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SRD5A3-congenital disorder of glycosylation(CDG1Q; CDGIq)

MedGen UID:
1392124
Concept ID:
C4317224
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CDG Iq; COLOBOMA, OCULAR, WITH ICHTHYOSIS, BRAIN MALFORMATIONS, AND ENDOCRINE ABNORMALITIES; Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1Q; Ocular colobomas, ichthyosis, brain malformations and endocrine abnormalities; SRD5A3-CDG; SRD5A3-CDG (CDG-Iq)
SNOMED CT: SRD5A3-CDG - steroid 5 alpha-reductase 3 congenital disorder of glycosylation (733601006); Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1q (733601006); Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Iq (733601006)
 
Gene (location): SRD5A3 (4q12)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0012885
OMIM®: 612379
Orphanet: ORPHA324737

Definition

SRD5A3-congenital disorder of glycosylation (SRD5A3-CDG, formerly known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Iq) is an inherited condition that causes neurological and vision problems and other signs and symptoms. The pattern and severity of this condition's features vary widely among affected individuals.

Individuals with SRD5A3-CDG typically develop signs and symptoms of the condition during infancy or early childhood. Most individuals with SRD5A3-CDG have intellectual disability, vision problems, unusual facial features,low muscle tone (hypotonia), and problems with coordination and balance (ataxia). 

Vision problems in SRD5A3-CDG often include involuntary side-side movements of the eyes (nystagmus), a gap or hole in one of the structures of the eye (coloboma), underdevelopment of the nerves that carry signals between the eyes and the brain(optic nerve hypoplasia), or vision loss early in life (early-onset severe retinal dystrophy). Over time, affected individuals may develop clouding of the lenses of the eyes (cataracts) or increased pressure in the eyes (glaucoma).

Other features of SRD5A3-CDG can include skin rash, unusually small red blood cells (microcytic anemia),and liver problems. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Clinical features

From HPO
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
78605
Concept ID:
C0266464
Congenital Abnormality
Polymicrogyria is a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex characterized by abnormal cortical layering (lamination) and an excessive number of small gyri (folds).
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
333548
Concept ID:
C1840379
Finding
Underdevelopment of the vermis of cerebellum.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Hereditary antithrombin deficiency
MedGen UID:
75781
Concept ID:
C0272375
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of antithrombin III is a major risk factor for venous thromboembolic disease. Two categories of AT-III deficiency have been defined on the basis of AT-III antigen levels in the plasma of affected individuals. The majority of AT-III deficiency families belong in the type I (classic) deficiency group and have a quantitatively abnormal phenotype in which antigen and heparin cofactor levels are both reduced to about 50% of normal. The second category of AT-III deficiency has been termed type II (functional) deficiency. Affected individuals from these kindreds produce dysfunctional AT-III molecules; they have reduced heparin cofactor activity levels (about 50% of normal) but levels of AT-III antigen are often normal or nearly normal (summary by Bock and Prochownik, 1987). The 2 categories of antithrombmin III deficiency have been classified further. Type I (low functional and immunologic antithrombin) has been subdivided into subtype Ia (reduced levels of normal antithrombin), and type Ib (reduced levels of antithrombin and the presence of low levels of a variant). Type II (low functional but normal immunologic antithrombin) has been subdivided into subtype IIa (functional abnormalities affecting both the reactive site and the heparin-binding site of AT3); subtype IIb (functional abnormalities limited to the reactive site); and subtype IIc (functional abnormalities limited to the heparin-binding site) (summary by Lane et al., 1992).
Microcytic anemia
MedGen UID:
1673948
Concept ID:
C5194182
Disease or Syndrome
A kind of anemia in which the volume of the red blood cells is reduced.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Type I transferrin isoform profile
MedGen UID:
324900
Concept ID:
C1837899
Finding
Abnormal transferrin isoform profile consistent with a type I congenital disorder of glycosylation. In the traditional nomenclature for congenital disorders of glycosylation, absence of entire glycans was designated type I, and loss of one or more monosaccharides as type II.
Elevated hepatic transaminase
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Cutis laxa
MedGen UID:
8206
Concept ID:
C0010495
Disease or Syndrome
Wrinkled, redundant, inelastic and sagging skin.
Hypertrichosis
MedGen UID:
43787
Concept ID:
C0020555
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrichosis is increased hair growth that is abnormal in quantity or location.
Ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
7002
Concept ID:
C0020757
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the skin characterized the presence of excessive amounts of dry surface scales on the skin resulting from an abnormality of keratinization.
Dry skin
MedGen UID:
56250
Concept ID:
C0151908
Sign or Symptom
Skin characterized by the lack of natural or normal moisture.
Hyperkeratosis
MedGen UID:
209030
Concept ID:
C0870082
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperkeratosis is thickening of the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, which is composed of large, polyhedral, plate-like envelopes filled with keratin which are the dead cells that have migrated up from the stratum granulosum.
Abnormality of skin pigmentation
MedGen UID:
224697
Concept ID:
C1260926
Finding
An abnormality of the pigmentation of the skin.
Inversion of nipple
MedGen UID:
82844
Concept ID:
C0269269
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of nipples that instead of pointing outward are retracted inwards.
Congenital ocular coloboma
MedGen UID:
1046
Concept ID:
C0009363
Congenital Abnormality
Coloboma is an ocular birth defect resulting from abnormal development of the eye during embryogenesis. It is defined as a congenital defect in any ocular tissue, typically presenting as absent tissue or a gap, at a site consistent with aberrant closure of the optic fissure. Failure of fusion can lead to coloboma of one or multiple regions of the inferior portion of the eye affecting any part of the globe traversed by the fissure, from the iris to the optic nerve, including the ciliary body, retina, and choroid. Coloboma is also frequently associated with small (microphthalmic) or absent (anophthalmic) eyes as part of an interrelated spectrum of developmental eye anomalies, and can affect either one or both eyes (summary by Kelberman et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ocular Coloboma A recessive form of ocular coloboma (216820) is caused by mutation in the SALL2 gene (602219) on chromosome 14q11.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Visual loss
MedGen UID:
784038
Concept ID:
C3665386
Finding
Loss of visual acuity (implying that vision was better at a certain time point in life). Otherwise the term reduced visual acuity should be used (or a subclass of that).

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Morava E, Wevers RA, Cantagrel V, Hoefsloot LH, Al-Gazali L, Schoots J, van Rooij A, Huijben K, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM, Jongmans MC, Sykut-Cegielska J, Hoffmann GF, Bluemel P, Adamowicz M, van Reeuwijk J, Ng BG, Bergman JE, van Bokhoven H, Körner C, Babovic-Vuksanovic D, Willemsen MA, Gleeson JG, Lehle L, de Brouwer AP, Lefeber DJ
Brain 2010 Nov;133(11):3210-20. Epub 2010 Sep 17 doi: 10.1093/brain/awq261. PMID: 20852264Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Morava E, Wevers RA, Cantagrel V, Hoefsloot LH, Al-Gazali L, Schoots J, van Rooij A, Huijben K, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM, Jongmans MC, Sykut-Cegielska J, Hoffmann GF, Bluemel P, Adamowicz M, van Reeuwijk J, Ng BG, Bergman JE, van Bokhoven H, Körner C, Babovic-Vuksanovic D, Willemsen MA, Gleeson JG, Lehle L, de Brouwer AP, Lefeber DJ
Brain 2010 Nov;133(11):3210-20. Epub 2010 Sep 17 doi: 10.1093/brain/awq261. PMID: 20852264Free PMC Article

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