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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 64(EIEE64; DEE64)

MedGen UID:
1633501
Concept ID:
C4693899
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, EARLY INFANTILE, 64
 
Gene (location): RHOBTB2 (8p21.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0033373
OMIM®: 618004

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-64 (DEE64) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of seizures usually in the first year of life and associated with intellectual disability, poor motor development, and poor or absent speech. Additional features include hypotonia, abnormal movements, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. The severity is variable: some patients are unable to speak, walk, or interact with others as late as the teenage years, whereas others may have some comprehension (summary by Straub et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Limb hypertonia
MedGen UID:
333083
Concept ID:
C1838391
Finding
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Bruxism
MedGen UID:
676
Concept ID:
C0006325
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Bruxism is characterized by the grinding of the teeth including the clenching of the jaw and typically occur during sleep, but also can occur while the affected individual is awake.
Chorea
MedGen UID:
3420
Concept ID:
C0008489
Disease or Syndrome
Chorea (Greek for 'dance') refers to widespread arrhythmic involuntary movements of a forcible, jerky and restless fashion. It is a random-appearing sequence of one or more discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments. Movements appear random because of variability in timing, duration or location. Each movement may have a distinct start and end. However, movements may be strung together and thus may appear to flow randomly from one muscle group to another. Chorea can involve the trunk, neck, face, tongue, and extremities.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Hemiparesis
MedGen UID:
6783
Concept ID:
C0018989
Finding
Loss of strength in the arm, leg, and sometimes face on one side of the body. Hemiplegia refers to a complete loss of strength, whereas hemiparesis refers to an incomplete loss of strength.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Status epilepticus
MedGen UID:
11586
Concept ID:
C0038220
Disease or Syndrome
Status epilepticus is a type of prolonged seizure resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms which lead to abnormally prolonged seizures (after time point t1). It is a condition that can have long-term consequences (after time point t2), including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures.
Motor stereotypies
MedGen UID:
21318
Concept ID:
C0038271
Individual Behavior
Use of the same abnormal action in response to certain triggers or at random. They may be used as a way to regulate one's internal state but must otherwise have no apparent functional purpose.
Self-injurious behavior
MedGen UID:
88371
Concept ID:
C0085271
Individual Behavior
Self-aggression.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Paroxysmal dystonia
MedGen UID:
97951
Concept ID:
C0393588
Sign or Symptom
A form of dystonia characterized by episodes of dystonia (often hemidystonia or generalized) lasting from minutes to hours. There are no dystonic symptoms between episodes.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Inability to walk
MedGen UID:
107860
Concept ID:
C0560046
Finding
Incapability to ambulate.
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Cerebral cortical atrophy
MedGen UID:
1646740
Concept ID:
C4551583
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the cortex of the cerebrum.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Broad nasal tip
MedGen UID:
98424
Concept ID:
C0426429
Finding
Increase in width of the nasal tip.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Sparse eyebrow
MedGen UID:
371332
Concept ID:
C1832446
Finding
Decreased density/number of eyebrow hairs.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Thick lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326567
Concept ID:
C1839739
Finding
Increased thickness of the lower lip, leading to a prominent appearance of the lower lip. The height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the midline is more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Low anterior hairline
MedGen UID:
331280
Concept ID:
C1842366
Finding
Distance between the hairline (trichion) and the glabella (the most prominent point on the frontal bone above the root of the nose), in the midline, more than two SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between the hairline and the glabella.
Widely spaced teeth
MedGen UID:
337093
Concept ID:
C1844813
Finding
Increased spaces (diastemata) between most of the teeth in the same dental arch.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Highly arched eyebrow
MedGen UID:
358357
Concept ID:
C1868571
Finding
Increased height of the central portion of the eyebrow, forming a crescent, semicircular, or inverted U shape.
Low insertion of columella
MedGen UID:
866874
Concept ID:
C4021229
Finding
Insertion of the posterior columella below the nasal base.
Long eyelashes
MedGen UID:
342955
Concept ID:
C1853738
Finding
Mid upper eyelash length >10 mm or increased length of the eyelashes (subjective).
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Costa C, Oliver KL, Calvello C, Cameron JM, Imperatore V, Tonelli L, Colavito D, Franceschetti S, Canafoglia L, Berkovic SF, Prontera P
Epilepsia 2023 Aug;64(8):e164-e169. Epub 2023 Mar 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17557. PMID: 36810721
Wang X, Ding Y, Zhou Y, Yu L, Zhou S, Wang Y, Wang J
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Oct;64(10):1230-1236. Epub 2022 May 25 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15265. PMID: 35612999
Harvey S, Allen NM, King MD, Lynch B, Lynch SA, O'Regan M, O'Rourke D, Shahwan A, Webb D, Gorman KM; Irish Paediatric Neurology Group
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Jun;64(6):780-788. Epub 2022 Jan 29 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15153. PMID: 35092693Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Donnan AM, Schneider AL, Russ-Hall S, Churilov L, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Apr 18;100(16):e1712-e1722. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207080. PMID: 36750385Free PMC Article
Nissenkorn A, Kluger G, Schubert-Bast S, Bayat A, Bobylova M, Bonanni P, Ceulemans B, Coppola A, Di Bonaventura C, Feucht M, Fuchs A, Gröppel G, Heimer G, Herdt B, Kulikova S, Mukhin K, Nicassio S, Orsini A, Panagiotou M, Pringsheim M, Puest B, Pylaeva O, Ramantani G, Tsekoura M, Ricciardelli P, Lerman Sagie T, Stark B, Striano P, van Baalen A, De Wachter M, Cerulli Irelli E, Cuccurullo C, von Stülpnagel C, Russo A
Epilepsia 2023 Apr;64(4):866-874. Epub 2023 Feb 20 doi: 10.1111/epi.17530. PMID: 36734057
Glass HC, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon M, Thomas C, Numis AL, Guillet R, Sturza J, McNamara NA, Rogers EE, Franck LS, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):817-825. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1437. PMID: 34028496Free PMC Article
Moreno-De-Luca A, Millan F, Pesacreta DR, Elloumi HZ, Oetjens MT, Teigen C, Wain KE, Scuffins J, Myers SM, Torene RI, Gainullin VG, Arvai K, Kirchner HL, Ledbetter DH, Retterer K, Martin CL
JAMA 2021 Feb 2;325(5):467-475. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.26148. PMID: 33528536Free PMC Article
Lagae L, Sullivan J, Knupp K, Laux L, Polster T, Nikanorova M, Devinsky O, Cross JH, Guerrini R, Talwar D, Miller I, Farfel G, Galer BS, Gammaitoni A, Mistry A, Morrison G, Lock M, Agarwal A, Lai WW, Ceulemans B; FAiRE DS Study Group
Lancet 2019 Dec 21;394(10216):2243-2254. Epub 2019 Dec 17 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32500-0. PMID: 31862249

Diagnosis

Oliver KL, Scheffer IE, Bennett MF, Grinton BE, Bahlo M, Berkovic SF
Epilepsia 2023 May;64(5):1368-1375. Epub 2023 Mar 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17547. PMID: 36808730
Donnan AM, Schneider AL, Russ-Hall S, Churilov L, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Apr 18;100(16):e1712-e1722. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207080. PMID: 36750385Free PMC Article
El-Dib M, Abend NS, Austin T, Boylan G, Chock V, Cilio MR, Greisen G, Hellström-Westas L, Lemmers P, Pellicer A, Pressler RM, Sansevere A, Tsuchida T, Vanhatalo S, Wusthoff CJ; Newborn Brain Society Guidelines and Publications Committee
Pediatr Res 2023 Jul;94(1):64-73. Epub 2022 Dec 7 doi: 10.1038/s41390-022-02393-1. PMID: 36476747
Wang X, Ding Y, Zhou Y, Yu L, Zhou S, Wang Y, Wang J
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Oct;64(10):1230-1236. Epub 2022 May 25 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15265. PMID: 35612999
Moreno-De-Luca A, Millan F, Pesacreta DR, Elloumi HZ, Oetjens MT, Teigen C, Wain KE, Scuffins J, Myers SM, Torene RI, Gainullin VG, Arvai K, Kirchner HL, Ledbetter DH, Retterer K, Martin CL
JAMA 2021 Feb 2;325(5):467-475. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.26148. PMID: 33528536Free PMC Article

Therapy

Nissenkorn A, Kluger G, Schubert-Bast S, Bayat A, Bobylova M, Bonanni P, Ceulemans B, Coppola A, Di Bonaventura C, Feucht M, Fuchs A, Gröppel G, Heimer G, Herdt B, Kulikova S, Mukhin K, Nicassio S, Orsini A, Panagiotou M, Pringsheim M, Puest B, Pylaeva O, Ramantani G, Tsekoura M, Ricciardelli P, Lerman Sagie T, Stark B, Striano P, van Baalen A, De Wachter M, Cerulli Irelli E, Cuccurullo C, von Stülpnagel C, Russo A
Epilepsia 2023 Apr;64(4):866-874. Epub 2023 Feb 20 doi: 10.1111/epi.17530. PMID: 36734057
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan J, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Agarwal A, Lock M, Dai D, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Polega S, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
Epilepsia 2023 Jan;64(1):139-151. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17431. PMID: 36196777Free PMC Article
Juliá-Palacios N, Molina-Anguita C, Sigatulina Bondarenko M, Cortès-Saladelafont E, Aparicio J, Cuadras D, Horvath G, Fons C, Artuch R, García-Cazorla À; Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu Working Group
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Jul;64(7):915-923. Epub 2022 Jan 31 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15140. PMID: 35833444
Glass HC, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon M, Thomas C, Numis AL, Guillet R, Sturza J, McNamara NA, Rogers EE, Franck LS, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):817-825. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1437. PMID: 34028496Free PMC Article
Lagae L, Sullivan J, Knupp K, Laux L, Polster T, Nikanorova M, Devinsky O, Cross JH, Guerrini R, Talwar D, Miller I, Farfel G, Galer BS, Gammaitoni A, Mistry A, Morrison G, Lock M, Agarwal A, Lai WW, Ceulemans B; FAiRE DS Study Group
Lancet 2019 Dec 21;394(10216):2243-2254. Epub 2019 Dec 17 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32500-0. PMID: 31862249

Prognosis

Mignon-Ravix C, Riccardi F, Daquin G, Cacciagli P, Lamoureux-Toth S, Villard L, Villeneuve N, Molinari F
Epilepsia 2023 Jun;64(6):e127-e134. Epub 2023 Apr 17 doi: 10.1111/epi.17603. PMID: 37014259
El-Dib M, Abend NS, Austin T, Boylan G, Chock V, Cilio MR, Greisen G, Hellström-Westas L, Lemmers P, Pellicer A, Pressler RM, Sansevere A, Tsuchida T, Vanhatalo S, Wusthoff CJ; Newborn Brain Society Guidelines and Publications Committee
Pediatr Res 2023 Jul;94(1):64-73. Epub 2022 Dec 7 doi: 10.1038/s41390-022-02393-1. PMID: 36476747
Wang X, Ding Y, Zhou Y, Yu L, Zhou S, Wang Y, Wang J
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Oct;64(10):1230-1236. Epub 2022 May 25 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15265. PMID: 35612999
Bayat A, Kløvgaard M, Johannesen KM, Barakat TS, Kievit A, Montomoli M, Parrini E, Pietrafusa N, Schelhaas J, van Slegtenhorst M, Miya K, Guerrini R, Tranebjærg L, Tümer Z, Rubboli G, Møller RS
Epilepsy Res 2021 Feb;170:106530. Epub 2020 Dec 9 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106530. PMID: 33508693
Howell KB, Freeman JL, Mackay MT, Fahey MC, Archer J, Berkovic SF, Chan E, Dabscheck G, Eggers S, Hayman M, Holberton J, Hunt RW, Jacobs SE, Kornberg AJ, Leventer RJ, Mandelstam S, McMahon JM, Mefford HC, Panetta J, Riseley J, Rodriguez-Casero V, Ryan MM, Schneider AL, Smith LJ, Stark Z, Wong F, Yiu EM, Scheffer IE, Harvey AS
Epilepsia 2021 Feb;62(2):358-370. Epub 2021 Jan 21 doi: 10.1111/epi.16810. PMID: 33475165

Clinical prediction guides

Donnan AM, Schneider AL, Russ-Hall S, Churilov L, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Apr 18;100(16):e1712-e1722. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207080. PMID: 36750385Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan J, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Agarwal A, Lock M, Dai D, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Polega S, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
Epilepsia 2023 Jan;64(1):139-151. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17431. PMID: 36196777Free PMC Article
Glass HC, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon M, Thomas C, Numis AL, Guillet R, Sturza J, McNamara NA, Rogers EE, Franck LS, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jul 1;78(7):817-825. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1437. PMID: 34028496Free PMC Article
Bayat A, Kløvgaard M, Johannesen KM, Barakat TS, Kievit A, Montomoli M, Parrini E, Pietrafusa N, Schelhaas J, van Slegtenhorst M, Miya K, Guerrini R, Tranebjærg L, Tümer Z, Rubboli G, Møller RS
Epilepsy Res 2021 Feb;170:106530. Epub 2020 Dec 9 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106530. PMID: 33508693
Lagae L, Sullivan J, Knupp K, Laux L, Polster T, Nikanorova M, Devinsky O, Cross JH, Guerrini R, Talwar D, Miller I, Farfel G, Galer BS, Gammaitoni A, Mistry A, Morrison G, Lock M, Agarwal A, Lai WW, Ceulemans B; FAiRE DS Study Group
Lancet 2019 Dec 21;394(10216):2243-2254. Epub 2019 Dec 17 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32500-0. PMID: 31862249

Recent systematic reviews

Reilly C, Jette N, Johnson EC, Kariuki SM, Meredith F, Wirrell E, Mula M, Smith ML, Walsh S, Fong CY, Wilmshurst JM, Kerr M, Valente K, Auvin S
Epilepsia 2023 Dec;64(12):3160-3195. Epub 2023 Oct 7 doi: 10.1111/epi.17768. PMID: 37804168
Goyal A, Fernandes-Torres J, Flemming KD, Williams LN, Daniels DJ
Childs Nerv Syst 2023 Jun;39(6):1545-1554. Epub 2023 Mar 14 doi: 10.1007/s00381-023-05903-6. PMID: 36917267
Dunbar MJ, Woodward K, Leijser LM, Kirton A
Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 Feb;63(2):144-155. Epub 2020 Oct 22 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.14713. PMID: 33094492
Pellacani S, Dosi C, Valvo G, Moro F, Mero S, Sicca F, Santorelli FM
Neurogenetics 2020 Jan;21(1):1-18. Epub 2019 Dec 13 doi: 10.1007/s10048-019-00598-x. PMID: 31834528
Banach R, Boskovic R, Einarson T, Koren G
Drug Saf 2010 Jan 1;33(1):73-9. doi: 10.2165/11317640-000000000-00000. PMID: 20000869

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