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Breast carcinoma

MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: Breast Carcinoma; Breast Carcinomas; Carcinoma, Breast; Carcinomas, Breast
SNOMED CT: CA - Carcinoma of breast (254838004); Carcinoma of breast (254838004)
Modes of inheritance:
Heterogeneous
MedGen UID:
67020
Concept ID:
C0242960
Organism Attribute
Source: HPO
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Somatic mutation
MedGen UID:
107465
Concept ID:
C0544886
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
Sources: HPO, OMIM
A mode of inheritance in which a trait or disorder results from a de novo mutation occurring after conception, rather than being inherited from a preceding generation.
Somatic mutation (HPO, OMIM)
 
HPO: HP:0003002
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0004989

Definition

A carcinoma arising from the breast, most commonly the terminal ductal-lobular unit. It is the most common malignant tumor in females. Risk factors include country of birth, family history, menstrual and reproductive history, fibrocystic disease and epithelial hyperplasia, exogenous estrogens, contraceptive agents, and ionizing radiation. The vast majority of breast carcinomas are adenocarcinomas (ductal or lobular). Breast carcinoma spreads by direct invasion, by the lymphatic route, and by the blood vessel route. The most common site of lymph node involvement is the axilla. [from NCI]

Clinical features

From HPO
Breast carcinoma
MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
A carcinoma arising from the breast, most commonly the terminal ductal-lobular unit. It is the most common malignant tumor in females. Risk factors include country of birth, family history, menstrual and reproductive history, fibrocystic disease and epithelial hyperplasia, exogenous estrogens, contraceptive agents, and ionizing radiation. The vast majority of breast carcinomas are adenocarcinomas (ductal or lobular). Breast carcinoma spreads by direct invasion, by the lymphatic route, and by the blood vessel route. The most common site of lymph node involvement is the axilla.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVBreast carcinoma

Conditions with this feature

Cowden syndrome
MedGen UID:
5420
Concept ID:
C0018553
Neoplastic Process
Cowden syndrome-1 is a hamartomatous disorder characterized by macrocephaly, facial trichilemmomas, acral keratoses, papillomatous papules, and an increased risk for the development of breast, thyroid, and endometrial carcinoma. Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), previously thought be distinct, shared clinical characteristics with Cowden syndrome, such as hamartomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract, mucocutaneous lesions, and increased risk of developing neoplasms, but had the additional features of developmental delay, macrocephaly, lipomas, hemangiomas, and pigmented speckled macules of the glans penis in males. Because features of BRRS and Cowden syndrome have been found in individuals within the same family with the same PTEN mutation, Cowden syndrome-1 and BRRS are considered to be the same disorder with variable expression and age-related penetrance (summary by Marsh et al., 1999, Lachlan et al., 2007, and Blumenthal and Dennis, 2008). Approximately 80% of patients reported with Cowden syndrome and 60% with BRSS have PTEN mutations (Blumenthal and Dennis, 2008). Some patients with Cowden syndrome may have immune system defects resulting in increased susceptibility to infections (summary by Browning et al., 2015).
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
MedGen UID:
18404
Concept ID:
C0031269
Disease or Syndrome
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is characterized by the association of gastrointestinal (GI) polyposis, mucocutaneous pigmentation, and cancer predisposition. PJS-type hamartomatous polyps are most common in the small intestine (in order of prevalence: jejunum, ileum, and duodenum) but can also occur in the stomach, large bowel, and extraintestinal sites including the renal pelvis, bronchus, gall bladder, nasal passages, urinary bladder, and ureters. GI polyps can result in chronic bleeding, anemia, and recurrent obstruction and intussusception requiring repeated laparotomy and bowel resection. Mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation presents in childhood as dark blue to dark brown macules around the mouth, eyes, and nostrils, in the perianal area, and on the buccal mucosa. Hyperpigmented macules on the fingers are common. The macules may fade in puberty and adulthood. Recognition of the distinctive skin manifestations is important especially in individuals who have PJS as the result of a de novo pathogenic variant as these skin findings often predate GI signs and symptoms. Individuals with PJS are at increased risk for a wide variety of epithelial malignancies (colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancers). Females are at risk for sex cord tumors with annular tubules (SCTAT), a benign neoplasm of the ovaries, and adenoma malignum of the cervix, a rare aggressive cancer. Males occasionally develop large calcifying Sertoli cell tumors of the testes, which secrete estrogen and can lead to gynecomastia, advanced skeletal age, and ultimately short stature, if untreated.
Saethre-Chotzen syndrome
MedGen UID:
64221
Concept ID:
C0175699
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is characterized by coronal synostosis (unilateral or bilateral), facial asymmetry (particularly in individuals with unicoronal synostosis), strabismus, ptosis, and characteristic appearance of the ear (small pinna with a prominent superior and/or inferior crus). Syndactyly of digits two and three of the hand is variably present. Cognitive development is usually normal, although those with a large genomic deletion are at an increased risk for intellectual challenges. Less common manifestations of SCS include other skeletal findings (parietal foramina, vertebral segmentation defects, radioulnar synostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, ocular hypertelorism, hallux valgus, duplicated or curved distal hallux), hypertelorism, palatal anomalies, obstructive sleep apnea, increased intracranial pressure, short stature, and congenital heart malformations.
Familial cancer of breast
MedGen UID:
87542
Concept ID:
C0346153
Neoplastic Process
BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is characterized by an increased risk for female and male breast cancer, ovarian cancer (includes fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers), and to a lesser extent other cancers such as prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma primarily in individuals with a BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The exact cancer risks differ slightly depending on whether HBOC is caused by a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.
Lhermitte-Duclos disease
MedGen UID:
140251
Concept ID:
C0391826
Neoplastic Process
A very rare disorder characterized by abnormal development and enlargement of the cerebellum, and an increased intracranial pressure.
Breast carcinoma
MedGen UID:
146260
Concept ID:
C0678222
Neoplastic Process
A carcinoma arising from the breast, most commonly the terminal ductal-lobular unit. It is the most common malignant tumor in females. Risk factors include country of birth, family history, menstrual and reproductive history, fibrocystic disease and epithelial hyperplasia, exogenous estrogens, contraceptive agents, and ionizing radiation. The vast majority of breast carcinomas are adenocarcinomas (ductal or lobular). Breast carcinoma spreads by direct invasion, by the lymphatic route, and by the blood vessel route. The most common site of lymph node involvement is the axilla.
Neoplasm of ovary
MedGen UID:
181539
Concept ID:
C0919267
Neoplastic Process
Ovarian cancer, the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, is characterized by advanced presentation with loco-regional dissemination in the peritoneal cavity and the rare incidence of visceral metastases (Chi et al., 2001). These typical features relate to the biology of the disease, which is a principal determinant of outcome (Auersperg et al., 2001). Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common form and encompasses 5 major histologic subtypes: papillary serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, and transitional cell. Epithelial ovarian cancer arises as a result of genetic alterations sustained by the ovarian surface epithelium (Stany et al., 2008; Soslow, 2008).
Muir-Torré syndrome
MedGen UID:
231157
Concept ID:
C1321489
Neoplastic Process
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Cerebelloparenchymal Disorder VI
MedGen UID:
331813
Concept ID:
C1834711
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar Granule Cell Hypertrophy and Megalencephaly
MedGen UID:
371886
Concept ID:
C1834712
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
322656
Concept ID:
C1835398
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with high risks for a diverse spectrum of childhood- and adult-onset malignancies. The lifetime risk of cancer in individuals with LFS is =70% for men and =90% for women. Five cancer types account for the majority of LFS tumors: adrenocortical carcinomas, breast cancer, central nervous system tumors, osteosarcomas, and soft-tissue sarcomas. LFS is associated with an increased risk of several additional cancers including leukemia, lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancers, cancers of head and neck, kidney, larynx, lung, skin (e.g., melanoma), ovary, pancreas, prostate, testis, and thyroid. Individuals with LFS are at increased risk for cancer in childhood and young adulthood; survivors are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
322930
Concept ID:
C1836482
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, inherited, cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by the early-onset of multiple primary cancers including breast cancer, soft tissue and bone sarcomas, brain tumors, adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC), leukemias, and other cancers.
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome with granular cell tumor
MedGen UID:
400984
Concept ID:
C1866376
Neoplastic Process
Proteus-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
356222
Concept ID:
C1866398
Disease or Syndrome
Proteus like syndrome describes patients who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for Proteus syndrome but who share a multitude of characteristic clinical features of the disease. The prevalence is unknown. The main clinical features include skeletal overgrowth, hamartomatous overgrowth of multiple tissues, cerebriform connective tissue nevi, vascular malformations and linear epidermal nevi. Mutations in the PTEN gene are found in 50% of Proteus-like syndrome cases, making them a part of the PTEN hamartoma syndrome group.
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome
MedGen UID:
368366
Concept ID:
C1959582
Neoplastic Process
The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) includes Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), PTEN-related Proteus syndrome (PS), and PTEN-related Proteus-like syndrome. CS is a multiple hamartoma syndrome with a high risk for benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid, breast, kidney, and endometrium. Affected individuals usually have macrocephaly, trichilemmomas, and papillomatous papules, and present by the late 20s. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is 85%, with an average age of diagnosis between 38 and 46 years. The lifetime risk for thyroid cancer (usually follicular, rarely papillary, but never medullary thyroid cancer) is approximately 35%. The lifetime risk for renal cell cancer (predominantly of papillary histology) is 34%. The risk for endometrial cancer may approach 28%. BRRS is a congenital disorder characterized by macrocephaly, intestinal hamartomatous polyposis, lipomas, and pigmented macules of the glans penis. PS is a complex, highly variable disorder involving congenital malformations and hamartomatous overgrowth of multiple tissues, as well as connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, and hyperostoses. Proteus-like syndrome is undefined but refers to individuals with significant clinical features of PS who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for PS.
Breast-ovarian cancer, familial 2
MedGen UID:
382625
Concept ID:
C2675520
Finding
BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is characterized by an increased risk for female and male breast cancer, ovarian cancer (includes fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers), and to a lesser extent other cancers such as prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma primarily in individuals with a BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The exact cancer risks differ slightly depending on whether HBOC is caused by a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.
Breast-ovarian cancer, familial 1
MedGen UID:
382914
Concept ID:
C2676676
Finding
BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is characterized by an increased risk for female and male breast cancer, ovarian cancer (includes fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers), and to a lesser extent other cancers such as prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma primarily in individuals with a BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The exact cancer risks differ slightly depending on whether HBOC is caused by a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.
Breast-ovarian cancer, familial 3
MedGen UID:
462009
Concept ID:
C3150659
Finding
Any hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RAD51C gene.
Cutaneous telangiectasia and cancer syndrome, familial
MedGen UID:
482833
Concept ID:
C3281203
Neoplastic Process
Patients with this syndrome develop cutaneous telangiectases in infancy with patchy alopecia over areas of affected skin, thinning of the lateral eyebrows, and mild dental and nail anomalies. Affected individuals are at increased risk of developing oropharyngeal cancer, and other malignancies have been reported as well (Tanaka et al., 2012).
Cowden syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
767432
Concept ID:
C3554518
Disease or Syndrome
PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) encompasses a range of clinical findings in which the core features are congenital or early-childhood onset of segmental/focal overgrowth with or without cellular dysplasia. Prior to the identification of PIK3CA as the causative gene, PROS was separated into distinct clinical syndromes based on the tissues and/or organs involved (e.g., MCAP [megalencephaly-capillary malformation] syndrome and CLOVES [congenital lipomatous asymmetric overgrowth of the trunk, lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal and spinal anomalies] syndrome). The predominant areas of overgrowth include the brain, limbs (including fingers and toes), trunk (including abdomen and chest), and face, all usually in an asymmetric distribution. Generalized brain overgrowth may be accompanied by secondary overgrowth of specific brain structures resulting in ventriculomegaly, a markedly thick corpus callosum, and cerebellar tonsillar ectopia with crowding of the posterior fossa. Vascular malformations may include capillary, venous, and less frequently, arterial or mixed (capillary-lymphatic-venous or arteriovenous) malformations. Lymphatic malformations may be in various locations (internal and/or external) and can cause various clinical issues, including swelling, pain, and occasionally localized bleeding secondary to trauma. Lipomatous overgrowth may occur ipsilateral or contralateral to a vascular malformation, if present. The degree of intellectual disability appears to be mostly related to the presence and severity of seizures, cortical dysplasia (e.g., polymicrogyria), and hydrocephalus. Many children have feeding difficulties that are often multifactorial in nature. Endocrine issues affect a small number of individuals and most commonly include hypoglycemia (largely hypoinsulinemic hypoketotic hypoglycemia), hypothyroidism, and growth hormone deficiency.
Cowden syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
767433
Concept ID:
C3554519
Disease or Syndrome
Any Cowden disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the AKT1 gene.
Familial adenomatous polyposis 3
MedGen UID:
902388
Concept ID:
C4225157
Disease or Syndrome
NTHL1 tumor syndrome is characterized by an increased lifetime risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer, and colorectal polyposis. Colorectal polyps can be adenomatous, hyperplastic, and/or sessile serrated. Duodenal polyposis has also been reported. Additional cancers reported in individuals with NTHL1 tumor syndrome include endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, meningiomas, unspecified brain tumors, basal cell carcinomas, head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, and hematologic malignancies. The cumulative lifetime risk of developing extracolonic cancer by age 60 years has been estimated at 35% to 78%.
Cowden syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
908796
Concept ID:
C4225179
Disease or Syndrome
Any Cowden disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SEC23B gene.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group S
MedGen UID:
1632414
Concept ID:
C4554406
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

El-Badrawy A
Breast Dis 2021;40(4):275-281. doi: 10.3233/BD-201065. PMID: 34120894
Youssef MM, Elsaid AM, El-Saeed RA, Mukhlif RT, Megahed H, Al-Alawy AI, Elshazli RM
Biochem Genet 2021 Dec;59(6):1487-1505. Epub 2021 May 3 doi: 10.1007/s10528-021-10070-x. PMID: 33939082
Guo S, Wang Y, Rohr J, Shang L, Ma J
J Clin Pathol 2021 Oct;74(10):641-645. Epub 2020 Sep 1 doi: 10.1136/jclinpath-2020-206643. PMID: 32873702
Mukama T, Fallah M, Brenner H, Xu X, Sundquist K, Sundquist J, Kharazmi E
BMC Med 2020 Nov 5;18(1):295. doi: 10.1186/s12916-020-01772-x. PMID: 33148280Free PMC Article
Paramita S, Raharjo EN, Niasari M, Azizah F, Hanifah NA
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 Aug 1;20(8):2247-2252. doi: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.8.2247. PMID: 31450891Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

El-Badrawy A
Breast Dis 2021;40(4):275-281. doi: 10.3233/BD-201065. PMID: 34120894
Youssef MM, Elsaid AM, El-Saeed RA, Mukhlif RT, Megahed H, Al-Alawy AI, Elshazli RM
Biochem Genet 2021 Dec;59(6):1487-1505. Epub 2021 May 3 doi: 10.1007/s10528-021-10070-x. PMID: 33939082
Zhang Z, Chen X, Zhang J, Dai X
Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Feb;186(1):89-98. Epub 2021 Jan 3 doi: 10.1007/s10549-020-06045-y. PMID: 33389402
Mukama T, Fallah M, Brenner H, Xu X, Sundquist K, Sundquist J, Kharazmi E
BMC Med 2020 Nov 5;18(1):295. doi: 10.1186/s12916-020-01772-x. PMID: 33148280Free PMC Article
Na K, Lee JY, Sung JY, Kim GM, Koo JS, Kim HS
Virchows Arch 2018 Aug;473(2):165-175. Epub 2018 Jun 20 doi: 10.1007/s00428-018-2390-5. PMID: 29926183

Therapy

Mawaribuchi S, Haramoto Y, Tateno H, Onuma Y, Aiki Y, Ito Y
FEBS Open Bio 2020 Jun;10(6):1056-1064. Epub 2020 May 5 doi: 10.1002/2211-5463.12852. PMID: 32237061Free PMC Article
Li L, Han Z, Qiu L, Kang D, Zhan Z, Tu H, Chen J
Int J Biol Sci 2020;16(8):1376-1387. Epub 2020 Feb 21 doi: 10.7150/ijbs.41579. PMID: 32210726Free PMC Article
Goyal R, Gupta T, Bal A, Sahni D, Singh G
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2020 Aug;28(7):518-523. doi: 10.1097/PAI.0000000000000788. PMID: 31290783
Dintzis SM, Hansen S, Harrington KM, Tan LC, Miller DM, Ishak L, Parrish-Novak J, Kittle D, Perry J, Gombotz C, Fortney T, Porenta S, Hales L, Calhoun KE, Anderson BO, Javid SH, Byrd DR
Arch Pathol Lab Med 2019 Sep;143(9):1076-1083. Epub 2018 Dec 14 doi: 10.5858/arpa.2018-0197-OA. PMID: 30550350
Luo Z, Cai Q, Zhao Y, Wang X, Fu S, Zhai L
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 May;97(20):e10754. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000010754. PMID: 29768356Free PMC Article

Prognosis

El-Badrawy A
Breast Dis 2021;40(4):275-281. doi: 10.3233/BD-201065. PMID: 34120894
Mukama T, Fallah M, Brenner H, Xu X, Sundquist K, Sundquist J, Kharazmi E
BMC Med 2020 Nov 5;18(1):295. doi: 10.1186/s12916-020-01772-x. PMID: 33148280Free PMC Article
Zheng YQ, Miao X, Li J, Hu MF, Zhu YS, Li XR, Zhang YJ
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020 Jun;24(11):6417-6425. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202006_21540. PMID: 32572939
Paramita S, Raharjo EN, Niasari M, Azizah F, Hanifah NA
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 Aug 1;20(8):2247-2252. doi: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.8.2247. PMID: 31450891Free PMC Article
Na K, Lee JY, Sung JY, Kim GM, Koo JS, Kim HS
Virchows Arch 2018 Aug;473(2):165-175. Epub 2018 Jun 20 doi: 10.1007/s00428-018-2390-5. PMID: 29926183

Clinical prediction guides

Zhang C, Wang EY, Liu F, Ruhul Quddus M, James Sung C
Int J Surg Pathol 2021 Oct;29(7):716-721. Epub 2021 Apr 21 doi: 10.1177/10668969211010954. PMID: 33881947
Sundaram S, Christian SD, Krishnakumar R, Ramya R, Ramadoss M, Karunagaran D
J Cancer Res Ther 2020 Oct-Dec;16(6):1354-1359. doi: 10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_490_20. PMID: 33342796
Wijesinghe HD, Fernando J, Senarath U, Wijesinghe GK, S Lokuhetty MD
Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2020 Jul-Sep;63(3):388-396. doi: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_657_19. PMID: 32769327
Zheng YQ, Miao X, Li J, Hu MF, Zhu YS, Li XR, Zhang YJ
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020 Jun;24(11):6417-6425. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202006_21540. PMID: 32572939
Na K, Lee JY, Sung JY, Kim GM, Koo JS, Kim HS
Virchows Arch 2018 Aug;473(2):165-175. Epub 2018 Jun 20 doi: 10.1007/s00428-018-2390-5. PMID: 29926183

Recent systematic reviews

Fitzpatrick SE, Lam TC
Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 Aug;146(2):117e-126e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000006965. PMID: 32740565
Lloyd AJ, Ryan ÉJ, Boland MR, Elwahab SA, Malone C, Sweeney KJ, Barry KM, McLaughlin R, Kerin MJ, Lowery AJ
Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Oct;183(3):503-514. Epub 2020 Jul 24 doi: 10.1007/s10549-020-05810-3. PMID: 32710280
Gibbons CE, Quinn CM, Gibbons D
Acta Cytol 2019;63(4):314-318. Epub 2019 Mar 20 doi: 10.1159/000496159. PMID: 30893685
Ding XF, Li LF, Zhou XL, Guo LN, Dou MM, Chi YY, Wu SX, Zhang YN, Shan ZZ, Zhang YJ, Wang F, Fan QX, Zhao J, Sun TW
PLoS One 2017;12(1):e0170302. Epub 2017 Jan 23 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170302. PMID: 28114374Free PMC Article
Toumi Z, Bullen C, Tang AC, Dalal N, Ellenbogen S
Pathol Int 2011 Oct;61(10):582-8. Epub 2011 Jul 25 doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1827.2011.02698.x. PMID: 21951667

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