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Autism(AUTS)

MedGen UID:
13966
Concept ID:
C0004352
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: Autistic disorder; Autistic disorder of childhood onset; AUTS
SNOMED CT: Infantile autism (408857007); Autism, childhood onset (43614003); Autistic disorder of childhood onset (43614003); Childhood autism (43614003)
 
Gene (location): SNRPN (15q11.2)
 
HPO: HP:0000717
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005260
OMIM®: 209850

Definition

Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Autism is considered to be a complex multifactorial disorder involving many genes. Accordingly, several loci have been identified, some or all of which may contribute to the phenotype. Included in this entry is AUTS1, which has been mapped to chromosome 7q22. Other susceptibility loci include AUTS3 (608049), which maps to chromosome 13q14; AUTS4 (608636), which maps to chromosome 15q11; AUTS6 (609378), which maps to chromosome 17q11; AUTS7 (610676), which maps to chromosome 17q21; AUTS8 (607373), which maps to chromosome 3q25-q27; AUTS9 (611015), which maps to chromosome 7q31; AUTS10 (611016), which maps to chromosome 7q36; AUTS11 (610836), which maps to chromosome 1q41; AUTS12 (610838), which maps to chromosome 21p13-q11; AUTS13 (610908), which maps to chromosome 12q14; AUTS14A (611913), which has been found in patients with a deletion of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS14B (614671), which has been found in patients with a duplication of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS15 (612100), associated with mutation in the CNTNAP2 gene (604569) on chromosome 7q35-q36; AUTS16 (613410), associated with mutation in the SLC9A9 gene (608396) on chromosome 3q24; AUTS17 (613436), associated with mutation in the SHANK2 gene (603290) on chromosome 11q13; AUTS18 (615032), associated with mutation in the CHD8 gene (610528) on chromosome 14q11; AUTS19 (615091), associated with mutation in the EIF4E gene (133440) on chromosome 4q23; and AUTS20 (618830), associated with mutation in the NLGN1 gene (600568) on chromosome 3q26. (NOTE: the symbol 'AUTS2' has been used to refer to a gene on chromosome 7q11 (KIAA0442; 607270) and therefore is not used as a part of this autism locus series.) There are several X-linked forms of autism susceptibility: AUTSX1 (300425), associated with mutations in the NLGN3 gene (300336); AUTSX2 (300495), associated with mutations in NLGN4 (300427); AUTSX3 (300496), associated with mutations in MECP2 (300005); AUTSX4 (300830), associated with variation in the region on chromosome Xp22.11 containing the PTCHD1 gene (300828); AUTSX5 (300847), associated with mutations in the RPL10 gene (312173); and AUTSX6 (300872), associated with mutation in the TMLHE gene (300777). A locus on chromosome 2q (606053) associated with a phenotype including intellectual disability and speech deficits was formerly designated AUTS5. Folstein and Rosen-Sheidley (2001) reviewed the genetics of autism. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Autism
MedGen UID:
13966
Concept ID:
C0004352
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Autism is considered to be a complex multifactorial disorder involving many genes. Accordingly, several loci have been identified, some or all of which may contribute to the phenotype. Included in this entry is AUTS1, which has been mapped to chromosome 7q22. Other susceptibility loci include AUTS3 (608049), which maps to chromosome 13q14; AUTS4 (608636), which maps to chromosome 15q11; AUTS6 (609378), which maps to chromosome 17q11; AUTS7 (610676), which maps to chromosome 17q21; AUTS8 (607373), which maps to chromosome 3q25-q27; AUTS9 (611015), which maps to chromosome 7q31; AUTS10 (611016), which maps to chromosome 7q36; AUTS11 (610836), which maps to chromosome 1q41; AUTS12 (610838), which maps to chromosome 21p13-q11; AUTS13 (610908), which maps to chromosome 12q14; AUTS14A (611913), which has been found in patients with a deletion of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS14B (614671), which has been found in patients with a duplication of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS15 (612100), associated with mutation in the CNTNAP2 gene (604569) on chromosome 7q35-q36; AUTS16 (613410), associated with mutation in the SLC9A9 gene (608396) on chromosome 3q24; AUTS17 (613436), associated with mutation in the SHANK2 gene (603290) on chromosome 11q13; AUTS18 (615032), associated with mutation in the CHD8 gene (610528) on chromosome 14q11; AUTS19 (615091), associated with mutation in the EIF4E gene (133440) on chromosome 4q23; and AUTS20 (618830), associated with mutation in the NLGN1 gene (600568) on chromosome 3q26. (NOTE: the symbol 'AUTS2' has been used to refer to a gene on chromosome 7q11 (KIAA0442; 607270) and therefore is not used as a part of this autism locus series.) There are several X-linked forms of autism susceptibility: AUTSX1 (300425), associated with mutations in the NLGN3 gene (300336); AUTSX2 (300495), associated with mutations in NLGN4 (300427); AUTSX3 (300496), associated with mutations in MECP2 (300005); AUTSX4 (300830), associated with variation in the region on chromosome Xp22.11 containing the PTCHD1 gene (300828); AUTSX5 (300847), associated with mutations in the RPL10 gene (312173); and AUTSX6 (300872), associated with mutation in the TMLHE gene (300777). A locus on chromosome 2q (606053) associated with a phenotype including intellectual disability and speech deficits was formerly designated AUTS5. Folstein and Rosen-Sheidley (2001) reviewed the genetics of autism.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Motor stereotypies
MedGen UID:
21318
Concept ID:
C0038271
Individual Behavior
Use of the same abnormal action in response to certain triggers or at random. They may be used as a way to regulate one's internal state but must otherwise have no apparent functional purpose.
EEG abnormality
MedGen UID:
56235
Concept ID:
C0151611
Finding
Abnormality observed by electroencephalogram (EEG), which is used to record of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Impaired ability to form peer relationships
MedGen UID:
325221
Concept ID:
C1837649
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Difficulty to establish relations with others in a comparable social group (peers) that may be manifested in pehnomena such as not being able to initiative a conversation, undersand social cues, or to discuss shared interests. This feature is associated with poor integration within a community or group.
Lack of spontaneous play
MedGen UID:
373380
Concept ID:
C1837650
Finding
Inflexible adherence to routines
MedGen UID:
324848
Concept ID:
C1837653
Finding
A need to strictly adhere to repetitive routines or patterns of behavior which are created by the environment. One becomes upset or distressed when their routines are disrupted or altered.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Abnormal nonverbal communicative behavior
MedGen UID:
867425
Concept ID:
C4021798
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Abnormalities in eye contact, communicative facial expressions, gesture use, or the use of others' bodies to communicate convey shared meanings within a culture that replace or supplement verbal communication.
Restrictive behavior
MedGen UID:
892681
Concept ID:
C4021799
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Behavior characterized by an abnormal limitation to a few interests and activities.
Increased serum serotonin
MedGen UID:
488950
Concept ID:
C0877243
Finding
A increased concentration of serotonin in the blood.

Conditions with this feature

Autism
MedGen UID:
13966
Concept ID:
C0004352
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Autism is considered to be a complex multifactorial disorder involving many genes. Accordingly, several loci have been identified, some or all of which may contribute to the phenotype. Included in this entry is AUTS1, which has been mapped to chromosome 7q22. Other susceptibility loci include AUTS3 (608049), which maps to chromosome 13q14; AUTS4 (608636), which maps to chromosome 15q11; AUTS6 (609378), which maps to chromosome 17q11; AUTS7 (610676), which maps to chromosome 17q21; AUTS8 (607373), which maps to chromosome 3q25-q27; AUTS9 (611015), which maps to chromosome 7q31; AUTS10 (611016), which maps to chromosome 7q36; AUTS11 (610836), which maps to chromosome 1q41; AUTS12 (610838), which maps to chromosome 21p13-q11; AUTS13 (610908), which maps to chromosome 12q14; AUTS14A (611913), which has been found in patients with a deletion of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS14B (614671), which has been found in patients with a duplication of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS15 (612100), associated with mutation in the CNTNAP2 gene (604569) on chromosome 7q35-q36; AUTS16 (613410), associated with mutation in the SLC9A9 gene (608396) on chromosome 3q24; AUTS17 (613436), associated with mutation in the SHANK2 gene (603290) on chromosome 11q13; AUTS18 (615032), associated with mutation in the CHD8 gene (610528) on chromosome 14q11; AUTS19 (615091), associated with mutation in the EIF4E gene (133440) on chromosome 4q23; and AUTS20 (618830), associated with mutation in the NLGN1 gene (600568) on chromosome 3q26. (NOTE: the symbol 'AUTS2' has been used to refer to a gene on chromosome 7q11 (KIAA0442; 607270) and therefore is not used as a part of this autism locus series.) There are several X-linked forms of autism susceptibility: AUTSX1 (300425), associated with mutations in the NLGN3 gene (300336); AUTSX2 (300495), associated with mutations in NLGN4 (300427); AUTSX3 (300496), associated with mutations in MECP2 (300005); AUTSX4 (300830), associated with variation in the region on chromosome Xp22.11 containing the PTCHD1 gene (300828); AUTSX5 (300847), associated with mutations in the RPL10 gene (312173); and AUTSX6 (300872), associated with mutation in the TMLHE gene (300777). A locus on chromosome 2q (606053) associated with a phenotype including intellectual disability and speech deficits was formerly designated AUTS5. Folstein and Rosen-Sheidley (2001) reviewed the genetics of autism.
5p partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
41345
Concept ID:
C0010314
Disease or Syndrome
Cri-du-chat syndrome was first described by Lejeune et al. (1963) as a hereditary congenital syndrome associated with deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. The deletions can vary in size from extremely small and involving only band 5p15.2 to the entire short arm. Although the majority of deletions arise as new mutations, approximately 12% result from unbalanced segregation of translocations or recombination involving a pericentric inversion in one of the parents.
Fragile X syndrome
MedGen UID:
8912
Concept ID:
C0016667
Disease or Syndrome
FMR1 disorders include fragile X syndrome (FXS), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized in affected males by developmental delay and intellectual disability along with a variety of behavioral issues. Autism spectrum disorder is present in 50%-70% of individuals with FXS. Affected males may have characteristic craniofacial features (which become more obvious with age) and medical problems including hypotonia, gastroesophageal reflux, strabismus, seizures, sleep disorders, joint laxity, pes planus, scoliosis, and recurrent otitis media. Adults may have mitral valve prolapse or aortic root dilatation. The physical and behavioral features seen in males with FXS have been reported in females heterozygous for the FMR1 full mutation, but with lower frequency and milder involvement. FXTAS occurs in individuals who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor followed by cognitive impairment. Psychiatric disorders are common. Age of onset is typically between 60 and 65 years and is more common among males who are hemizygous for the premutation (40%) than among females who are heterozygous for the premutation (16%-20%). FXPOI, defined as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years, has been observed in 20% of women who carry a premutation allele compared to 1% in the general population.
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Cyclical vomiting syndrome
MedGen UID:
57509
Concept ID:
C0152164
Disease or Syndrome
A condition characterized by recurrent, self-limiting episodes of vomiting associated with intense nausea, pallor, and lethargy. It is commonly a migraine precursor.
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described.
Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency
MedGen UID:
78641
Concept ID:
C0268126
Disease or Syndrome
Adenylosuccinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by an enzymatic defect in de novo purine synthesis (DNPS) pathway. ADSL deficiency leads to the accumulation of toxic intermediates, including succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr) in body fluids. There are 3 major phenotypic forms of the disorder that correlate with different values of the S-Ado and SAICAr concentration ratios (S-Ado/SAICAr) in the cerebrospinal fluid. These include the most severe fatal neonatal encephalopathy (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio less than 1); childhood form (type I) with severe psychomotor retardation (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio close to 1), and a milder form (type II) with psychomotor retardation or hypotonia (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio greater than 2) (summary by Baresova et al., 2012).
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
124340
Concept ID:
C0268631
Disease or Syndrome
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is characterized by infantile-onset hypotonia, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, expressive language deficit, and mild ataxia. Epilepsy is present in about half of affected individuals and is more common in adults. Hyperkinetic behavior, aggression, self-injurious behaviors, hallucinations, and sleep disturbances have been reported in nearly half of all affected individuals, more commonly in those who are older. Basal ganglia signs including choreoathetosis, dystonia, and myoclonus have been reported in a few individuals with earlier-onset, more severe disease. Involvement beyond the central nervous system has not been described. Individuals with SSADH deficiency typically have 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria present on urine organic acid analysis. Head MRI reveals T2 hyperintensities in multiple regions, involving the globus pallidi, cerebellar dentate nuclei, subthalamic nuclei, subcortical white matter, and brain stem, as well as cerebral and sometimes cerebellar atrophy. EEG findings include background slowing and spike discharges that are usually generalized.
Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency
MedGen UID:
83353
Concept ID:
C0342803
Disease or Syndrome
Dihydropyrimidinase deficiency (DPYSD) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the presence of dihydropyrimidinuria. The clinical phenotype is highly variable, ranging from early infantile onset of severe neurologic involvement, dysmorphic features, and feeding problems to late onset of mild intellectual disability and even asymptomatic individuals. Patients with a complete or partial deficiency have an increased risk of developing severe toxicity after administration of the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (summary by Nakajima et al., 2017). See also dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency (274270), a similar disorder.
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II
MedGen UID:
96022
Concept ID:
C0398739
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIc (CDG2C) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderate to severe psychomotor retardation, mild dysmorphism, and impaired neutrophil motility. It is a member of a group of disorders with a defect in the processing of protein-bound glycans. For a general overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs), see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). Frydman (1996) contended that the neutrophil defect in CDG2C, which has been referred to as 'leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II' (LAD2), is a manifestation of the disorder and that there are no cases of 'primary' LAD II. Etzioni and Harlan (1999) provided a comprehensive review of both leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1; 116920) and LAD2. While the functional neutrophil studies are similar in the 2 LADs, the clinical course is milder in LAD2. Furthermore, patients with LAD2 present other abnormal features, such as growth and mental retardation, which are related to the primary defect in fucose metabolism. Delayed separation of the umbilical cord occurs in LAD1. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of LAD, see 116920.
Kleefstra syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
208639
Concept ID:
C0795833
Disease or Syndrome
Kleefstra syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability, autistic-like features, childhood hypotonia, and distinctive facial features. The majority of individuals function in the moderate-to-severe spectrum of intellectual disability although a few individuals have mild delay and total IQ within low-normal range. While most have severe expressive speech delay with little speech development, general language development is usually at a higher level, making nonverbal communication possible. A complex pattern of other findings can also be observed; these include heart defects, renal/urologic defects, genital defects in males, severe respiratory infections, epilepsy / febrile seizures, psychiatric disorders, and extreme apathy or catatonic-like features after puberty.
Autism, susceptibility to, X-linked 4
MedGen UID:
162886
Concept ID:
C0795888
Finding
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypical, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options.
X-linked intellectual disability with marfanoid habitus
MedGen UID:
167096
Concept ID:
C0796022
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Myhre syndrome
MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported.
Nance-Horan syndrome
MedGen UID:
208665
Concept ID:
C0796085
Disease or Syndrome
Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, dental anomalies, dysmorphic features, and, in some cases, mental retardation (summary by Burdon et al., 2003).
Primrose syndrome
MedGen UID:
162911
Concept ID:
C0796121
Disease or Syndrome
Primrose syndrome is characterized by macrocephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability with expressive speech delay, behavioral issues, a recognizable facial phenotype, radiographic features, and altered glucose metabolism. Additional features seen in adults: sparse body hair, distal muscle wasting, and contractures. Characteristic craniofacial features include brachycephaly, high anterior hairline, deeply set eyes, ptosis, downslanted palpebral fissures, high palate with torus palatinus, broad jaw, and large ears with small or absent lobes. Radiographic features include calcification of the external ear cartilage, multiple Wormian bones, platybasia, bathrocephaly, slender bones with exaggerated metaphyseal flaring, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and spondylar dysplasia. Additional features include hearing impairment, ocular anomalies, cryptorchidism, and nonspecific findings on brain MRI.
Microbrachycephaly-ptosis-cleft lip syndrome
MedGen UID:
162914
Concept ID:
C0796142
Disease or Syndrome
The Richieri-Costa/Guion-Almeida syndrome is characterized by mild mental retardation, short stature, microbrachycephaly, ptosis, esotropia, cleft lip/palate (Richieri-Costa and Guion-Almeida, 1992).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 9
MedGen UID:
167112
Concept ID:
C0796215
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-9 (XLID9) is characterized by moderately to severely impaired intellectual development. Some patients have also been reported with delayed motor development, seizures, and/or behavioral problems (Hamel et al., 1999; Froyen et al., 2007).
Brunner syndrome
MedGen UID:
208683
Concept ID:
C0796275
Disease or Syndrome
Brunner syndrome is a recessive X-linked disorder characterized by impulsive aggressiveness and mild mental retardation associated with MAOA deficiency (Brunner et al., 1993).
Timothy syndrome
MedGen UID:
331395
Concept ID:
C1832916
Disease or Syndrome
The first identified CACNA1C-related disorder, referred to as Timothy syndrome, consists of the combination of prolonged QT interval, autism, and cardiovascular malformation with syndactyly of the fingers and toes. Infrequent findings also include developmental and speech delay, seizures, and recurrent infections. With increased availability of molecular genetic testing, a wider spectrum of pathogenic variants and clinical findings associated with CACNA1C-related disorders has been recognized. Because CACNA1C is associated with calcium channel function, all individuals with a pathogenic variant in this gene are at risk for cardiac arrhythmia of a specific type. The clinical manifestations of a CACNA1C-related disorder include three phenotypes: Timothy syndrome with or without syndactyly. QT prolongation (QTc >480 ms) and arrhythmias in the absence of other syndromic features. Short QT syndrome (QTc <350 ms) or Brugada syndrome with short QT interval. These three phenotypes can be separated into two broad categories on the basis of the functional consequences of the pathogenic variants in CACNA1C: QT prolongation with or without a Timothy syndrome-associated phenotype associated with pathogenic variants inducing a gain of function at the cellular level (i.e., increased calcium current). Short QT interval with or without Brugada syndrome EKG pattern associated with pathogenic variants causing loss of function (i.e., reduced calcium current).
Asperger syndrome, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
325218
Concept ID:
C1837646
Disease or Syndrome
Asperger syndrome is considered to be a form of childhood autism (see, e.g., 209850). The DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) specifies several diagnostic criteria for Asperger syndrome, which has many of the same features as autism. In general, patients with Asperger syndrome and autism exhibit qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifest by impairment in the use of nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures, failure to develop appropriate peer relationships, and lack of social sharing or reciprocity. Patients also exhibit restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, including abnormal preoccupation with certain activities and inflexible adherence to routines or rituals. Asperger syndrome is primarily distinguished from autism by the higher cognitive abilities and a more normal and timely development of language and communicative phrases. Gillberg et al. (2001) described the development of the Asperger syndrome (and high-functioning autism) Diagnostic Interview (ASDI), which they claimed has a strong validity in the diagnosis of the disorder. Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Asperger Syndrome ASPG1 maps to chromosome 3q. Other autosomal loci include ASPG2 (608631) on chromosome 17p, ASPG3 (608781) on 1q21-q22, and ASPG4 (609954) on 3p24-p21.
Asperger syndrome, susceptibility to, 2
MedGen UID:
332517
Concept ID:
C1837697
Disease or Syndrome
Asperger syndrome is considered to be a form of childhood autism (see, e.g., 209850). The DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) specifies several diagnostic criteria for Asperger syndrome, which has many of the same features as autism. In general, patients with Asperger syndrome and autism exhibit qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifest by impairment in the use of nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures, failure to develop appropriate peer relationships, and lack of social sharing or reciprocity. Patients also exhibit restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, including abnormal preoccupation with certain activities and inflexible adherence to routines or rituals. Asperger syndrome is primarily distinguished from autism by the higher cognitive abilities and a more normal and timely development of language and communicative phrases. Gillberg et al. (2001) described the development of the Asperger syndrome (and high-functioning autism) Diagnostic Interview (ASDI), which they claimed has a strong validity in the diagnosis of the disorder. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Asperger syndrome, see ASPG1 (608638).
Autism, susceptibility to, 3
MedGen UID:
334211
Concept ID:
C1842632
Finding
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Impaired intellectual development coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which impaired intellectual development is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autism, see 209850. See also chromosome 13q14 deletion syndrome (613884), in which retinoblastoma and impaired intellectual development are features.
X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia
MedGen UID:
335078
Concept ID:
C1845028
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia is a rare condition characterized by a blood disorder called sideroblastic anemia and movement problems known as ataxia. This condition occurs only in males.\n\nSideroblastic anemia results when developing red blood cells called erythroblasts do not make enough hemoglobin, which is the protein that carries oxygen in the blood. People with X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia have mature red blood cells that are smaller than normal (microcytic) and appear pale (hypochromic) because of the shortage of hemoglobin. This disorder also leads to an abnormal accumulation of iron in red blood cells. The iron-loaded erythroblasts, which are present in bone marrow, are called ring sideroblasts. These abnormal cells give the condition its name. Unlike other forms of sideroblastic anemia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia does not cause a potentially dangerous buildup of iron in the body. The anemia is typically mild and usually does not cause any symptoms.\n\nX-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia causes problems with balance and coordination that appear early in life. The ataxia primarily affects the trunk, making it difficult to sit, stand, and walk unassisted. In addition to ataxia, people with this condition often have trouble coordinating movements that involve judging distance or scale (dysmetria) and find it difficult to make rapid, alternating movements (dysdiadochokinesis). Mild speech difficulties (dysarthria), tremor, and abnormal eye movements have also been reported in some affected individuals.
Autism, susceptibility to, X-linked 3
MedGen UID:
335161
Concept ID:
C1845336
Finding
The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years.
Autism, susceptibility to, X-linked 1
MedGen UID:
335205
Concept ID:
C1845540
Finding
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autism, see 209850.
Phelan-McDermid syndrome
MedGen UID:
339994
Concept ID:
C1853490
Disease or Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, absent to severely delayed speech, developmental delay, and minor dysmorphic facial features. Most affected individuals have moderate to profound intellectual disability. Other features include large fleshy hands, dysplastic toenails, and decreased perspiration that results in a tendency to overheat. Normal stature and normal head size distinguishes Phelan-McDermid syndrome from other autosomal chromosome disorders. Behavior characteristics include mouthing or chewing non-food items, decreased perception of pain, and autism spectrum disorder or autistic-like affect and behavior.
Autism, susceptibility to, 5
MedGen UID:
340048
Concept ID:
C1853755
Disease or Syndrome
IDDAS is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by varying degrees of intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and language deficits (Deriziotis et al., 2014; den Hoed et al., 2018).
Macrocephaly-autism syndrome
MedGen UID:
381416
Concept ID:
C1854416
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly/autism syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased head circumference, abnormal facial features, and delayed psychomotor development resulting in autistic behavior or mental retardation (Herman et al., 2007). Some patients may have a primary immunodeficiency disorder with recurrent infections associated with variably abnormal T- and B-cell function (Tsujita et al., 2016).
Tuberous sclerosis 1
MedGen UID:
344288
Concept ID:
C1854465
Disease or Syndrome
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) involves abnormalities of the skin (hypomelanotic macules, confetti skin lesions, facial angiofibromas, shagreen patches, fibrous cephalic plaques, ungual fibromas); brain (subependymal nodules, cortical tubers, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas [SEGAs], seizures, intellectual disability / developmental delay, psychiatric illness); kidney (angiomyolipomas, cysts, renal cell carcinomas); heart (rhabdomyomas, arrhythmias); and lungs (lymphangioleiomyomatosis [LAM], multifocal micronodular pneumonocyte hyperplasia). Central nervous system tumors are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality; renal disease is the second leading cause of early death.
Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome
MedGen UID:
340266
Concept ID:
C1854630
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WSS) is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features, with or without additional congenital anomalies. The facial features include thick eyebrows with lateral flare, vertically narrow and downslanted palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, long eyelashes, wide nasal bridge, broad nasal tip, thin vermilion of the upper lip, and thick scalp hair. About 60% of affected individuals have hypertrichosis cubiti ("hairy elbows"), which was once thought to be pathognomic for the syndrome, with a majority having hypertrichosis of other body parts. Other clinical features include feeding difficulties, prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, epilepsy, ophthalmologic anomalies, congenital heart defects, hand anomalies (such as brachydactyly and clinodactyly), hypotonia, vertebral anomalies (especially fusion anomalies of the cervical spine), renal and uterine anomalies, immune dysfunction, brain malformations, and dental anomalies.
Hyperuricemia, infantile, with abnormal behavior and normal hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
MedGen UID:
383794
Concept ID:
C1855884
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperlexia
MedGen UID:
341011
Concept ID:
C1855928
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Tuberous sclerosis 2
MedGen UID:
348170
Concept ID:
C1860707
Disease or Syndrome
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) involves abnormalities of the skin (hypomelanotic macules, confetti skin lesions, facial angiofibromas, shagreen patches, fibrous cephalic plaques, ungual fibromas); brain (subependymal nodules, cortical tubers, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas [SEGAs], seizures, intellectual disability / developmental delay, psychiatric illness); kidney (angiomyolipomas, cysts, renal cell carcinomas); heart (rhabdomyomas, arrhythmias); and lungs (lymphangioleiomyomatosis [LAM], multifocal micronodular pneumonocyte hyperplasia). Central nervous system tumors are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality; renal disease is the second leading cause of early death.
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
409522
Concept ID:
C1959620
Disease or Syndrome
Dihyropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency (DPYDD) shows large phenotypic variability, ranging from no symptoms to a convulsive disorder with motor and mental retardation in homozygous patients. In addition, homozygous and heterozygous mutation carriers can develop severe toxicity after the administration of the antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU), which is also catabolized by the DPYD enzyme. This is an example of a pharmacogenetic disorder (Van Kuilenburg et al., 1999). Since there is no correlation between genotype and phenotype in DPD deficiency, it appears that the deficiency is a necessary, but not sufficient, prerequisite for the development of clinical abnormalities (Van Kuilenburg et al., 1999; Enns et al., 2004).
Autism, susceptibility to, 8
MedGen UID:
409897
Concept ID:
C1969710
Finding
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypical, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autism, see 209850.
Chromosome 3q29 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393265
Concept ID:
C2674949
Disease or Syndrome
3q29 recurrent deletion is characterized by neurodevelopmental and/or psychiatric manifestations including mild-to-moderate intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), executive function deficits, graphomotor weakness, and psychosis/schizophrenia. Age at onset for psychosis or prodrome can be younger than the typical age at onset in the general population. Neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions are responsible for the majority of the disability associated with the 3q29 deletion. Other common findings are failure to thrive and feeding problems in infancy that persist into childhood, gastrointestinal disorders (including constipation and gastroesophageal reflux disease [GERD]), ocular issues, dental anomalies, and congenital heart defects (especially patent ductus arteriosus). Structural anomalies of the posterior fossa may be seen on neuroimaging. To date more than 200 affected individuals have been identified.
Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency
MedGen UID:
436367
Concept ID:
C2675179
Disease or Syndrome
The creatine deficiency disorders (CDDs), inborn errors of creatine metabolism and transport, comprise three disorders: the creatine biosynthesis disorders guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency; and creatine transporter (CRTR) deficiency. Developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction or intellectual disability and speech-language disorder are common to all three CDDs. Onset of clinical manifestations of GAMT deficiency (reported in ~130 individuals) is between ages three months and two years; in addition to developmental delays, the majority of individuals have epilepsy and develop a behavior disorder (e.g., hyperactivity, autism, or self-injurious behavior), and about 30% have movement disorder. AGAT deficiency has been reported in 16 individuals; none have had epilepsy or movement disorders. Clinical findings of CRTR deficiency in affected males (reported in ~130 individuals) in addition to developmental delays include epilepsy (variable seizure types and may be intractable) and behavior disorders (e.g., attention deficit and/or hyperactivity, autistic features, impulsivity, social anxiety), hypotonia, and (less commonly) a movement disorder. Poor weight gain with constipation and prolonged QTc on EKG have been reported. While mild-to-moderate intellectual disability is commonly observed up to age four years, the majority of adult males with CRTR deficiency have been reported to have severe intellectual disability. Females heterozygous for CRTR deficiency are typically either asymptomatic or have mild intellectual disability, although a more severe phenotype resembling the male phenotype has been reported.
15q11q13 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
390767
Concept ID:
C2675336
Disease or Syndrome
Maternal 15q duplication syndrome (maternal dup15q) is characterized by hypotonia and motor delays, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and epilepsy including infantile spasms. Rarely, maternal dup15q may also be associated with psychosis or sudden unexplained death. Those with a maternal isodicentric 15q11.2-q13.1 supernumerary chromosome are typically more severely affected than those with an interstitial duplication.
Chromosome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
382715
Concept ID:
C2675891
Disease or Syndrome
1q21.1 microduplication is a chromosomal change in which a small amount of genetic material on chromosome 1 is abnormally copied (duplicated). The duplication occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a location designated q21.1.\n\nSome people with a 1q21.1 microduplication have developmental delay and intellectual disability that is typically mild to moderate. Individuals with this condition can also have features of autism spectrum disorder. These disorders are characterized by impaired communication and socialization skills, as well as delayed development of speech and language. Expressive language skills (vocabulary and the production of speech) tend to be more impaired than receptive language skills (the ability to understand speech) in affected individuals. In childhood, 1q21.1 microduplications may also be associated with an increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other behavioral problems. Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or mood disorders such as anxiety or depression occur in some affected individuals, usually during adulthood. Rarely, recurrent seizures (epilepsy) occur in people with a 1q21.1 microduplication.\n\nSome individuals with a 1q21.1 microduplication are born with malformations of the heart, including a particular combination of heart defects known as tetralogy of Fallot. Less commonly, other physical malformations such as the urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias) in males, inward- and upward-turning feet (clubfeet), or misalignment of the hip joint (hip dysplasia) are present at birth. Individuals with a 1q21.1 microduplication may also have a larger than average head size or taller than average adult stature. Some have slightly unusual facial features such as wide-set eyes or low-set ears. As adults, individuals with a 1q21.1 microduplication may be prone to develop cysts, swollen and knotted (varicose) veins, or carpal tunnel syndrome, which is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hands and fingers. However, there is no particular pattern of physical abnormalities that characterizes 1q21.1 microduplications. Signs and symptoms related to the chromosomal change vary even among affected members of the same family. Some people with the duplication have no identified physical, intellectual, or behavioral abnormalities.
Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
The 1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion itself does not appear to lead to a clinically recognizable syndrome as some persons with the deletion have no obvious clinical findings and others have variable findings that most commonly include microcephaly (50%), mild intellectual disability (30%), mildly dysmorphic facial features, and eye abnormalities (26%). Other findings can include cardiac defects, genitourinary anomalies, skeletal malformations, and seizures (~15%). Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities can include autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic features, and sleep disturbances.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability 94
MedGen UID:
437111
Concept ID:
C2678051
Disease or Syndrome
A syndromic X-linked intellectual disability characterized by moderate intellectual disability with variable occurrence of asthenic body habitus, dysmorphic features, autistic features, macrocephaly, seizures, myoclonic jerks, and hyporeflexia that has material basis in mutation in the GRIA3 gene on chromosome Xq25.
Potocki-Lupski syndrome
MedGen UID:
444010
Concept ID:
C2931246
Disease or Syndrome
Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) is characterized by cognitive, behavioral, and medical manifestations. Cognitively, most individuals present with developmental delay, later meeting criteria for moderate intellectual disability. Behaviorally, issues with attention, hyperactivity, withdrawal, and anxiety may be seen. Some individuals meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Medically, hypotonia, oropharyngeal dysphagia leading to failure to thrive, congenital heart disease, hypoglycemia associated with growth hormone deficiency, and mildly dysmorphic facial features are observed. Medical manifestations typically lead to identification of PTLS in infancy; however, those with only behavioral and cognitive manifestations may be identified in later childhood.
Chromosome 4Q32.1-q32.2 triplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
462207
Concept ID:
C3150857
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462208
Concept ID:
C3150858
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome is characterized phenotypically by dysmorphic facial features, feeding difficulties, recurrent ear infections, developmental delay, and cognitive impairment. Additional features, such as heart defects and short stature, are variable (Ballif et al., 2007; Battaglia et al., 2009). The pericentric region of chromosome 16, specifically involving 16p12-p11, is a structurally complex region enriched in repetitive sequence elements, rendering this region susceptible to deletion or rearrangement (Ballif et al., 2007). There are several phenotypes associated with variation in this region: see 611913 for a deletion or duplication at 16p11.2 associated with autism; see 136570 for discussion of a recurrent 520-kb deletion at 16p12.1 associated with developmental delay and craniofacial dysmorphism; and see 613444 for a 220-kb deletion at 16p11.2 associated with isolated severe early-onset obesity and obesity with developmental delay. Battaglia et al. (2009) emphasized that the region at chromosome 16p11.2 that confers susceptibility to autism (AUTS14; see 611913) is located more centromeric to and is distinct from the 16p12.2-p11.2 region involved in the multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability phenotype.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 11
MedGen UID:
462337
Concept ID:
C3150987
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-11 (DEE11) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the first days, weeks, or months of life. Some patients may have later onset. Seizures comprise multiple types, including tonic, generalized, and myoclonic, and tend to be refractory to medication. However, some patients with onset of seizures before 3 months of age may respond to sodium channel blockers, particularly phenytoin. About half of patients become seizure-free in childhood. Affected individuals have global developmental delay, usually with severely impaired intellectual development, although some may be less severely affected and show autism spectrum disorder. Additional common features include microcephaly, hypotonia, and abnormal movements, such as dystonia, dyskinesias, and choreoathetotic movements. Brain imaging may show white matter defects. The phenotype is highly variable, even in patients with the same mutation (summary by Ogiwara et al., 2009; Howell et al., 2015; Wolff et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 88
MedGen UID:
477075
Concept ID:
C3275444
Disease or Syndrome
Wolfram-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
481988
Concept ID:
C3280358
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Wolfram-like syndrome (WFSL) is characterized by the clinical triad of congenital progressive hearing impairment, diabetes mellitus, and optic atrophy. The hearing impairment, which is usually diagnosed in the first decade of life, is relatively constant and alters mainly low- and middle-frequency ranges (summary by Valero et al., 2008). Wolfram syndrome (WFS1; 222300) is an autosomal recessive allelic disorder characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, hearing loss, and diabetes insipidus, and is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the WFS1 gene. An autosomal dominant syndrome involving optic atrophy with or without deafness, ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, ataxia, and neuropathy (125250), is caused by heterozygous mutation in the OPA1 gene (605290).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 29
MedGen UID:
482155
Concept ID:
C3280525
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Chromosome 17q12 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
482768
Concept ID:
C3281138
Disease or Syndrome
The 17q12 recurrent deletion syndrome is characterized by variable combinations of the three following findings: structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), and neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, and bipolar disorder). Using a method of data analysis that avoids ascertainment bias, the authors determined that multicystic kidneys and other structural and functional kidney anomalies occur in 85% to 90% of affected individuals, MODY5 in approximately 40%, and some degree of developmental delay or learning disability in approximately 50%. MODY5 is most often diagnosed before age 25 years (range: age 10-50 years).
Epsilon-trimethyllysine hydroxylase deficiency
MedGen UID:
763789
Concept ID:
C3550875
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked autism-6 is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects only males. Some patients may respond favorably to carnitine supplementation (summary by Ziats et al., 2015). Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). For a discussion of heterogeneity of autism, see 209850.
Acrodysostosis 2 with or without hormone resistance
MedGen UID:
766164
Concept ID:
C3553250
Disease or Syndrome
Acrodysostosis-2 (ACRDYS2) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by brachydactyly, facial dysostosis, and spinal stenosis. Many patients have intellectual disability and some have hormone resistance (summary by Michot et al., 2012 and Lee et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acrodysostosis, see ACRDYS1 (101800).
Branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase kinase deficiency
MedGen UID:
766992
Concept ID:
C3554078
Disease or Syndrome
Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase deficiency (BCKDKD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by autism, impaired intellectual development, and microcephaly (Tangeraas et al., 2023).
Intellectual developmental disorder with autism and macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
767287
Concept ID:
C3554373
Disease or Syndrome
CHD8-related neurodevelopmental disorder with overgrowth (CHD8-NDD) is characterized by generalized overgrowth, developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), neuropsychiatric issues, neurologic problems, sleep disturbance, and gastrointestinal issues The most common findings are the development of macrocephaly (most often during infancy) and tall stature (most typically during puberty), which is often accompanied by ASD and/or DD/ID. Most, if not all, affected individuals have some degree of DD, most commonly speech and motor delays. When present, ID is most often in the mild-to-moderate range. Sleep disturbance is characterized by difficulty with both initiation (delayed sleep onset) and maintenance (frequent night awakenings) of sleep. The most common gastrointestinal issue is constipation with or without periods of diarrhea. Less common features are hypotonia (about 30% of affected individuals), seizures (10%-15%), dystonia (rare), and Chiari I malformation (rare).
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, MKB type
MedGen UID:
785805
Concept ID:
C3698541
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
TCF12-related craniosynostosis
MedGen UID:
811568
Concept ID:
C3715051
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis (CRS) is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Craniosynostosis-3 (CRS3) includes coronal, sagittal, and multisuture forms (Sharma et al., 2013). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100).
Chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
815820
Concept ID:
C3809490
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome is characterized by marked developmental delay, characteristic facies with a short philtrum and protruding lips, and abnormal male genitalia (Molin et al., 2012). Patients with Primrose syndrome (PRIMS; 259050) exhibit features overlapping those of the chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome but also have ossified ear cartilage, severe muscle wasting, and abnormalities of glucose metabolism resulting in insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus in adulthood. Primrose syndrome is caused by mutation in the ZBTB20 gene (606025) on chromosome 3q13.
Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
816693
Concept ID:
C3810363
Disease or Syndrome
Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome (BBSOAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by delayed development, moderately impaired intellectual development, and optic atrophy. Most patients also have evidence of cerebral visual impairment. Dysmorphic facial features are variable and nonspecific (summary by Bosch et al., 2014).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 24
MedGen UID:
862851
Concept ID:
C4014414
Disease or Syndrome
Vulto-van Silfout-de Vries syndrome (VSVS) is an intellectual developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor expressive speech, and behavioral abnormalities, including autistic features and poor eye contact. Most patients have additional nonspecific features, including hypotonia and gait abnormalities, seizures, which may be refractory, high pain threshold, and sleep disturbances (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 23
MedGen UID:
862929
Concept ID:
C4014492
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-23 (DEE23) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of intractable seizures in the first months of life (range, 2-6 months). Affected individuals have severely impaired psychomotor development with poor or absent speech, cortical blindness, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Perrault et al., 2014).
ADNP-related multiple congenital anomalies - intellectual disability - autism spectrum disorder
MedGen UID:
862975
Concept ID:
C4014538
Disease or Syndrome
ADNP-related disorder is characterized by hypotonia, severe speech and motor delay, mild-to-severe intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, wide and depressed nasal bridge, and short nose with full, upturned nasal tip) based on a cohort of 78 individuals. Features of autism spectrum disorder are common (stereotypic behavior, impaired social interaction). Other common findings include additional behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, brain abnormalities, seizures, feeding issues, gastrointestinal problems, visual dysfunction (hypermetropia, strabismus, cortical visual impairment), musculoskeletal anomalies, endocrine issues including short stature and hormonal deficiencies, cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, and hearing loss.
Cardiac anomalies - developmental delay - facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
900924
Concept ID:
C4225208
Disease or Syndrome
Impaired intellectual development and distinctive facial features with or without cardiac defects (MRFACD) is an autosomal dominant, complex syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech acquisition, distinctive dysmorphic facial features, including frontal bossing, upslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge with bulbous tip, and macrostomia. There is variable penetrance of cardiac malformations, ranging from no malformations to patent foramen ovale to septal defects and/or transposition of the great arteries (summary by Adegbola et al., 2015).
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability 34
MedGen UID:
902184
Concept ID:
C4225417
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-34 (MRXS34) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with poor speech, dysmorphic facial features, and mild structural brain abnormalities, including thickening of the corpus callosum (summary by Mircsof et al., 2015).
Chromosome 10q23 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
906099
Concept ID:
C4225669
Disease or Syndrome
The 10q22.3-q23.2 region is characterized by a complex set of low-copy repeats (LCRs), which can give rise to various genomic changes mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Recurrent deletions of chromosome 10q22.3-q23.2, including the BMPR1A gene (601299) have been associated with dysmorphic facies, developmental delay, and multiple congenital anomalies. Some patients with deletions that extend distally to include the PTEN gene (601728) have a more severe phenotype with infantile/juvenile polyposis, macrocephaly, dysmorphic facial features, and developmental delay (summary by van Bon et al., 2011).
Short stature, rhizomelic, with microcephaly, micrognathia, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
934653
Concept ID:
C4310686
Disease or Syndrome
The core features of short stature-micrognathia syndrome (SSMG) are intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), postnatal short stature that is often rhizomelic, and micrognathia. Other common features include preterm birth, microcephaly, developmental delay, and genitourinary malformations in males. Transient liver dysfunction and glycosylation abnormalities during illness, giant cell hepatitis, hepatoblastoma, and cataracts have also been observed. Inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic severity varies greatly, from a relatively mild disorder to intrauterine death or stillbirth (Ritter et al., 2022).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42
MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis.
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Chromosome 11p13 deletion syndrome, distal
MedGen UID:
935014
Concept ID:
C4311047
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual developmental disorder
MedGen UID:
1385307
Concept ID:
C4479246
Disease or Syndrome
CDK13-related disorder, reported in 43 individuals to date, is characterized in all individuals by developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID); nearly all individuals older than age one year display impaired verbal language skills (either absent or restricted speech). Other common findings are recognizable facial features in some individuals, behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder or autistic traits/stereotypies, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), feeding difficulties in infancy, structural cardiac defects, and seizures.
Pilarowski-Bjornsson syndrome
MedGen UID:
1619150
Concept ID:
C4540131
Disease or Syndrome
Pilarowski-Bjornsson syndrome (PILBOS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed development, impaired intellectual development, often with autistic features, speech apraxia, and mild dysmorphic features. Some patients may have seizures. The phenotype is somewhat variable (summary by Pilarowski et al., 2018).
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations
MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation.
Global developmental delay - lung cysts - overgrowth - Wilms tumor syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648360
Concept ID:
C4748924
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic overgrowth syndrome characterised by global developmental delay, macrosomia with subsequent somatic overgrowth, bilateral cystic lung lesions, congenital nephromegaly and bilateral Wilms tumour. Craniofacial dysmorphism includes macrocephaly, frontal bossing, large anterior fontanelle, mild hypertelorism, ear pit, flat nasal bridge, anteverted nares and mild micrognathia. Additional features may include brain and skeletal anomalies, enlarged protuberant abdomen, fat pads on dorsum of feet and toes, and rugated soles with skin folds, as well as umbilical/inguinal hernia and autistic behaviour.
Macrocephaly, acquired, with impaired intellectual development
MedGen UID:
1648471
Concept ID:
C4748993
Disease or Syndrome
Severe feeding difficulties-failure to thrive-microcephaly due to ASXL3 deficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
1656239
Concept ID:
C4750837
Disease or Syndrome
ASXL3-related disorder is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability, typically in the moderate to severe range, with speech and language delay and/or absent speech. Affected individuals may also display autistic features. There may be issues with feeding. While dysmorphic facial features have been described, they are typically nonspecific. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia that can transition to spasticity resulting in unusual posture with flexion contractions of the elbows, wrists, and fingers. Other findings may include poor postnatal growth, strabismus, seizures, sleep disturbance, and dental anomalies.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 79
MedGen UID:
1684738
Concept ID:
C5231410
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-79 (DEE79) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired psychomotor development and may show hypotonia or spasticity. Brain imaging may show hypomyelination, cerebral atrophy, and thinning of the corpus callosum (summary by Butler et al., 2018 and Hernandez et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual developmental disorder with epilepsy, behavioral abnormalities, and coarse facies
MedGen UID:
1759589
Concept ID:
C5436646
Disease or Syndrome
IDDEBF is a severe disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development, epilepsy, behavioral abnormalities, and coarse facies. Brain MRI findings may include delayed myelination in the deep parietal lobes (Kvarnung et al., 2018).
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like
MedGen UID:
1781649
Concept ID:
C5543202
Disease or Syndrome
Den Hoed-de Boer-Voisin syndrome (DHDBV) is characterized by global developmental delay with moderately to severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor skills. Although the severity of the disorder varies, many patients are nonverbal and have hypotonia with inability to sit or walk. Early-onset epilepsy is common and may be refractory to treatment, leading to epileptic encephalopathy and further interruption of developmental progress. Most patients have feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and dysmorphic facial features, as well as significant dental anomalies resembling amelogenesis imperfecta. The phenotype is reminiscent of Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS; 226750). More variable features of DHDBV include visual defects, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific involvement of other organ systems (summary by den Hoed et al., 2021).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 21
MedGen UID:
1790509
Concept ID:
C5551510
Disease or Syndrome
NR0B1-related adrenal hypoplasia congenita includes both X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (X-linked AHC) and Xp21 deletion (previously called complex glycerol kinase deficiency). X-linked AHC is characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Adrenal insufficiency is acute infantile onset (average age 3 weeks) in approximately 60% of affected males and childhood onset (ages 1-9 years) in approximately 40%. HH typically manifests in a male with adrenal insufficiency as delayed puberty (i.e., onset age >14 years) and less commonly as arrested puberty at about Tanner Stage 3. Rarely, X-linked AHC manifests initially in early adulthood as delayed-onset adrenal insufficiency, partial HH, and/or infertility. Heterozygous females very occasionally have manifestations of adrenal insufficiency or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Xp21 deletion includes deletion of NR0B1 (causing X-linked AHC) and GK (causing glycerol kinase deficiency), and in some cases deletion of DMD (causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Developmental delay has been reported in males with Xp21 deletion when the deletion extends proximally to include DMD or when larger deletions extend distally to include IL1RAPL1 and DMD.
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Developmental delay with or without intellectual impairment or behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794214
Concept ID:
C5562004
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with or without intellectual impairment or behavioral abnormalities (DDIB) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a nonspecific phenotype of developmental delay. Additional features may include neonatal feeding problems, hypotonia, and dysmorphic facial features (Dulovic-Mahlow et al., 2019; van Woerden et al., 2021).
DYRK1A-related intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
1799566
Concept ID:
C5568143
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
DYRK1A syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability including impaired speech development, autism spectrum disorder including anxious and/or stereotypic behavior problems, and microcephaly. Affected individuals often have a clinically recognizable phenotype including a typical facial gestalt, feeding problems, seizures, hypertonia, gait disturbances, and foot anomalies. The majority of affected individuals function in the moderate-to-severe range of intellectual disability; however, individuals with mild intellectual disability have also been reported. Other medical concerns relate to febrile seizures in infancy; the development of epilepsy with seizures of the atonic, absence, and generalized myoclonic types; short stature; and gastrointestinal problems. Ophthalmologic, urogenital, cardiac, and/or dental anomalies have been reported.
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked, syndromic, Pilorge type
MedGen UID:
1803486
Concept ID:
C5676881
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
The Pilorge type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSP) is characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). More variable features include motor incoordination, seizures, and ocular abnormalities (summary by Marcogliese et al., 2022).
Knobloch syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1812153
Concept ID:
C5676897
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 73
MedGen UID:
1802013
Concept ID:
C5676902
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal recessive intellectual developmental disorder-73 (MRT73) is characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia and mildly delayed walking, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and mildly dysmorphic features (summary by Morrison et al., 2021).
Rabin-Pappas syndrome
MedGen UID:
1824042
Concept ID:
C5774269
Disease or Syndrome
Rabin-Pappas syndrome (RAPAS) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by severely impaired global development apparent from infancy, feeding difficulties with failure to thrive, small head circumference, and dysmorphic facial features. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development and hypotonia; they do not achieve walking or meaningful speech. Other neurologic findings may include seizures, hearing loss, ophthalmologic defects, and brain imaging abnormalities. There is variable involvement of other organ systems, including skeletal, genitourinary, cardiac, and possibly endocrine (Rabin et al., 2020).
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1840932
Concept ID:
C5830296
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum (NEDSSCC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent from the first days or months of life. Affected individuals often have feeding difficulties and develop early-onset seizures that tend to be well-controlled. Other features include peripheral spasticity with hyperreflexia, variable dysmorphic features, impaired intellectual development, behavioral abnormalities, and hypoplasia or absence of the corpus callosum on brain imaging (Faqeih et al., 2023).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 73
MedGen UID:
1841272
Concept ID:
C5830636
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-73 (MRD73) is a highly variable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development that ranges from mild to severe, speech delay, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features (Janssen et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1841290
Concept ID:
C5830654
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures (NEDHSS) is characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and fine and gross motor delay. Most affected individuals are severely affected and may be unable to walk, have feeding difficulties requiring tube-feeding, and develop early-onset seizures. Additional features may include cortical blindness and nonspecific structural brain abnormalities. Rare individuals present only with hypotonia and mild developmental delay (Paul et al., 2023).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Styles M, Alsharshani D, Samara M, Alsharshani M, Khattab A, Qoronfleh MW, Al-Dewik NI
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2020 Jun 1;25(9):1682-1717. doi: 10.2741/4873. PMID: 32472753
Sanchack KE, Thomas CA
Am Fam Physician 2016 Dec 15;94(12):972-979. PMID: 28075089
Miller DT, Adam MP, Aradhya S, Biesecker LG, Brothman AR, Carter NP, Church DM, Crolla JA, Eichler EE, Epstein CJ, Faucett WA, Feuk L, Friedman JM, Hamosh A, Jackson L, Kaminsky EB, Kok K, Krantz ID, Kuhn RM, Lee C, Ostell JM, Rosenberg C, Scherer SW, Spinner NB, Stavropoulos DJ, Tepperberg JH, Thorland EC, Vermeesch JR, Waggoner DJ, Watson MS, Martin CL, Ledbetter DH
Am J Hum Genet 2010 May 14;86(5):749-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.006. PMID: 20466091Free PMC Article

Curated

UK NICE Guideline CG142, Autism spectrum disorder in adults: diagnosis and management, 2021

UK NICE Guideline CG170, Autism spectrum disorder in under 19s: support and management, 2021

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Dawson G, Rieder AD, Johnson MH
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):244-254. Epub 2022 Nov 22 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00407-0. PMID: 36427512Free PMC Article
Thapar A, Rutter M
J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Dec;51(12):4321-4332. doi: 10.1007/s10803-020-04685-z. PMID: 32940822Free PMC Article
Huang Y, Arnold SR, Foley KR, Trollor JN
Autism 2020 Aug;24(6):1311-1327. Epub 2020 Feb 28 doi: 10.1177/1362361320903128. PMID: 32106698
Lord C, Elsabbagh M, Baird G, Veenstra-Vanderweele J
Lancet 2018 Aug 11;392(10146):508-520. Epub 2018 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31129-2. PMID: 30078460Free PMC Article
Nicolini C, Fahnestock M
Exp Neurol 2018 Jan;299(Pt A):217-227. Epub 2017 May 2 doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.04.017. PMID: 28472621

Diagnosis

Braconnier ML, Siper PM
Curr Psychiatry Rep 2021 Jul 30;23(10):63. doi: 10.1007/s11920-021-01277-1. PMID: 34331144Free PMC Article
Thapar A, Rutter M
J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Dec;51(12):4321-4332. doi: 10.1007/s10803-020-04685-z. PMID: 32940822Free PMC Article
Huang Y, Arnold SR, Foley KR, Trollor JN
Autism 2020 Aug;24(6):1311-1327. Epub 2020 Feb 28 doi: 10.1177/1362361320903128. PMID: 32106698
Rynkiewicz A, Janas-Kozik M, Słopień A
Psychiatr Pol 2019 Aug 31;53(4):737-752. doi: 10.12740/PP/OnlineFirst/95098. PMID: 31760407
Lord C, Elsabbagh M, Baird G, Veenstra-Vanderweele J
Lancet 2018 Aug 11;392(10146):508-520. Epub 2018 Aug 2 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31129-2. PMID: 30078460Free PMC Article

Therapy

Baribeau D, Vorstman J, Anagnostou E
Curr Opin Psychiatry 2022 Mar 1;35(2):101-110. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000775. PMID: 35044968
Schaaf RC, Dumont RL, Arbesman M, May-Benson TA
Am J Occup Ther 2018 Jan/Feb;72(1):7201190010p1-7201190010p10. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2018.028431. PMID: 29280711
Piwowarczyk A, Horvath A, Łukasik J, Pisula E, Szajewska H
Eur J Nutr 2018 Mar;57(2):433-440. Epub 2017 Jun 13 doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1483-2. PMID: 28612113
Deepmala, Slattery J, Kumar N, Delhey L, Berk M, Dean O, Spielholz C, Frye R
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2015 Aug;55:294-321. Epub 2015 May 6 doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.04.015. PMID: 25957927
Geretsegger M, Elefant C, Mössler KA, Gold C
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Jun 17;2014(6):CD004381. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004381.pub3. PMID: 24936966Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Yehia L, Keel E, Eng C
Annu Rev Med 2020 Jan 27;71:103-116. Epub 2019 Aug 21 doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-052218-125823. PMID: 31433956
Hirvikoski T, Mittendorfer-Rutz E, Boman M, Larsson H, Lichtenstein P, Bölte S
Br J Psychiatry 2016 Mar;208(3):232-8. Epub 2015 Nov 5 doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.160192. PMID: 26541693
Baxter AJ, Brugha TS, Erskine HE, Scheurer RW, Vos T, Scott JG
Psychol Med 2015 Feb;45(3):601-13. Epub 2014 Aug 11 doi: 10.1017/S003329171400172X. PMID: 25108395
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article
Ratajczak HV
J Immunotoxicol 2011 Jan-Mar;8(1):68-79. doi: 10.3109/1547691X.2010.545086. PMID: 21299355

Clinical prediction guides

Perochon S, Di Martino JM, Carpenter KLH, Compton S, Davis N, Eichner B, Espinosa S, Franz L, Krishnappa Babu PR, Sapiro G, Dawson G
Nat Med 2023 Oct;29(10):2489-2497. Epub 2023 Oct 2 doi: 10.1038/s41591-023-02574-3. PMID: 37783967Free PMC Article
Chen J, Engelhard M, Henao R, Berchuck S, Eichner B, Perrin EM, Sapiro G, Dawson G
J Biomed Inform 2023 Aug;144:104390. Epub 2023 May 12 doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2023.104390. PMID: 37182592Free PMC Article
McLeod JD, Anderson EM
J Autism Dev Disord 2023 Sep;53(9):3475-3492. Epub 2022 Jul 7 doi: 10.1007/s10803-022-05632-w. PMID: 35796912Free PMC Article
Arthur T, Vine S, Brosnan M, Buckingham G
Brain 2020 Oct 1;143(10):3151-3163. doi: 10.1093/brain/awaa243. PMID: 32974646
Kapp SK, Gillespie-Lynch K, Sherman LE, Hutman T
Dev Psychol 2013 Jan;49(1):59-71. Epub 2012 Apr 30 doi: 10.1037/a0028353. PMID: 22545843

Recent systematic reviews

Diniz NLF, Parlato-Oliveira E, Pimenta PGA, Araújo LA, Valadares ER
Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2022 Jun;80(6):620-630. doi: 10.1590/0004-282X-ANP-2021-0156. PMID: 35946706Free PMC Article
Zeidan J, Fombonne E, Scorah J, Ibrahim A, Durkin MS, Saxena S, Yusuf A, Shih A, Elsabbagh M
Autism Res 2022 May;15(5):778-790. Epub 2022 Mar 3 doi: 10.1002/aur.2696. PMID: 35238171Free PMC Article
Jutla A, Foss-Feig J, Veenstra-VanderWeele J
Autism Res 2022 Mar;15(3):384-412. Epub 2021 Dec 29 doi: 10.1002/aur.2659. PMID: 34967130Free PMC Article
Schoen SA, Lane SJ, Mailloux Z, May-Benson T, Parham LD, Smith Roley S, Schaaf RC
Autism Res 2019 Jan;12(1):6-19. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1002/aur.2046. PMID: 30548827Free PMC Article
McDaniel Peters BC, Wood W
J Autism Dev Disord 2017 Oct;47(10):3220-3242. doi: 10.1007/s10803-017-3219-9. PMID: 28733851

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Curated

    • NICE, 2021
      UK NICE Guideline CG142, Autism spectrum disorder in adults: diagnosis and management, 2021
    • NICE, 2021
      UK NICE Guideline CG170, Autism spectrum disorder in under 19s: support and management, 2021

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