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Atrioventricular block

MedGen UID:
13956
Concept ID:
C0004245
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Atrioventricular conduction block; AV block
SNOMED CT: AVB - Atrioventricular block (233917008); AV block (233917008); Atrioventricular block (233917008)
 
HPO: HP:0001678
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0000465

Definition

Delayed or lack of conduction of atrial depolarizations through the atrioventricular node to the ventricles. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Congenital heart block
MedGen UID:
57432
Concept ID:
C0149530
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital heart block (CHB) is a rare disorder of atrioventricular conduction, characterized by absence of conduction of atrial impulses to the ventricles with slower ventricular rhythm (atrioventricular dissociation). CHB can occur in association with immunological evidence of maternal connective disease (autoimmune CHD), fetal structural CHD or can be idiopathic.
Primary hyperoxaluria, type I
MedGen UID:
75658
Concept ID:
C0268164
Disease or Syndrome
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is caused by a deficiency of the liver peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate-aminotransferase (AGT), which catalyzes the conversion of glyoxylate to glycine. When AGT activity is absent, glyoxylate is converted to oxalate, which forms insoluble calcium oxalate crystals that accumulate in the kidney and other organs. Individuals with PH1 are at risk for recurrent nephrolithiasis (deposition of calcium oxalate in the renal pelvis / urinary tract), nephrocalcinosis (deposition of calcium oxalate in the renal parenchyma), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Age at onset of symptoms ranges from infancy to the sixth decade. Approximately 10% of affected individuals present in infancy or early childhood with nephrocalcinosis, with or without nephrolithiasis, and failure to thrive related to renal failure. The majority of individuals with PH1 present in childhood or early adolescence, usually with symptomatic nephrolithiasis and normal or reduced kidney function. The remainder of affected individuals present in adulthood with recurrent renal stones and a mild-to-moderate reduction in kidney function. The natural history of untreated PH1 is one of progressive decline in renal function as a result of calcium oxalate deposits in kidney tissue and complications of nephrolithiasis (e.g., obstruction and infection) with eventual progression to oxalosis (widespread tissue deposition of calcium oxalate) and death from ESRD and/or complications of oxalosis.
Carnitine acylcarnitine translocase deficiency
MedGen UID:
91000
Concept ID:
C0342791
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a critical component of the carnitine shuttle, which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acylcarnitines across the inner mitochondrial membrane. CACT deficiency causes a defect in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid ß-oxidation, with variable clinical severity. Severe neonatal-onset disease is most common, with symptoms evident within two days after birth; attenuated cases may present in the first months of life. Hyperammonemia and cardiac arrhythmia are prominent in early-onset disease, with high rates of cardiac arrest. Other clinical features are typical for disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation: poor feeding, lethargy, hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hypotonia, transaminitis, liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly, and rhabdomyolysis. Univentricular or biventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ranging from mild to severe, may respond to appropriate dietary and medical therapies. Hyperammonemia is difficult to treat and is an important determinant of long-term neurocognitive outcome. Affected individuals with early-onset disease typically experience brain injury at presentation, and have recurrent hyperammonemia leading to developmental delay / intellectual disability. Affected individuals with later-onset disease have milder symptoms and are less likely to experience recurrent hyperammonemia, allowing a better developmental outcome. Prompt treatment of the presenting episode to prevent hypoglycemic, hypoxic, or hyperammonemic brain injury may allow normal growth and development.
Danon disease
MedGen UID:
209235
Concept ID:
C0878677
Disease or Syndrome
Danon disease is a multisystem condition with predominant involvement of the heart, skeletal muscles, and retina, with overlying cognitive dysfunction. Males are typically more severely affected than females. Males usually present with childhood onset concentric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that is progressive and often requires heart transplantation. Rarely, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can evolve to resemble dilated cardiomyopathy. Most affected males also have cardiac conduction abnormalities. Skeletal muscle weakness may lead to delayed acquisition of motor milestones. Learning disability and intellectual disability, most often in the mild range, are common. Additionally, affected males can develop retinopathy with subsequent visual impairment. The clinical features in females are broader and more variable. Females are more likely to have dilated cardiomyopathy, with a smaller proportion requiring heart transplantation compared to affected males. Cardiac conduction abnormalities, skeletal muscle weakness, mild cognitive impairment, and pigmentary retinopathy are variably seen in affected females.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 1
MedGen UID:
351513
Concept ID:
C1631597
Disease or Syndrome
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1E
MedGen UID:
331341
Concept ID:
C1832680
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SCN5A gene.
Timothy syndrome
MedGen UID:
331395
Concept ID:
C1832916
Disease or Syndrome
The first identified CACNA1C-related disorder, referred to as Timothy syndrome, consists of the combination of prolonged QT interval, autism, and cardiovascular malformation with syndactyly of the fingers and toes. Infrequent findings also include developmental and speech delay, seizures, and recurrent infections. With increased availability of molecular genetic testing, a wider spectrum of pathogenic variants and clinical findings associated with CACNA1C-related disorders has been recognized. Because CACNA1C is associated with calcium channel function, all individuals with a pathogenic variant in this gene are at risk for cardiac arrhythmia of a specific type. The clinical manifestations of a CACNA1C-related disorder include three phenotypes: Timothy syndrome with or without syndactyly. QT prolongation (QTc >480 ms) and arrhythmias in the absence of other syndromic features. Short QT syndrome (QTc <350 ms) or Brugada syndrome with short QT interval. These three phenotypes can be separated into two broad categories on the basis of the functional consequences of the pathogenic variants in CACNA1C: QT prolongation with or without a Timothy syndrome-associated phenotype associated with pathogenic variants inducing a gain of function at the cellular level (i.e., increased calcium current). Short QT interval with or without Brugada syndrome EKG pattern associated with pathogenic variants causing loss of function (i.e., reduced calcium current).
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 6
MedGen UID:
331466
Concept ID:
C1833236
Disease or Syndrome
Mutations in the PRKAG2 gene (602743) give rise to a moderate, essentially heart-specific, nonlysosomal glycogenosis with clinical onset typically in late adolescence or in the third decade of life, ventricular pre-excitation predisposing to supraventricular arrhythmias, mild to severe cardiac hypertrophy, enhanced risk of sudden cardiac death in midlife, and autosomal dominant inheritance with full penetrance (summary by Burwinkel et al., 2005).
Sick sinus syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
325270
Concept ID:
C1837845
Disease or Syndrome
The term 'sick sinus syndrome' encompasses a variety of conditions caused by sinus node dysfunction. The most common clinical manifestations are syncope, presyncope, dizziness, and fatigue. Electrocardiogram typically shows sinus bradycardia, sinus arrest, and/or sinoatrial block. Episodes of atrial tachycardias coexisting with sinus bradycardia ('tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome') are also common in this disorder. SSS occurs most often in the elderly associated with underlying heart disease or previous cardiac surgery, but can also occur in the fetus, infant, or child without heart disease or other contributing factors, in which case it is considered to be a congenital disorder (Benson et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Sick Sinus Syndrome Sick sinus syndrome-2 (SSS2; 163800) is caused by mutation in the HCN4 gene (605206). Susceptibility to sick sinus syndrome-3 (SSS3; 614090) is influenced by variation in the MYH6 gene (160710). Sick sinus syndrome-4 (SSS4; 619464) is caused by mutation in the GNB2 gene (139390).
Progressive familial heart block type II
MedGen UID:
333884
Concept ID:
C1841658
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive familial heart block type II (PFHB2) is an autosomal dominant disorder, similar to type I progressive familial heart block (PFHB1; see 113900). The pattern of PFHB2, however, tends to develop along the lines of a sinus bradycardia with a left posterior hemiblock, presenting clinically as syncopal episodes, Stokes-Adams seizures, or sudden death when complete heart block supervenes (Brink and Torrington, 1977).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1G
MedGen UID:
347714
Concept ID:
C1858763
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy-1G (CMD1G) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by ventricular dilatation and systolic contractile dysfunction (Siu et al., 1999). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dilated cardiomyopathy (CMD), see CMD1A (115200).
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 4
MedGen UID:
350526
Concept ID:
C1861862
Disease or Syndrome
Nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy tends to be milder. This form typically begins later in life than familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and affected individuals have a lower risk of serious cardiac events and sudden death than people with the familial form.\n\nWhile most people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are symptom-free or have only mild symptoms, this condition can have serious consequences. It can cause abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) that may be life threatening. People with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have an increased risk of sudden death, even if they have no other symptoms of the condition. A small number of affected individuals develop potentially fatal heart failure, which may require heart transplantation.\n\nThe symptoms of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are variable, even within the same family. Many affected individuals have no symptoms. Other people with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may experience chest pain; shortness of breath, especially with physical exertion; a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations); lightheadedness; dizziness; and fainting.\n\nIn familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac thickening usually occurs in the interventricular septum, which is the muscular wall that separates the lower left chamber of the heart (the left ventricle) from the lower right chamber (the right ventricle). In some people, thickening of the interventricular septum impedes the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the heart, which may lead to an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur) and other signs and symptoms of the condition. Other affected individuals do not have physical obstruction of blood flow, but the pumping of blood is less efficient, which can also lead to symptoms of the condition. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often begins in adolescence or young adulthood, although it can develop at any time throughout life.\n\nHypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heart condition characterized by thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart (cardiac) muscle. When multiple members of a family have the condition, it is known as familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also occurs in people with no family history; these cases are considered nonfamilial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 
Progressive familial heart block type IB
MedGen UID:
370220
Concept ID:
C1970298
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive familial heart block can be divided into type I and type II, with type I being further divided into types IA and IB. These types differ in where in the heart signaling is interrupted and the genetic cause. In types IA and IB, the heart block originates in the bundle branch, and in type II, the heart block originates in the atrioventricular node. The different types of progressive familial heart block have similar signs and symptoms.\n\nMost cases of heart block are not genetic and are not considered progressive familial heart block. The most common cause of heart block is fibrosis of the heart, which occurs as a normal process of aging. Other causes of heart block can include the use of certain medications or an infection of the heart tissue.\n\nHeart block occurs when the electrical signaling is obstructed anywhere from the atria to the ventricles. In people with progressive familial heart block, the condition worsens over time: early in the disorder, the electrical signals are partially blocked, but the block eventually becomes complete, preventing any signals from passing through the heart. Partial heart block causes a slow or irregular heartbeat (bradycardia or arrhythmia, respectively), and can lead to the buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the cells that carry electrical impulses. Fibrosis contributes to the development of complete heart block, resulting in uncoordinated electrical signaling between the atria and the ventricles and inefficient pumping of blood in the heart. Complete heart block can cause a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), shortness of breath, fainting (syncope), or sudden cardiac arrest and death.\n\nProgressive familial heart block is a genetic condition that alters the normal beating of the heart. A normal heartbeat is controlled by electrical signals that move through the heart in a highly coordinated way. These signals begin in a specialized cluster of cells called the sinoatrial node (the heart's natural pacemaker) located in the heart's upper chambers (the atria). From there, a group of cells called the atrioventricular node carries the electrical signals to another cluster of cells called the bundle of His. This bundle separates into multiple thin spindles called bundle branches, which carry electrical signals into the heart's lower chambers (the ventricles). Electrical impulses move from the sinoatrial node down to the bundle branches, stimulating a normal heartbeat in which the ventricles contract slightly later than the atria.
Early-onset myopathy with fatal cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
435983
Concept ID:
C2673677
Disease or Syndrome
Salih myopathy is characterized by muscle weakness (manifest during the neonatal period or in early infancy) and delayed motor development; children acquire independent walking between ages 20 months and four years. In the first decade of life, global motor performance is stable or tends to improve. Moderate joint and neck contractures and spinal rigidity may manifest in the first decade but become more obvious in the second decade. Scoliosis develops after age 11 years. Cardiac dysfunction manifests between ages five and 16 years, progresses rapidly, and leads to death between ages eight and 20 years, usually from heart rhythm disturbances.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1AA
MedGen UID:
393713
Concept ID:
C2677338
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ACTN2 gene.
Long QT syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
394836
Concept ID:
C2678484
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Long QT syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
462083
Concept ID:
C3150733
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Microcephaly-cerebellar hypoplasia-cardiac conduction defect syndrome
MedGen UID:
482322
Concept ID:
C3280692
Disease or Syndrome
The Zaki-Gleeson syndrome is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by profound mental retardation, severe microcephaly, poor growth, cerebellar hypoplasia, and second-degree cardiac conduction defects (Zaki et al., 2011).
Congenital heart defects, multiple types, 3
MedGen UID:
767108
Concept ID:
C3554194
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple types of congenital heart defects-3 (CHTD3) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by various types of congenital heart defects and low atrial rhythm (van de Meerakker et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple types of congenital heart defects, see 306955.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 26
MedGen UID:
934716
Concept ID:
C4310749
Disease or Syndrome
Familial cardiomyopathy caused by mutation in the FLNC gene has been described as hypertrophic, restrictive, dilated, or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Affected individuals, especially those with dilated cardiomyopathy, are at risk for arrhythmias and sudden death. Arrhythmias without cardiomyopathy, and left ventricular noncompaction, have also been reported (Ortiz-Genga et al., 2016; Verdonschot et al., 2020).
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 1, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1720295
Concept ID:
C5243475
Disease or Syndrome
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern and caused by mutations in the EMD gene, encoding emerin.
Sick sinus syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1794159
Concept ID:
C5561949
Disease or Syndrome
Sick sinus syndrome-4 (SSS4) is characterized by early and progressive sinus node and atrioventricular conduction dysfunction. Patients show bradycardia and chronotropic incompetence, and may experience syncope. Atrioventricular conduction block ranges from mild to severe, and some patients also have intermittent atrial fibrillation. Many require implantation of a pacemaker, but sudden cardiac death has not been reported (Stallmeyer et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sick sinus syndrome, see SSS1 (608567).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Lehtonen J, Uusitalo V, Pöyhönen P, Mäyränpää MI, Kupari M
Eur Heart J 2023 May 1;44(17):1495-1510. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehad067. PMID: 36924191Free PMC Article
Wung SF
Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2016 Sep;28(3):297-308. Epub 2016 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.cnc.2016.04.003. PMID: 27484658
Baruteau AE, Perry JC, Sanatani S, Horie M, Dubin AM
Eur J Pediatr 2016 Feb;175(2):151-61. Epub 2016 Jan 16 doi: 10.1007/s00431-015-2689-z. PMID: 26780751

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Cheung CC, Mori S, Gerstenfeld EP
Cardiol Clin 2023 Aug;41(3):419-428. doi: 10.1016/j.ccl.2023.03.009. PMID: 37321692
Steinberg L
Cardiol Clin 2023 Aug;41(3):399-410. doi: 10.1016/j.ccl.2023.03.002. PMID: 37321690
Carvalho JS
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2019 Jul;58:28-41. Epub 2019 Jan 9 doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2019.01.002. PMID: 30738635
Wung SF
Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2016 Sep;28(3):297-308. Epub 2016 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.cnc.2016.04.003. PMID: 27484658
Barra SN, Providência R, Paiva L, Nascimento J, Marques AL
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2012 Nov;35(11):1395-405. Epub 2012 Aug 16 doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2012.03489.x. PMID: 22897386

Diagnosis

Steinberg L
Cardiol Clin 2023 Aug;41(3):399-410. doi: 10.1016/j.ccl.2023.03.002. PMID: 37321690
Clark BA, Prystowsky EN
Card Electrophysiol Clin 2021 Dec;13(4):599-605. Epub 2021 Sep 25 doi: 10.1016/j.ccep.2021.07.001. PMID: 34689889
Wung SF
Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2016 Sep;28(3):297-308. Epub 2016 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.cnc.2016.04.003. PMID: 27484658
Alboni P, Holz A, Brignole M
Heart 2013 Jul;99(13):904-8. Epub 2013 Jan 2 doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2012-303220. PMID: 23286970
Barra SN, Providência R, Paiva L, Nascimento J, Marques AL
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2012 Nov;35(11):1395-405. Epub 2012 Aug 16 doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2012.03489.x. PMID: 22897386

Therapy

Chen Y, Lou L, Zhang X, Jin L, Chen Y, Chen L, Li Z, Zhang F, Fu T, Hu S, Yang J
Front Immunol 2023;14:1041591. Epub 2023 Apr 5 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1041591. PMID: 37090734Free PMC Article
Aksu T, Gupta D, D'Avila A, Morillo CA
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2022 Oct;33(10):2205-2212. Epub 2022 Apr 9 doi: 10.1111/jce.15480. PMID: 35362165
Sandborn WJ, Peyrin-Biroulet L, Zhang J, Chiorean M, Vermeire S, Lee SD, Kühbacher T, Yacyshyn B, Cabell CH, Naik SU, Klassen P, Panés J
Gastroenterology 2020 Feb;158(3):550-561. Epub 2019 Nov 9 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.10.035. PMID: 31711921
Carvalho JS
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2019 Jul;58:28-41. Epub 2019 Jan 9 doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2019.01.002. PMID: 30738635
Robinson ML, Kobayashi T, Higgins Y, Calkins H, Melia MT
Infect Dis Clin North Am 2015 Jun;29(2):255-68. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2015.02.003. PMID: 25999222

Prognosis

Deshpande S, Shenthar J, Khanra D, Isath A, Banavalikar B, Reddy S, Krishnappa D, Khan H, Kella D, Padmanabhan D
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2022 Mar;33(3):493-501. Epub 2022 Jan 27 doi: 10.1111/jce.15358. PMID: 35018695
Rosenthal DG, Fang CD, Groh CA, Nah G, Vittinghoff E, Dewland TA, Vedantham V, Marcus GM
J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Feb;10(5):e017692. Epub 2021 Feb 18 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.017692. PMID: 33599141Free PMC Article
Sammour Y, Krishnaswamy A, Kumar A, Puri R, Tarakji KG, Bazarbashi N, Harb S, Griffin B, Svensson L, Wazni O, Kapadia SR
JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jan 25;14(2):115-134. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2020.09.063. PMID: 33478630
Shreenivas S, Schloss E, Choo J, Sarembock I, Lilly S, Kereiakes D
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2019 Apr;17(4):293-304. doi: 10.1080/14779072.2019.1598264. PMID: 30912984
Mond HG, Vohra J
Heart Lung Circ 2017 Dec;26(12):1252-1266. Epub 2017 Jul 3 doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2017.06.718. PMID: 28743439

Clinical prediction guides

Cheung CC, Mori S, Gerstenfeld EP
Cardiol Clin 2023 Aug;41(3):419-428. doi: 10.1016/j.ccl.2023.03.009. PMID: 37321692
Chen Y, Lou L, Zhang X, Jin L, Chen Y, Chen L, Li Z, Zhang F, Fu T, Hu S, Yang J
Front Immunol 2023;14:1041591. Epub 2023 Apr 5 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1041591. PMID: 37090734Free PMC Article
Sidhu S, Marine JE
Trends Cardiovasc Med 2020 Jul;30(5):265-272. Epub 2019 Jul 9 doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2019.07.001. PMID: 31311698
Baruteau AE, Perry JC, Sanatani S, Horie M, Dubin AM
Eur J Pediatr 2016 Feb;175(2):151-61. Epub 2016 Jan 16 doi: 10.1007/s00431-015-2689-z. PMID: 26780751
Alboni P, Holz A, Brignole M
Heart 2013 Jul;99(13):904-8. Epub 2013 Jan 2 doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2012-303220. PMID: 23286970

Recent systematic reviews

Majeed H, Khan U, Khan AM, Khalid SN, Farook S, Gangu K, Sagheer S, Sheikh AB
Curr Probl Cardiol 2023 Jun;48(6):101663. Epub 2023 Feb 24 doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2023.101663. PMID: 36842470
Chivers S, Ovadia C, Regan W, Zidere V, Vigneswaran T, Sharland G, Rosenthal E, Seed PT, Simpson JM, Williamson C
Heart Rhythm 2023 Apr;20(4):596-606. Epub 2022 Dec 22 doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2022.12.026. PMID: 36566891
Nagamine T, Randhawa S, Nishimura Y, Huang R, Leesutipornchai T, Benavente K, Yoshimura S, Zhang J, Kanitsorphan C
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2022 Apr;45(4):556-566. Epub 2022 Mar 3 doi: 10.1111/pace.14466. PMID: 35182433Free PMC Article
van der Ree MH, Blanck O, Limpens J, Lee CH, Balgobind BV, Dieleman EMT, Wilde AAM, Zei PC, de Groot JR, Slotman BJ, Cuculich PS, Robinson CG, Postema PG
Heart Rhythm 2020 Aug;17(8):1381-1392. Epub 2020 Mar 20 doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.03.013. PMID: 32205299
Adler A, Novelli V, Amin AS, Abiusi E, Care M, Nannenberg EA, Feilotter H, Amenta S, Mazza D, Bikker H, Sturm AC, Garcia J, Ackerman MJ, Hershberger RE, Perez MV, Zareba W, Ware JS, Wilde AAM, Gollob MH
Circulation 2020 Feb 11;141(6):418-428. Epub 2020 Jan 27 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043132. PMID: 31983240Free PMC Article

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