U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Choanal stenosis

MedGen UID:
108427
Concept ID:
C0584837
Finding; Finding
Synonyms: Coanal stenosis; Narrowing of the rear opening of the nasal cavity
SNOMED CT: Choanal stenosis (306963008)
 
HPO: HP:0000452

Definition

Abnormal narrowing of the choana (the posterior nasal aperture). [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Choanal stenosis

Conditions with this feature

Achondroplasia
MedGen UID:
1289
Concept ID:
C0001080
Congenital Abnormality
Achondroplasia is the most common cause of disproportionate short stature. Affected individuals have rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, macrocephaly, and characteristic facial features with frontal bossing and midface retrusion. In infancy, hypotonia is typical, and acquisition of developmental motor milestones is often both aberrant in pattern and delayed. Intelligence and life span are usually near normal, although craniocervical junction compression increases the risk of death in infancy. Additional complications include obstructive sleep apnea, middle ear dysfunction, kyphosis, and spinal stenosis.
Acrocephalosyndactyly type I
MedGen UID:
7858
Concept ID:
C0001193
Congenital Abnormality
Apert syndrome is characterized by the presence of multisuture craniosynostosis, midface retrusion, and syndactyly of the hands with fusion of the second through fourth nails. Almost all affected individuals have coronal craniosynostosis, and a majority also have involvement of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. The midface in Apert syndrome is underdeveloped as well as retruded; a subset of affected individuals have cleft palate. The hand in Apert syndrome always includes fusion of the middle three digits; the thumb and fifth finger are sometimes also involved. Feeding issues, dental abnormalities, hearing loss, hyperhidrosis, and progressive synostosis of multiple bones (skull, hands, feet, carpus, tarsus, and cervical vertebrae) are also common. Multilevel airway obstruction may be present and can be due to narrowing of the nasal passages, tongue-based airway obstruction, and/or tracheal anomalies. Nonprogressive ventriculomegaly is present in a majority of individuals, with a small subset having true hydrocephalus. Most individuals with Apert syndrome have normal intelligence or mild intellectual disability; moderate-to-severe intellectual disability has been reported in some individuals. A minority of affected individuals have structural cardiac abnormalities, true gastrointestinal malformations, and anomalies of the genitourinary tract.
Pfeiffer syndrome
MedGen UID:
67390
Concept ID:
C0220658
Disease or Syndrome
Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominant craniosynostosis syndrome with characteristic anomalies of the hands and feet. Three clinical subtypes, which have important diagnostic and prognostic implications, have been identified. Type 1, the classic syndrome, is compatible with life and consists of craniosynostosis, midface deficiency, broad thumbs, broad great toes, brachydactyly, and variable syndactyly. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull with Pfeiffer hands and feet, together with ankylosis of the elbows. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without cloverleaf skull. Ocular proptosis is severe, and the anterior cranial base is markedly short. Various visceral malformations have been found in association with type 3. Early demise is characteristic of types 2 and 3 (Cohen, 1993). Cohen and Barone (1994) further tabulated the findings in the 3 types of Pfeiffer syndrome.
Marshall-Smith syndrome
MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005).
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome
MedGen UID:
120517
Concept ID:
C0265227
Disease or Syndrome
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is a highly recognizable syndrome characterized by severe mental retardation, distinctive facial features, and multiple congenital malformations including skeletal abnormalities, genitourinary and renal malformations, and cardiac defects, as well as a higher-than-normal prevalence of tumors, notably neuroepithelial neoplasia (summary by Hoischen et al., 2010).
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Jansen type
MedGen UID:
120529
Concept ID:
C0265295
Disease or Syndrome
The Murk Jansen type of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia is characterized by severe short stature, short bowed limbs, clinodactyly, prominent upper face, and small mandible. Hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia occur despite the lack of parathyroid abnormalities (summary by Cohen, 2002).
Baller-Gerold syndrome
MedGen UID:
120532
Concept ID:
C0265308
Disease or Syndrome
Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) can be suspected at birth in an infant with craniosynostosis and upper limb abnormality. The coronal suture is most commonly affected; the metopic, lambdoid, and sagittal sutures may also be involved alone or in combination. Upper limb abnormality can include a combination of thumb hypo- or aplasia and radial hypo- or aplasia and may be asymmetric. Malformation or absence of carpal or metacarpal bones has also been described. Skin lesions may appear anytime within the first few years after birth, typically beginning with erythema of the face and extremities and evolving into poikiloderma. Slow growth is apparent in infancy with eventual height and length typically at 4 SD below the mean.
Lenz-Majewski hyperostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
98483
Concept ID:
C0432269
Congenital Abnormality
Lenz-Majewski hyperostotic dwarfism is a rare condition characterized by intellectual disability, sclerosing bone dysplasia, distinct craniofacial and dental anomalies, loose skin, and distal limb anomalies, particularly brachydactyly and symphalangism. Patients have multiple radiographic abnormalities due to progressive generalized hyperostosis that affects the cranium, vertebrae, and diaphyses of tubular bones, leading to severe growth retardation (summary by Sousa et al., 2014).
Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96605
Concept ID:
C0432443
Disease or Syndrome
Monosomy 18q is a partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 characterized by highly variable phenotype, most commonly including hypotonia, developmental delay, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, hearing loss and external ear anomalies, intellectual disability, palatal defects, dysmorphic facial features, skeletal anomalies (foot deformities, tapering fingers, scoliosis) and mood disorders.
Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase deficiency
MedGen UID:
713858
Concept ID:
C1291561
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase deficiency (PAICSD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and early neonatal death (Pelet et al., 2019).
Duane-radial ray syndrome
MedGen UID:
301647
Concept ID:
C1623209
Disease or Syndrome
SALL4-related disorders include Duane-radial ray syndrome (DRRS, Okihiro syndrome), acro-renal-ocular syndrome (AROS), and SALL4-related Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) – three phenotypes previously thought to be distinct entities. DRRS is characterized by uni- or bilateral Duane anomaly and radial ray malformation that can include thenar hypoplasia and/or hypoplasia or aplasia of the thumbs, hypoplasia or aplasia of the radii, shortening and radial deviation of the forearms, triphalangeal thumbs, and duplication of the thumb (preaxial polydactyly). AROS is characterized by radial ray malformations, renal abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, vesicoureteral reflux, bladder diverticula), ocular coloboma, and Duane anomaly. Rarely, pathogenic variants in SALL4 may cause clinically typical HOS (i.e., radial ray malformations and cardiac malformations without additional features).
Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome
MedGen UID:
322127
Concept ID:
C1833136
Disease or Syndrome
Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe contractual arachnodactyly from birth and distinctive facial dysmorphism, including triangular face, malar hypoplasia, narrow nose, everted lips, and blepharophimosis. Skeletal anomalies include slender ribs, hooked clavicles, and dislocated radial head. There is no neurologic involvement (summary by Patel et al., 2014).
Lethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia
MedGen UID:
342416
Concept ID:
C1850106
Disease or Syndrome
Raine syndrome (RNS) is a neonatal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia of early and aggressive onset that usually results in death within the first few weeks of life, although there have been some reports of survival into childhood. Radiographic studies show a generalized increase in the density of all bones and a marked increase in the ossification of the skull. The increased ossification of the basal structures of the skull and facial bones underlies the characteristic facial features, which include narrow prominent forehead, proptosis, depressed nasal bridge, and midface hypoplasia. Periosteal bone formation is also characteristic of this disorder and differentiates it from osteopetrosis and other known lethal and nonlethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasias. The periosteal bone formation typically extends along the diaphysis of long bones adjacent to areas of cellular soft tissue (summary by Simpson et al., 2009). Some patients survive infancy (Simpson et al., 2009; Fradin et al., 2011).
Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome
MedGen UID:
377668
Concept ID:
C1852406
Disease or Syndrome
Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome (BSTVS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by the furrowed skin disorder of cutis gyrata, acanthosis nigricans, craniosynostosis, craniofacial dysmorphism, digital anomalies, umbilical and anogenital abnormalities, and early death (summary by Przylepa et al., 1996).
Hypomandibular faciocranial dysostosis
MedGen UID:
343427
Concept ID:
C1855848
Congenital Abnormality
Hypomandibular faciocranial syndrome consists of craniosynostosis, prominent eyes, deficient midface and zygomatic arches, short nose with anteverted nares, protruding lower face, minute oral aperture, persistent buccopharyngeal membrane, severe mandibular hypoplasia, and various extracephalic anomalies (summary by Gorlin et al., 2001).
Multinucleated neurons-anhydramnios-renal dysplasia-cerebellar hypoplasia-hydranencephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
343465
Concept ID:
C1856053
Disease or Syndrome
MARCH is an autosomal recessive lethal congenital disorder characterized by severe hydranencephaly with almost complete absence of the cerebral hemispheres, which are replaced by fluid, relative preservation of the posterior fossa structures, and renal dysplasia or agenesis. Affected fetuses either die in utero or shortly after birth, and show arthrogryposis and features consistent with anhydramnios. Histologic examination of residual brain tissue shows multinucleated neurons resulting from impaired cytokinesis (summary by Frosk et al., 2017).
Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
382678
Concept ID:
C2675746
Disease or Syndrome
Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia (CDD) is a severe bone dysplasia characterized by massive generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis, especially involving the skull and facial bones. Progressive bony encroachment upon cranial foramina leads to severe neurologic impairment in childhood (summary by Brueton and Winter, 1990). The sclerosis is so severe that the resulting facial distortion is referred to as 'leontiasis ossea' (leonine facies), and the bone deposition results in progressive stenosis of craniofacial foramina (summary by Kim et al., 2011).
Choanal atresia with radial ray hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
419083
Concept ID:
C2931464
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare syndrome with characteristics of radial ray hypoplasia, choanal atresia and convergent strabismus. It has been reported in a father and his two daughters. The radial ray involvement varies from absent radius, first metacarpal and thumb to hypoplastic thumb or triphalangeal thumb. Transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait.
Antley-Bixler syndrome without genital anomalies or disordered steroidogenesis
MedGen UID:
422448
Concept ID:
C2936791
Disease or Syndrome
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking.
Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis
MedGen UID:
461449
Concept ID:
C3150099
Disease or Syndrome
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking.
Treacher Collins syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
462333
Concept ID:
C3150983
Disease or Syndrome
Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is characterized by bilateral and symmetric downslanting palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia, micrognathia, and external ear abnormalities. Hypoplasia of the zygomatic bones and mandible can cause significant feeding and respiratory difficulties. About 40%-50% of individuals have conductive hearing loss attributed most commonly to malformation of the ossicles and hypoplasia of the middle ear cavities. Inner ear structures tend to be normal. Other, less common abnormalities include cleft palate and unilateral or bilateral choanal stenosis or atresia. Typically intellect is normal.
Fraser syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639061
Concept ID:
C4551480
Disease or Syndrome
Fraser syndrome is an autosomal recessive malformation disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and abnormalities of the respiratory and urogenital tract (summary by van Haelst et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fraser Syndrome Fraser syndrome-2 (FRASRS2) is caused by mutation in the FREM2 gene (608945) on chromosome 13q13, and Fraser syndrome-3 (FRASRS3; 617667) is caused by mutation in the GRIP1 gene (604597) on chromosome 12q14. See Bowen syndrome (211200) for a comparable but probably distinct syndrome of multiple congenital malformations.
Severe feeding difficulties-failure to thrive-microcephaly due to ASXL3 deficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
1656239
Concept ID:
C4750837
Disease or Syndrome
ASXL3-related disorder is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability, typically in the moderate to severe range, with speech and language delay and/or absent speech. Affected individuals may also display autistic features. There may be issues with feeding. While dysmorphic facial features have been described, they are typically nonspecific. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia that can transition to spasticity resulting in unusual posture with flexion contractions of the elbows, wrists, and fingers. Other findings may include poor postnatal growth, strabismus, seizures, sleep disturbance, and dental anomalies.
Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684820
Concept ID:
C5231394
Disease or Syndrome
Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome (MRXSBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and poor or absent speech. Most patients are able to walk, although they may have an unsteady gait or spasticity. Additional findings include dysmorphic facial features and mild distal skeletal anomalies. Males and females are similarly affected (summary by Basilicata et al., 2018).
Treacher Collins syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1712280
Concept ID:
C5394546
Disease or Syndrome
Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is characterized by bilateral and symmetric downslanting palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia, micrognathia, and external ear abnormalities. Hypoplasia of the zygomatic bones and mandible can cause significant feeding and respiratory difficulties. About 40%-50% of individuals have conductive hearing loss attributed most commonly to malformation of the ossicles and hypoplasia of the middle ear cavities. Inner ear structures tend to be normal. Other, less common abnormalities include cleft palate and unilateral or bilateral choanal stenosis or atresia. Typically intellect is normal.
IFAP syndrome 1, with or without BRESHECK syndrome
MedGen UID:
1746744
Concept ID:
C5399971
Disease or Syndrome
The IFAP/BRESHECK syndrome is an X-linked multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable severity. The classic triad, which defines IFAP, is ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia. Some patients have additional features, including mental retardation, brain anomalies, Hirschsprung disease, corneal opacifications, kidney dysplasia, cryptorchidism, cleft palate, and skeletal malformations, particularly of the vertebrae, which constitutes BRESHECK syndrome (summary by Naiki et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of IFAP Syndrome IFAP syndrome-2 (IFAP2; 619016) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the SREBF1 gene (184756) on chromosome 17p11.
Microcephaly 30, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1824053
Concept ID:
C5774280
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-30 (MCPH30) is characterized by small head circumference, poor overall growth, and global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals have been reported to have variable additional congenital anomalies, including atrial septal defect, dysmorphic facial features, tracheal stenosis, and anomalies of the skin and teeth (Carvalhal et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1824056
Concept ID:
C5774283
Disease or Syndrome
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome (BCAHH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by choanal atresia, athelia or hypoplastic nipples, branchial sinus abnormalities, neck pits, lacrimal duct anomalies, hearing loss, external ear malformations, and thyroid abnormalities. Additional features may include developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and growth failure/retardation (summary by Cuvertino et al., 2020 and Baldridge et al., 2020).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Nassif SJ, Michel EG, Scott AR, Tracy L, Tracy JC
Am J Otolaryngol 2023 May-Jun;44(3):103819. Epub 2023 Mar 1 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2023.103819. PMID: 36878173
Slavotinek AM, Tifft CJ
J Med Genet 2002 Sep;39(9):623-33. doi: 10.1136/jmg.39.9.623. PMID: 12205104Free PMC Article
Vanzieleghem BD, Lemmerling MM, Vermeersch HF, Govaert P, Dhooge I, Meire F, Mortier GR, Leroy J, Kunnen MF
J Comput Assist Tomogr 2001 Jul-Aug;25(4):540-9. doi: 10.1097/00004728-200107000-00006. PMID: 11473183

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Nassif SJ, Michel EG, Scott AR, Tracy L, Tracy JC
Am J Otolaryngol 2023 May-Jun;44(3):103819. Epub 2023 Mar 1 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2023.103819. PMID: 36878173
Verheij E, Speleman L, Mink van der Molen AB, Thomeer HGXM
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Jan;104:1-4. Epub 2017 Oct 20 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.10.028. PMID: 29287846
Patel VA, Carr MM
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Aug;99:78-84. Epub 2017 May 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.05.023. PMID: 28688570
Kiger JR, Brenkert TE, Losek JD
Pediatr Emerg Care 2008 Nov;24(11):785-92; quiz 790-2. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31818c2cb9. PMID: 19018225
Wang QY, Wang SQ, Lin S, Chen HH, Lu YY
Chin Med J (Engl) 2008 Jun 20;121(12):1101-4. PMID: 18706226

Diagnosis

Peart LS, Gonzalez J, Bivona S, Latchman K, Torres L; Undiagnosed Diagnosis Network, Tekin M
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Apr;188(4):1307-1310. Epub 2022 Jan 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62634. PMID: 34995019
Verheij E, Speleman L, Mink van der Molen AB, Thomeer HGXM
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Jan;104:1-4. Epub 2017 Oct 20 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.10.028. PMID: 29287846
Patel VA, Carr MM
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Aug;99:78-84. Epub 2017 May 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.05.023. PMID: 28688570
Kiger JR, Brenkert TE, Losek JD
Pediatr Emerg Care 2008 Nov;24(11):785-92; quiz 790-2. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31818c2cb9. PMID: 19018225
Touge H, Fujinaga T, Okuda M, Aoshi H
Int J Urol 2001 May;8(5):237-41. doi: 10.1046/j.1442-2042.2001.00291.x. PMID: 11328425

Therapy

Chang H, Chen K, Tao YL, Han F, Ye WJ, Gao YH
Radiat Oncol 2020 Jun 5;15(1):142. doi: 10.1186/s13014-020-01512-8. PMID: 32503596Free PMC Article
Alon EE, Lipschitz N, Bedrin L, Gluck I, Talmi Y, Wolf M, Yakirevitch A
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014 Aug;151(2):354-8. Epub 2014 Apr 14 doi: 10.1177/0194599814530858. PMID: 24732689
Hussein J, Tan TS, Chong AW, Narayanan P, Omar R
Auris Nasus Larynx 2013 Jun;40(3):323-6. Epub 2012 May 30 doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2012.05.004. PMID: 22652485
Ku PK, Tong MC, Tsang SS, van Hasselt A
Am J Otolaryngol 2001 Jul-Aug;22(4):225-9. doi: 10.1053/ajot.2001.24816. PMID: 11464317
Gleich LL, Rebeiz EE, Pankratov MM, Shapshay SM
Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995 Oct;121(10):1162-6. doi: 10.1001/archotol.1995.01890100070012. PMID: 7546585

Prognosis

Nassif SJ, Michel EG, Scott AR, Tracy L, Tracy JC
Am J Otolaryngol 2023 May-Jun;44(3):103819. Epub 2023 Mar 1 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2023.103819. PMID: 36878173
Chang H, Chen K, Tao YL, Han F, Ye WJ, Gao YH
Radiat Oncol 2020 Jun 5;15(1):142. doi: 10.1186/s13014-020-01512-8. PMID: 32503596Free PMC Article
Ramsden JD, Campisi P, Forte V
Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2009 Apr;42(2):339-52, x. doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2009.01.001. PMID: 19328897
Kiger JR, Brenkert TE, Losek JD
Pediatr Emerg Care 2008 Nov;24(11):785-92; quiz 790-2. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31818c2cb9. PMID: 19018225
Wang QY, Wang SQ, Lin S, Chen HH, Lu YY
Chin Med J (Engl) 2008 Jun 20;121(12):1101-4. PMID: 18706226

Clinical prediction guides

Chang H, Chen K, Tao YL, Han F, Ye WJ, Gao YH
Radiat Oncol 2020 Jun 5;15(1):142. doi: 10.1186/s13014-020-01512-8. PMID: 32503596Free PMC Article
Patel VA, Carr MM
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Aug;99:78-84. Epub 2017 May 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.05.023. PMID: 28688570
Alon EE, Lipschitz N, Bedrin L, Gluck I, Talmi Y, Wolf M, Yakirevitch A
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2014 Aug;151(2):354-8. Epub 2014 Apr 14 doi: 10.1177/0194599814530858. PMID: 24732689
Case AP, Mitchell LE
Am J Med Genet A 2011 Apr;155A(4):786-91. Epub 2011 Mar 17 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33882. PMID: 21416593
Hall RK
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006 Apr 9;1:12. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-12. PMID: 16722608Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...