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Pachygyria, microcephaly, developmental delay, and dysmorphic facies, with or without seizures(PAMDDFS)

MedGen UID:
1684879
Concept ID:
C5231486
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: CORTICAL DYSPLASIA, COMPLEX, WITH OTHER BRAIN MALFORMATIONS 15
 
Gene (location): TUBGCP2 (10q26.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0032893
OMIM®: 618737

Definition

Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-15 (CDCBM15) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly associated with abnormal facial features, hypotonia, and variable global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development. Brain imaging shows variable malformation of cortical development on the lissencephaly spectrum, mainly pachygyria and thin corpus callosum (summary by Mitani et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Protruding ear
MedGen UID:
343309
Concept ID:
C1855285
Finding
Angle formed by the plane of the ear and the mastoid bone greater than the 97th centile for age (objective); or, outer edge of the helix more than 2 cm from the mastoid at the point of maximum distance (objective).
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Subependymal cysts
MedGen UID:
318876
Concept ID:
C1833431
Anatomical Abnormality
Cerebral cysts, usually located in the wall of the caudate nucleus or in the caudothalamic groove. They are found in up to 5.2% of all neonates, using transfontanellar ultrasound in the first days of life.
Subcortical band heterotopia
MedGen UID:
336288
Concept ID:
C1848201
Disease or Syndrome
Subcortical band heterotopia is a condition in which nerve cells (neurons) do not move (migrate) to their proper locations in the fetal brain during early development. (Heterotopia means "out of place.") Normally, the neurons that make up the outer surface of the brain (cerebral cortex) are distributed in a well-organized and multi-layered way. In people with subcortical band heterotopia, some neurons that should be part of the cerebral cortex do not reach it. These neurons stop their migration process in areas of the brain where they are not supposed to be and form band-like clusters of tissue. Since these bands are located beneath the cerebral cortex, they are said to be subcortical. In most cases, the bands are symmetric, which means they occur in the same places on the right and left sides of the brain.\n\nThe abnormal brain development causes neurological problems in people with subcortical band heterotopia. The signs and symptoms of the condition depend on the size of the bands and the lack of development of the cerebral cortex. The signs and symptoms can vary from severe intellectual disability and seizures that begin early in life and affect both sides of the brain (generalized seizures) to normal intelligence with seizures occurring later in life and affecting only one side of the brain (focal seizures). Some affected individuals also have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), loss of fine motor skills such as using utensils, or behavioral problems. Subcortical band heterotopia is typically found when brain imaging is done following the onset of seizures, usually in adolescence or early adulthood.
Brisk reflexes
MedGen UID:
382164
Concept ID:
C2673700
Finding
Tendon reflexes that are noticeably more active than usual (conventionally denoted 3+ on clinical examination). Brisk reflexes may or may not indicate a neurological lesion. They are distinguished from hyperreflexia by the fact that hyerreflexia is characterized by hyperactive repeating (clonic) reflexes, which are considered to be always abnormal.
Interictal epileptiform activity
MedGen UID:
869073
Concept ID:
C4023491
Finding
Epileptiform activity refers to distinctive EEG waves or complexes distinguished from background activity found in in a proportion of human subjects with epilepsy, but which can also be found in subjects without seizures. Interictal epileptiform activity refers to such activity that occurs in the absence of a clinical or subclinical seizure.
Pachygyria
MedGen UID:
504794
Concept ID:
CN001193
Finding
Pachygyria is a malformation of cortical development with abnormally wide gyri with sulci 1,5-3 cm apart and abnormally thick cortex measuring more than 5 mm (radiological definition). See also neuropathological definitions for 2-, 3-, and 4-layered lissencephaly.
Hypoplasia of the maxilla
MedGen UID:
66804
Concept ID:
C0240310
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small dimension of the Maxilla. Usually creating a malocclusion or malalignment between the upper and lower teeth or resulting in a deficient amount of projection of the base of the nose and lower midface region.
Progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
340542
Concept ID:
C1850456
Anatomical Abnormality
Progressive microcephaly is diagnosed when the head circumference falls progressively behind age- and gender-dependent norms.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
Widely-spaced incisors
MedGen UID:
585638
Concept ID:
C0399545
Finding
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Narrow forehead
MedGen UID:
326956
Concept ID:
C1839758
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations below the mean (objective); or apparently narrow intertemporal region (subjective).
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Sloping forehead
MedGen UID:
346640
Concept ID:
C1857679
Finding
Inclination of the anterior surface of the forehead from the vertical more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently excessive posterior sloping of the forehead in a lateral view.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Synophrys
MedGen UID:
98132
Concept ID:
C0431447
Congenital Abnormality
Meeting of the medial eyebrows in the midline.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Cerebral visual impairment
MedGen UID:
890568
Concept ID:
C4048268
Pathologic Function
A form of loss of vision caused by damage to the visual cortex rather than a defect in the eye.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Charalambous M, Muñana K, Patterson EE, Platt SR, Volk HA
J Vet Intern Med 2024 Jan-Feb;38(1):19-40. Epub 2023 Nov 3 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16928. PMID: 37921621Free PMC Article
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Abboud H, Probasco JC, Irani S, Ances B, Benavides DR, Bradshaw M, Christo PP, Dale RC, Fernandez-Fournier M, Flanagan EP, Gadoth A, George P, Grebenciucova E, Jammoul A, Lee ST, Li Y, Matiello M, Morse AM, Rae-Grant A, Rojas G, Rossman I, Schmitt S, Venkatesan A, Vernino S, Pittock SJ, Titulaer MJ; Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance Clinicians Network
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Jul;92(7):757-768. Epub 2021 Mar 1 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2020-325300. PMID: 33649022Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Zelano J, Holtkamp M, Agarwal N, Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Brigo F
Epileptic Disord 2020 Jun 1;22(3):252-263. doi: 10.1684/epd.2020.1159. PMID: 32597766
Ziobro J, Shellhaas RA
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Patterson JL, Carapetian SA, Hageman JR, Kelley KR
Pediatr Ann 2013 Dec;42(12):249-54. doi: 10.3928/00904481-20131122-09. PMID: 24295158

Diagnosis

Wirrell E
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2022 Apr 1;28(2):230-260. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001074. PMID: 35393959
Ziobro J, Shellhaas RA
Semin Neurol 2020 Apr;40(2):246-256. Epub 2020 Mar 6 doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1702943. PMID: 32143234
Shellhaas RA
Handb Clin Neurol 2019;162:347-361. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00017-5. PMID: 31324320
Johnson EL
Med Clin North Am 2019 Mar;103(2):309-324. Epub 2018 Dec 3 doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2018.10.002. PMID: 30704683
Beghi E, Carpio A, Forsgren L, Hesdorffer DC, Malmgren K, Sander JW, Tomson T, Hauser WA
Epilepsia 2010 Apr;51(4):671-5. Epub 2009 Sep 3 doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02285.x. PMID: 19732133

Therapy

Pizzo F, Collotta AD, Di Nora A, Costanza G, Ruggieri M, Falsaperla R
Expert Rev Neurother 2022 Feb;22(2):169-177. Epub 2022 Feb 25 doi: 10.1080/14737175.2022.2030220. PMID: 35144527
Rosenthal ES
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2021 Oct 1;27(5):1321-1343. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001012. PMID: 34618762
Ziobro JM, Eschbach K, Shellhaas RA
Neurotherapeutics 2021 Jul;18(3):1564-1581. Epub 2021 Aug 12 doi: 10.1007/s13311-021-01085-8. PMID: 34386906Free PMC Article
von Wrede R, Helmstaedter C, Surges R
Clin Drug Investig 2021 Mar;41(3):211-220. Epub 2021 Feb 9 doi: 10.1007/s40261-021-01003-y. PMID: 33559102Free PMC Article
Kotulska K, Kwiatkowski DJ, Curatolo P, Weschke B, Riney K, Jansen F, Feucht M, Krsek P, Nabbout R, Jansen AC, Wojdan K, Sijko K, Głowacka-Walas J, Borkowska J, Sadowski K, Domańska-Pakieła D, Moavero R, Hertzberg C, Hulshof H, Scholl T, Benova B, Aronica E, de Ridder J, Lagae L, Jóźwiak S; EPISTOP Investigators
Ann Neurol 2021 Feb;89(2):304-314. Epub 2020 Nov 27 doi: 10.1002/ana.25956. PMID: 33180985Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Nandan A, Zhou YM, Demoe L, Waheed A, Jain P, Widjaja E
J Int Med Res 2023 Nov;51(11):3000605231213231. doi: 10.1177/03000605231213231. PMID: 38008901Free PMC Article
Salanova V, Sperling MR, Gross RE, Irwin CP, Vollhaber JA, Giftakis JE, Fisher RS; SANTÉ Study Group
Epilepsia 2021 Jun;62(6):1306-1317. Epub 2021 Apr 8 doi: 10.1111/epi.16895. PMID: 33830503
Patterson JL, Carapetian SA, Hageman JR, Kelley KR
Pediatr Ann 2013 Dec;42(12):249-54. doi: 10.3928/00904481-20131122-09. PMID: 24295158
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Arch Neurol 2002 Feb;59(2):195-201. doi: 10.1001/archneur.59.2.195. PMID: 11843689
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Clinical prediction guides

Fu A, Lado FA
J Clin Neurophysiol 2024 Mar 1;41(3):207-213. doi: 10.1097/WNP.0000000000001045. PMID: 38436388
Struck AF, Tabaeizadeh M, Schmitt SE, Ruiz AR, Swisher CB, Subramaniam T, Hernandez C, Kaleem S, Haider HA, Cissé AF, Dhakar MB, Hirsch LJ, Rosenthal ES, Zafar SF, Gaspard N, Westover MB
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Meisel C, Loddenkemper T
Neuropharmacology 2020 Aug 1;172:107898. Epub 2019 Dec 5 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.107898. PMID: 31839204
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Stroke Vasc Neurol 2019 Mar;4(1):48-56. Epub 2018 Dec 9 doi: 10.1136/svn-2018-000175. PMID: 31105979Free PMC Article
Acharya UR, Hagiwara Y, Adeli H
Epilepsy Behav 2018 Nov;88:251-261. Epub 2018 Oct 11 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.09.030. PMID: 30317059

Recent systematic reviews

Pressler RM, Abend NS, Auvin S, Boylan G, Brigo F, Cilio MR, De Vries LS, Elia M, Espeche A, Hahn CD, Inder T, Jette N, Kakooza-Mwesige A, Mader S, Mizrahi EM, Moshé SL, Nagarajan L, Noyman I, Nunes ML, Samia P, Shany E, Shellhaas RA, Subota A, Triki CC, Tsuchida T, Vinayan KP, Wilmshurst JM, Yozawitz EG, Hartmann H
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Epilepsia 2022 Mar;63(3):513-524. Epub 2022 Jan 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17157. PMID: 34981509
Sultana B, Panzini MA, Veilleux Carpentier A, Comtois J, Rioux B, Gore G, Bauer PR, Kwon CS, Jetté N, Josephson CB, Keezer MR
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Mewasingh LD
BMJ Clin Evid 2014 Jan 31;2014 PMID: 24484859Free PMC Article
Beghi E, Carpio A, Forsgren L, Hesdorffer DC, Malmgren K, Sander JW, Tomson T, Hauser WA
Epilepsia 2010 Apr;51(4):671-5. Epub 2009 Sep 3 doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02285.x. PMID: 19732133

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