscle biopsy shows nemaline rods and may later show minicores, abnormal protein aggregates, and dystrophic changes (summary by Ockeloen et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see 161800.
Autosomal recessive distal spinal muscular atrophy 1
MedGen UID:
388083
Concept ID:
C1858517
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-1 (HMNR1) is characterized by distal and proximal muscle weakness and diaphragmatic palsy that leads to respiratory distress. Without intervention, most infants with the severe form of the disease die before 2 years of age. Affected individuals present in infancy with inspiratory stridor, weak cry, recurrent bronchopneumonia, and swallowing difficulties. The disorder is caused by distal and progressive motor neuronopathy resulting in muscle weakness (summary by Perego et al., 2020). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Distal Hereditary Motor Neuronopathy See also HMNR2 (605726), caused by mutation in the SIGMAR1 gene (601978); HMNR3 (607088) (encompassing Harding HMN types III and IV), which maps to chromosome 11q13; HMNR4 (611067), caused by mutation in the PLEKHG5 gene (611101); HMNR5 (614881), caused by mutation in the DNAJB2 gene (604139); HMNR6 (620011), caused by mutation in the REEP1 gene (609139); HMNR7 (619216), caused by mutation in the VWA1 gene (611901); HMNR8 (618912), caused by mutation in the SORD gene (182500); HMNR9 (620402), caused by mutation in the COQ7 gene (601683); and HMRN10 (620542), caused by mutation in the VRK1 gene (602168).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A1
MedGen UID:
350076
Concept ID:
C1861678
Disease or Syndrome
MFN2 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (MFN2-HMSN) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, inherited in either an autosomal dominant (AD) manner (~90%) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner (~10%). MFN2-HMSN is characterized by more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Median onset is age 12 years in the AD form and age eight years in the AR form. The prevalence of optic atrophy is approximately 7% in the AD form and approximately 20% in the AR form.
Diaphyseal medullary stenosis-bone malignancy syndrome
MedGen UID:
350613
Concept ID:
C1862177
Disease or Syndrome
Diaphyseal medullary stenosis with malignant fibrous histiocytoma is an autosomal dominant bone dysplasia characterized by pathologic fractures due to abnormal cortical growth and diaphyseal medullary stenosis. The fractures heal poorly, and there is progressive bowing of the lower extremities. In 2 families, affected individuals also showed a limb-girdle myopathy, with muscle weakness and atrophy. Approximately 35% of affected individuals develop an aggressive form of bone sarcoma consistent with malignant fibrous histiocytoma or osteosarcoma. Thus, the disorder may be considered a tumor predisposition syndrome (summary by Camacho-Vanegas et al., 2012).
Primary basilar invagination
MedGen UID:
400018
Concept ID:
C1862299
Disease or Syndrome
Primary basilar impression of the skull is a developmental defect of the cranium in which there is invagination of the foramen magnum upward into the posterior cranial fossa. Basilar impression is often associated with other malformations of the notochord and craniovertebral junction, such as occipitalization of the atlas, Klippel-Feil anomaly (see 118100), Chiari type I malformation (118420), and syringomyelia (186700) (Paradis and Sax, 1972; Bhangoo and Crockard, 1999). Secondary basilar impression occurs as a result of generalized skeletal diseases, including hyperparathyroidism (see 145000), Paget disease (see 167250), and osteogenesis imperfecta (see, e.g., 166200). Platybasia refers to a skull base with an abnormally obtuse angle between the planes of the clivus and the anterior fossa. Platybasia may occur in basilar impression, but it is not of medical significance on its own (Bhangoo and Crockard, 1999). Historically, basilar impression was defined radiologically by numerous parameters, including the lines defined by Chamberlain (1939), McGregor (1948), and Fischgold and Metzger (1952), and the angle defined by Bull et al. (1955).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
400481
Concept ID:
C1864233
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction. Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic. Endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency is an autosomal recessive congenital myasthenic syndrome characterized by a defect within the synapse at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Mutations in COLQ result in a deficiency of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which causes prolonged synaptic currents and action potentials due to extended residence of acetylcholine in the synaptic space. Treatment with ephedrine may be beneficial; AChE inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 4
MedGen UID:
350480
Concept ID:
C1864668
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia-4 is an autosomal dominant form of mitochondrial disease that variably affects skeletal muscle, the nervous system, the liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Age at onset ranges from infancy to adulthood. The phenotype ranges from relatively mild, with adult-onset skeletal muscle weakness and weakness of the external eye muscles, to severe, with a multisystem disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, lactic acidosis, constipation, and liver involvement (summary by Young et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640).
Primary CD59 deficiency
MedGen UID:
393582
Concept ID:
C2676767
Disease or Syndrome
CD59-mediated hemolytic anemia with immune-mediated polyneuropathy is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by infantile onset of a relapsing-remitting polyneuropathy, often exacerbated by infection, and manifest as hypotonia, limb muscle weakness, and hyporeflexia. Immunosuppressive treatment may result in some clinical improvement (summary by Nevo et al., 2013).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 46
MedGen UID:
473687
Concept ID:
C2828721
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-46 (SPG46) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset in childhood of slowly progressive spastic paraplegia and cerebellar signs. Some patients have cognitive impairment, cataracts, and cerebral, cerebellar, and corpus callosum atrophy on brain imaging (summary by Boukhris et al., 2010 and Martin et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, myopathic form
MedGen UID:
461100
Concept ID:
C3149750
Disease or Syndrome
TK2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defect is a phenotypic continuum that ranges from severe to mild. To date, approximately 107 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis have been reported. Three main subtypes of presentation have been described: Infantile-onset myopathy with neurologic involvement and rapid progression to early death. Affected individuals experience progressive muscle weakness leading to respiratory failure. Some individuals develop dysarthria, dysphagia, and/or hearing loss. Cognitive function is typically spared. Juvenile/childhood onset with generalized proximal weakness and survival to at least 13 years. Late-/adult-onset myopathy with facial and limb weakness and mtDNA deletions. Some affected individuals develop respiratory insufficiency, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and dysarthria.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2O
MedGen UID:
481850
Concept ID:
C3280220
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic subtype of autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 with characteristics of early childhood-onset of slowly progressive, predominantly distal, lower limb muscle weakness and atrophy, delayed motor development, variable sensory loss and pes cavus in the presence of normal or near-normal nerve conduction velocities. Additional variable features may include proximal muscle weakness, abnormal gait, arthrogryposis, scoliosis, cognitive impairment, and spasticity. Caused by heterozygous mutation in the DYNC1H1 gene on chromosome 14q32.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1E
MedGen UID:
501212
Concept ID:
C3495591
Disease or Syndrome
A rare subtype of CMT1 characterized by a variable clinical presentation. Onset within the first two years of life with a delay in walking is not uncommon; however, onset may occur later. CMT1E is caused by point mutations in the <i>PMP22</i> (17p12) gene. The disease severity depends on the particular <i>PMP22</i> mutation, with some cases being very mild and even resembling hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, while others having an earlier onset with a more severe phenotype (reminiscent of Dejerine-Sottas syndrome) than that seen in CMT1A, caused by gene duplication. These severe cases may also report deafness and much slower motor nerve conduction velocities compared to CMT1A patients.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4F
MedGen UID:
761704
Concept ID:
C3540453
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4F is an autosomal recessive demyelinating neuropathy characterized by distal sensory impairment and distal muscle weakness and atrophy affecting the lower more than the upper limbs. Nerve conduction velocities are decreased and sural nerve biopsy shows loss of myelinated fibers. The age at onset is variable and can range from childhood to adult years. When the onset is in infancy, the phenotype is characterized as Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS; 145900). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, see CMT4A (214400).
Congenital myopathy 10b, mild variant
MedGen UID:
762102
Concept ID:
C3541476
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-10B (CMYP10B) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by infantile- or childhood-onset myopathy, areflexia, dysphagia, and respiratory distress that usually requires nocturnal ventilation. Other common features include facial and neck muscle weakness, feeding difficulties, contractures, scoliosis, high-arched palate, hyporeflexia, and difficulties walking. The disorder is slowly progressive and most patients follow a chronic course. Muscle biopsy shows variable findings, including type 1 fiber predominance, minicore lesions, and myofibrillar disorganization (Boyden et al., 2012; Harris et al., 2018). Patients with missense mutations affecting conserved cysteine residues in the EGF-like domain show the mild variant phenotype (CMYP10B) with later onset of respiratory failure and minicores on muscle biopsy, whereas patients with more damaging mutations, including nonsense or frameshift null mutations, show the severe variant phenotype (CMYP10A) (Croci et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766452
Concept ID:
C3553538
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome-2 (BVVLS2) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by early childhood onset of sensorineural deafness, bulbar dysfunction, and severe diffuse muscle weakness and wasting of the upper and lower limbs and axial muscles, resulting in respiratory insufficiency. Some patients may lose independent ambulation. Because it results from a defect in riboflavin metabolism, some patients may benefit from high-dose riboflavin supplementation (summary by Johnson et al., 2012; Foley et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, see BVVLS1 (211530).
Actin accumulation myopathy
MedGen UID:
777997
Concept ID:
C3711389
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-2A (CMYP2A) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by infantile- or childhood-onset myopathy with delayed motor milestones and nonprogressive muscle weakness. Of the patients with congenital myopathy caused by mutation in the ACTA1 gene, about 90% carry heterozygous mutations that are usually de novo and cause the severe infantile phenotype (CMYP2C; 620278). Some patients with de novo mutations have a more typical and milder disease course with delayed motor development and proximal muscle weakness, but are able to achieve independent ambulation. Less frequently, autosomal dominant transmission of the disorder within a family may occur when the ACTA1 mutation produces a phenotype compatible with adult life. Of note, intrafamilial variability has also been reported: a severely affected proband may be identified and then mildly affected or even asymptomatic relatives are found to carry the same mutation. The severity of the disease most likely depends on the detrimental effect of the mutation, although there are probably additional modifying factors (Ryan et al., 2001; Laing et al., 2009; Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001; Agrawal et al., 2004; Nowak et al., 2013; Sewry et al., 2019; Laitila and Wallgren-Pettersson, 2021). The most common histologic finding on muscle biopsy in patients with ACTA1 mutations is the presence of 'nemaline rods,' which represent abnormal thread- or rod-like structures ('nema' is Greek for 'thread'). However, skeletal muscle biopsy from patients with mutations in the ACTA1 gene can show a range of pathologic phenotypes. These include classic rods, intranuclear rods, clumped filaments, cores, or fiber-type disproportion, all of which are nonspecific pathologic findings and not pathognomonic of a specific congenital myopathy. Most patients have clinically severe disease, regardless of the histopathologic phenotype (Nowak et al., 2007; Sewry et al., 2019). ACTA1 mutations are the second most common cause of congenital myopathies classified histologically as 'nemaline myopathy' after mutations in the NEB gene (161650). ACTA1 mutations are overrepresented in the severe phenotype with early death (Laing et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 2A
MedGen UID:
908185
Concept ID:
C4225374
Disease or Syndrome
Slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from prolonged opening and activity of the channel, which causes prolonged synaptic currents resulting in a depolarization block. This is associated with calcium overload, which may contribute to subsequent degeneration of the endplate and postsynaptic membrane. Treatment with quinine, quinidine, or fluoxetine may be helpful; cholinesterase inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 1B, fast-channel
MedGen UID:
909200
Concept ID:
C4225405
Disease or Syndrome
Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 4A
MedGen UID:
908188
Concept ID:
C4225413
Disease or Syndrome
Slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from prolonged opening and activity of the channel, which causes prolonged synaptic currents resulting in a depolarization block. This is associated with calcium overload, which may contribute to subsequent degeneration of the endplate and postsynaptic membrane. Treatment with quinine, quinidine, or fluoxetine may be helpful; acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Myofibrillar myopathy 8
MedGen UID:
934612
Concept ID:
C4310645
Disease or Syndrome
Myofibrillar myopathy-8 (MFM8) is an autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness and atrophy affecting the upper and lower limbs, resulting in increased falls, gait problems, difficulty running or climbing stairs, and upper limb weakness or scapular winging. Some patients develop distal muscle weakness and atrophy. The phenotype may also be consistent with a clinical diagnosis of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Age at symptom onset ranges from infancy to adulthood. Ambulation is generally preserved and cardiac involvement is rare, but respiratory compromise with decreased forced vital capacity often occurs. Muscle biopsy shows a mix of myopathic features, including myofibrillar inclusions and sarcomeric disorganization; some patients have been reported to have dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy (O'Grady et al., 2016; Daimaguler et al., 2021). There is significant phenotypic variation, even in patients with the same mutation, which must be taken into account when counseling affecting individuals (Woods et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419).
Syringomyelia, isolated
MedGen UID:
1622554
Concept ID:
C4538540
Disease or Syndrome
Syringomyelia (Greek: 'syrinx,' pipe, and 'myelos,' marrow) is a tubular cavity in the spinal cord. It can occur sporadically in association with spinal cord tumors, inflammatory arachnoiditis, or posttraumatically. It is rarely idiopathic (less than 1% of cases). The vast majority of cases of syringomyelia are cervical, noncommunicating, and associated with an abnormality at the foramen magnum, particularly the Chiari malformation type I (CM1; 118420), as well as basilar impression (109500) and Dandy-Walker malformation (220200) (Speer et al., 2003; Levine, 2004); these cases have shown familial segregation. The form of syringomyelia discussed here is 'noncommunicating' with the fourth ventricle, but may communicate with the subarachnoid space. In contrast, 'communicating' syringomyelia, or 'hydromelia,' opens rostrally into the fourth ventricle and almost always occurs in children with hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation type II (CM2; 207950), and spina bifida (see 182940) (Levine, 2004).
Inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia type 1
MedGen UID:
1641069
Concept ID:
C4551951
Disease or Syndrome
Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB) and/or frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) is characterized by adult-onset proximal and distal muscle weakness (clinically resembling a limb-girdle muscular dystrophy syndrome), early-onset PDB, and premature frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Muscle weakness progresses to involve other limb and respiratory muscles. PDB involves focal areas of increased bone turnover that typically lead to spine and/or hip pain and localized enlargement and deformity of the long bones; pathologic fractures occur on occasion. Early stages of FTD are characterized by dysnomia, dyscalculia, comprehension deficits, and paraphasic errors, with minimal impairment of episodic memory; later stages are characterized by inability to speak, auditory comprehension deficits for even one-step commands, alexia, and agraphia. Mean age at diagnosis for muscle disease and PDB is 42 years; for FTD, 56 years. Dilated cardiomyopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson disease are now known to be part of the spectrum of findings associated with IBMPFD.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A2
MedGen UID:
1648317
Concept ID:
C4721887
Disease or Syndrome
MFN2 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (MFN2-HMSN) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, inherited in either an autosomal dominant (AD) manner (~90%) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner (~10%). MFN2-HMSN is characterized by more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Median onset is age 12 years in the AD form and age eight years in the AR form. The prevalence of optic atrophy is approximately 7% in the AD form and approximately 20% in the AR form.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 5
MedGen UID:
1648461
Concept ID:
C4721916
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) are a heterogeneous group of peripheral nervous system disorders affecting motor and sensory function. HMSN I, also known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, or peroneal muscular atrophy, type 1, is a demyelinating neuropathy (see CMT1B; 118200) and HMSN II, also known as CMT type 2, is an axonal neuropathy (see CMT2A1; 118210). See also HMSN III (145900) and HMSN IV (266500). For an autosomal recessive disorder with similarities to HMSN V, see 607731.
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive, with axonal neuropathy 3
MedGen UID:
1673607
Concept ID:
C5193070
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-3 (SCAN3) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset in the first decade of slowly progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy and distal sensory impairment due to an axonal peripheral neuropathy. Affected individuals have gait disturbances and sometimes manual dexterity difficulties, as well as cerebellar ataxia associated with cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Additional features usually include dysarthria, hyporeflexia, and increased serum creatine kinase. Some patients may have impaired intellectual development (summary by Higuchi et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SCAN, see SCAN1 (607250).
Mitchell syndrome
MedGen UID:
1714342
Concept ID:
C5394554
Disease or Syndrome
Mitchell syndrome (MITCH) is a progressive disorder characterized by episodic demyelination, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and hearing loss (Chung et al., 2020).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 6
MedGen UID:
1759760
Concept ID:
C5436279
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-6 (FTDALS6) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder with highly variable manifestations. Some patients present in adulthood with progressive FTD, often classified as the 'behavioral variant,' which is characterized by reduced empathy, impulsive behavior, personality changes, and reduced verbal output. Other patients present with features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction resulting in rapidly progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure. The pathologic hallmarks of this disease include pallor of the corticospinal tract due to loss of motor neurons (in ALS). In both ALS and FTD, there are ubiquitin-positive inclusions within surviving neurons as well as deposition of pathologic TDP43 (TARDBP; 605078) or p62 (SQSTM1; 601530) aggregates. Patients with a D395G mutation (601023.0014) have been shown to develop pathologic tau (MAPT; 157140) aggregates. Some patients with the disorder may have features of both diseases, and there is significant interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variability (summary by Johnson et al., 2010; Wong et al., 2018; Al-Obeidi et al., 2018; Darwich et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550).
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 26 with or without frontotemporal dementia
MedGen UID:
1771903
Concept ID:
C5436882
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-26 with or without frontotemporal dementia (ALS26) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult onset of upper and low motor neuron disease causing bulbar dysfunction and limb weakness (ALS). Patients may also develop frontotemporal dementia (FTD) manifest as primary progressive aphasia, memory impairment, executive dysfunction, and behavioral or personality changes. Although patients may present with 1 or the other diseases, all eventually develop ALS. Neuropathologic studies of the brain and spinal cord show TDP43 (605078)-immunoreactive cytoplasmic inclusions that correlate with clinical features and Lewy body-like cytoplasmic inclusions in lower motor neurons (summary by Mackenzie et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 5
MedGen UID:
1756201
Concept ID:
C5436884
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-5 (FTDALS5) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of ALS or FTD symptoms in adulthood. The disease is progressive, and some patients may develop both diseases, although ALS seems to be more prevalent than FTD. The disorder usually results in premature death (summary by Williams et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550).
Neurodegeneration with ataxia and late-onset optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
1779901
Concept ID:
C5543254
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with ataxia and late-onset optic atrophy (NDAXOA) is an autosomal dominant disorder with somewhat variable manifestations. Most affected individuals present in mid-adulthood with slowly progressive cerebellar and gait ataxia, optic atrophy, and myopathy or myalgia. Some patients may have a childhood history of neurologic features, including limited extraocular movements. Additional features can include cardiomyopathy, psychiatric disturbances, and peripheral sensory impairment (summary by Taylor et al., 1996 and Courage et al., 2017).
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy 3
MedGen UID:
1794166
Concept ID:
C5561956
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy-3 (OPDM3) is a neuromyodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness with ocular, facial, pharyngeal, and distal limb involvement, resulting in dysarthria and gait difficulties. The onset of the disorder is usually in adulthood, although childhood onset has rarely been reported. Additional features include hyporeflexia, proximal muscle weakness, neck muscle weakness, dysarthria, dysphagia, and ptosis. Some patients may develop pigmentary retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, or hearing loss. Cognition is usually not affected, but there may be deficits or psychiatric manifestations. Brain imaging tends to show a leukoencephalopathy, often with a characteristic linear signal along the corticomedullary junction on brain imaging. Skin and muscle biopsy show intranuclear inclusions and rimmed vacuoles. Many of the clinical features are reminiscent of NIID, suggesting that these disorders likely fall within a broad phenotypic spectrum of diseases with neuromyodegenerative features associated with abnormal repeat expansions in this gene (summary by Ogasawara et al., 2020 and Yu et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of OPDM, see OPDM1 (164310).
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2X
MedGen UID:
1799561
Concept ID:
C5568138
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-25 (LGMDR25) is characterized by slowly progressive onset of proximal lower limb weakness in adulthood. Affected individuals also develop cardiac arrhythmias resulting in syncopal episodes as young adults or later in life (summary by Schindler et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD), see LGMDR1 (253600).
Congenital myopathy 22A, classic
MedGen UID:
1841089
Concept ID:
C5830453
Disease or Syndrome
Classic congenital myopathy-22A (CMYP22A) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by onset of muscle weakness in utero or soon after birth. Early features may include fetal hypokinesia, breech presentation, and polyhydramnios. Affected individuals are born with severe hypotonia and require respiratory and feeding assistance. Those who survive the neonatal period show a 'classic' phenotype of congenital myopathy with delayed motor development, difficulty walking, proximal muscle weakness of the upper and lower limbs, facial and neck muscle weakness, easy fatigability, and mild limb contractures or foot deformities. Some have persistent respiratory insufficiency; dysmorphic facial features may be present (Zaharieva et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Congenital myopathy 22B, severe fetal
MedGen UID:
1841137
Concept ID:
C5830501
Disease or Syndrome
Severe fetal congenital myopathy-22B (CMYP22B) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by in utero onset of severe muscle weakness manifest as fetal akinesia. The pregnancies are often complicated by polyhydramnios, and affected individuals develop fetal hydrops with pulmonary hypoplasia, severe joint contractures, and generalized muscle hypoplasia. Those who are born have respiratory failure resulting in death. Dysmorphic facial features may be present. The features in these patients overlap with fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS; see 208150) and lethal congenital contractures syndrome (LCCS; see 253310) (Zaharieva et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
1841318
Concept ID:
C5830682
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy-2 (OPMD2) is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by early-onset ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, variable respiratory insufficiency, and proximal limb muscle weakness. Most patients have onset in the first years of life, although rare patients have onset in their teens. The disorder is slowly progressive and the severity is highly variable; the most severely affected individuals lose ambulation and may require tube-feeding or noninvasive ventilation (Kim et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of OPMD, see OPMD1 (164300).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Wang C, Zeng H, Fang W, Song L
Invest New Drugs 2023 Apr;41(2):333-339. Epub 2023 Mar 29 doi: 10.1007/s10637-023-01347-6. PMID: 36988830
Fredman B, Zohar E, Shachor D, Bendahan J, Jedeikin R
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2000 Aug;10(4):226-9. PMID: 10961751
Bradberry SM, Watt BE, Proudfoot AT, Vale JA
J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2000;38(2):111-22. doi: 10.1081/clt-100100925. PMID: 10778907

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Wu K, Michalski A, Cortes D, Rozenberg D, Mathur S
J Asthma 2022 Jul;59(7):1396-1409. Epub 2021 May 26 doi: 10.1080/02770903.2021.1926488. PMID: 33951991
Kumutpongpanich T, Ogasawara M, Ozaki A, Ishiura H, Tsuji S, Minami N, Hayashi S, Noguchi S, Iida A, Nishino I; OPDM_LRP12 Study Group, Mori-Yoshimura M, Oya Y, Ono K, Shimizu T, Kawata A, Shimohama S, Toyooka K, Endo K, Toru S, Sasaki O, Isahaya K, Takahashi MP, Iwasa K, Kira JI, Yamamoto T, Kawamoto M, Hamano T, Sugie K, Eura N, Shiota T, Koide M, Sekiya K, Kishi H, Hideyama T, Kawai S, Yanagimoto S, Sato H, Arahata H, Murayama S, Saito K, Hara H, Kanda T, Yaguchi H, Imai N, Kawagashira Y, Sanada M, Obara K, Kaido M, Furuta M, Kurashige T, Hara W, Kuzume D, Yamamoto M, Tsugawa J, Kishida H, Ishizuka N, Morimoto K, Tsuji Y, Tsuneyama A, Matsuno A, Sasaki R, Tamakoshi D, Abe E, Yamada S, Uzawa A
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):853-863. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1509. PMID: 34047774Free PMC Article
Medrinal C, Prieur G, Bonnevie T, Gravier FE, Mayard D, Desmalles E, Smondack P, Lamia B, Combret Y, Fossat G
BMC Anesthesiol 2021 Mar 2;21(1):64. doi: 10.1186/s12871-021-01274-0. PMID: 33653264Free PMC Article
Petitclerc É, Hébert LJ, Mathieu J, Desrosiers J, Gagnon C
J Neuromuscul Dis 2018;5(2):215-224. doi: 10.3233/JND-170291. PMID: 29865087
Rosales XQ, al-Dahhak R, Tsao CY
Pediatr Neurol 2012 Jan;46(1):13-23. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2011.08.014. PMID: 22196486

Diagnosis

Fennessy JR, Cornett KMD, Burns J, Menezes MP
J Peripher Nerv Syst 2023 Sep;28(3):308-316. Epub 2023 Aug 24 doi: 10.1111/jns.12587. PMID: 37537696
Yu J, Deng J, Wang Z
Curr Opin Neurol 2022 Oct 1;35(5):637-644. Epub 2022 Aug 4 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000001089. PMID: 35942670
Restuccia R, Ruggieri D, Magaudda L, Talotta R
Reumatismo 2022 May 3;74(1) doi: 10.4081/reumatismo.2022.1466. PMID: 35506320
Kumutpongpanich T, Ogasawara M, Ozaki A, Ishiura H, Tsuji S, Minami N, Hayashi S, Noguchi S, Iida A, Nishino I; OPDM_LRP12 Study Group, Mori-Yoshimura M, Oya Y, Ono K, Shimizu T, Kawata A, Shimohama S, Toyooka K, Endo K, Toru S, Sasaki O, Isahaya K, Takahashi MP, Iwasa K, Kira JI, Yamamoto T, Kawamoto M, Hamano T, Sugie K, Eura N, Shiota T, Koide M, Sekiya K, Kishi H, Hideyama T, Kawai S, Yanagimoto S, Sato H, Arahata H, Murayama S, Saito K, Hara H, Kanda T, Yaguchi H, Imai N, Kawagashira Y, Sanada M, Obara K, Kaido M, Furuta M, Kurashige T, Hara W, Kuzume D, Yamamoto M, Tsugawa J, Kishida H, Ishizuka N, Morimoto K, Tsuji Y, Tsuneyama A, Matsuno A, Sasaki R, Tamakoshi D, Abe E, Yamada S, Uzawa A
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):853-863. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1509. PMID: 34047774Free PMC Article
Goldfarb LG, Vicart P, Goebel HH, Dalakas MC
Brain 2004 Apr;127(Pt 4):723-34. Epub 2004 Jan 14 doi: 10.1093/brain/awh033. PMID: 14724127

Therapy

Fennessy JR, Cornett KMD, Burns J, Menezes MP
J Peripher Nerv Syst 2023 Sep;28(3):308-316. Epub 2023 Aug 24 doi: 10.1111/jns.12587. PMID: 37537696
Zhang J, Zhang P, Zhang H, Cui Y, Chen Y, Lv P, Li X, Zhang P
Eur J Neurol 2023 Jul;30(7):2012-2021. Epub 2023 Apr 9 doi: 10.1111/ene.15807. PMID: 36997293
Wu K, Michalski A, Cortes D, Rozenberg D, Mathur S
J Asthma 2022 Jul;59(7):1396-1409. Epub 2021 May 26 doi: 10.1080/02770903.2021.1926488. PMID: 33951991
Schreiber A, Bertoni M, Goligher EC
Crit Care Clin 2018 Jul;34(3):357-381. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2018.03.005. PMID: 29907270
Bradberry SM, Proudfoot AT, Vale JA
Toxicol Rev 2004;23(2):65-73. doi: 10.2165/00139709-200423020-00001. PMID: 15578861

Prognosis

Zhang J, Zhang P, Zhang H, Cui Y, Chen Y, Lv P, Li X, Zhang P
Eur J Neurol 2023 Jul;30(7):2012-2021. Epub 2023 Apr 9 doi: 10.1111/ene.15807. PMID: 36997293
Medrinal C, Prieur G, Bonnevie T, Gravier FE, Mayard D, Desmalles E, Smondack P, Lamia B, Combret Y, Fossat G
BMC Anesthesiol 2021 Mar 2;21(1):64. doi: 10.1186/s12871-021-01274-0. PMID: 33653264Free PMC Article
Luo W, Li Y, Xu Q, Gu R, Zhao J
Eur Spine J 2019 Oct;28(10):2293-2301. Epub 2019 Apr 29 doi: 10.1007/s00586-019-05990-7. PMID: 31037421
Watanabe Y, Uruha A, Suzuki S, Nakahara J, Hamanaka K, Takayama K, Suzuki N, Nishino I
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2016 Oct;87(10):1038-44. Epub 2016 May 4 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2016-313166. PMID: 27147697
van Mook WN, Hulsewé-Evers RP
Curr Opin Crit Care 2002 Aug;8(4):302-10. doi: 10.1097/00075198-200208000-00006. PMID: 12386490

Clinical prediction guides

Guzmán-David CA, Ruiz-Ávila HA, Camargo-Rojas DA, Gómez-Alegría CJ, Hernández-Álvarez ED
J Ultrasound 2023 Dec;26(4):879-889. Epub 2023 Oct 2 doi: 10.1007/s40477-023-00823-2. PMID: 37783892Free PMC Article
Zhang J, Zhang P, Zhang H, Cui Y, Chen Y, Lv P, Li X, Zhang P
Eur J Neurol 2023 Jul;30(7):2012-2021. Epub 2023 Apr 9 doi: 10.1111/ene.15807. PMID: 36997293
Kumutpongpanich T, Ogasawara M, Ozaki A, Ishiura H, Tsuji S, Minami N, Hayashi S, Noguchi S, Iida A, Nishino I; OPDM_LRP12 Study Group, Mori-Yoshimura M, Oya Y, Ono K, Shimizu T, Kawata A, Shimohama S, Toyooka K, Endo K, Toru S, Sasaki O, Isahaya K, Takahashi MP, Iwasa K, Kira JI, Yamamoto T, Kawamoto M, Hamano T, Sugie K, Eura N, Shiota T, Koide M, Sekiya K, Kishi H, Hideyama T, Kawai S, Yanagimoto S, Sato H, Arahata H, Murayama S, Saito K, Hara H, Kanda T, Yaguchi H, Imai N, Kawagashira Y, Sanada M, Obara K, Kaido M, Furuta M, Kurashige T, Hara W, Kuzume D, Yamamoto M, Tsugawa J, Kishida H, Ishizuka N, Morimoto K, Tsuji Y, Tsuneyama A, Matsuno A, Sasaki R, Tamakoshi D, Abe E, Yamada S, Uzawa A
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):853-863. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1509. PMID: 34047774Free PMC Article
Petitclerc É, Hébert LJ, Mathieu J, Desrosiers J, Gagnon C
J Neuromuscul Dis 2018;5(2):215-224. doi: 10.3233/JND-170291. PMID: 29865087
Watanabe Y, Uruha A, Suzuki S, Nakahara J, Hamanaka K, Takayama K, Suzuki N, Nishino I
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2016 Oct;87(10):1038-44. Epub 2016 May 4 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2016-313166. PMID: 27147697

Recent systematic reviews

Wu K, Michalski A, Cortes D, Rozenberg D, Mathur S
J Asthma 2022 Jul;59(7):1396-1409. Epub 2021 May 26 doi: 10.1080/02770903.2021.1926488. PMID: 33951991
Luo W, Li Y, Xu Q, Gu R, Zhao J
Eur Spine J 2019 Oct;28(10):2293-2301. Epub 2019 Apr 29 doi: 10.1007/s00586-019-05990-7. PMID: 31037421

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...