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Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, impaired speech, and hypotonia(NEDDISH)

MedGen UID:
1776912
Concept ID:
C5436585
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: NEDDISH; NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH DYSMORPHIC FACIES, IMPAIRED SPEECH, AND HYPOTONIA
 
Gene (location): MADD (11p11.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0033562
OMIM®: 619005

Definition

Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, impaired speech, and hypotonia (NEDDISH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and mildly to severely impaired intellectual development with poor speech and language acquisition. Some patients may have early normal development with onset of the disorder in the first years of life. More variable neurologic abnormalities include hypotonia, seizures, apnea, mild signs of autonomic or peripheral neuropathy, and autism. Aside from dysmorphic facial features and occasional findings such as scoliosis or undescended testes, other organ systems are not involved (summary by Schneeberger et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Micropenis
MedGen UID:
1633603
Concept ID:
C4551492
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small penis. At birth, the normal penis is about 3 cm (stretched length from pubic tubercle to tip of penis) with micropenis less than 2.0-2.5 cm.
Increased femoral anteversion
MedGen UID:
868511
Concept ID:
C4022909
Finding
An increased degree of femoral version, which is defined as the angular difference between axis of femoral neck and transcondylar axis of the knee. Thus, femoral anteversion is an inward twisting of the femur that causes the knees and feet to turn inward.
Decreased heart rate variability
MedGen UID:
1639159
Concept ID:
C4703580
Finding
Reduced variation of beat-to-beat intervals of the heart that occurs in conjunction with the respiratory cycle.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Decreased body weight
MedGen UID:
1806755
Concept ID:
C5574742
Finding
Abnormally low body weight.
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Finding
Abnormally increased size of the liver.
Chronic constipation
MedGen UID:
98325
Concept ID:
C0401149
Sign or Symptom
Constipation for longer than three months with fewer than 3 bowel movements per week, straining, lumpy or hard stools, and a sensation of anorectal obstruction or incomplete defecation.
Chronic diarrhea
MedGen UID:
96036
Concept ID:
C0401151
Finding
The presence of chronic diarrhea, which is usually taken to mean diarrhea that has persisted for over 4 weeks.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Self-mutilation
MedGen UID:
19925
Concept ID:
C0036601
Injury or Poisoning
Deliberate harm to one's body resulting in tissue damage, without a conscious intent to die.
Motor stereotypies
MedGen UID:
21318
Concept ID:
C0038271
Individual Behavior
Use of the same abnormal action in response to certain triggers or at random. They may be used as a way to regulate one's internal state but must otherwise have no apparent functional purpose.
EEG abnormality
MedGen UID:
56235
Concept ID:
C0151611
Finding
Abnormality observed by electroencephalogram (EEG), which is used to record of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Severe global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
332436
Concept ID:
C1837397
Finding
A severe delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Impaired pain sensation
MedGen UID:
373348
Concept ID:
C1837522
Finding
Reduced ability to perceive painful stimuli.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Moderate global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
500807
Concept ID:
C2237142
Finding
A moderate delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Extra-axial cerebrospinal fluid accumulation
MedGen UID:
868477
Concept ID:
C4022871
Finding
An increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space.
Thrombocytopenia
MedGen UID:
52737
Concept ID:
C0040034
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction in the number of circulating thrombocytes.
Decreased hemoglobin concentration
MedGen UID:
1670936
Concept ID:
C4732750
Finding
An abnormal reduction below normal hemoglobin concentration in the circulation.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Plagiocephaly
MedGen UID:
1825944
Concept ID:
C2081594
Finding
Asymmetric head shape, which is usually a combination of unilateral occipital flattening with ipsilateral frontal prominence, leading to rhomboid cranial shape.
Neonatal hypotonia
MedGen UID:
412209
Concept ID:
C2267233
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) manifesting in the neonatal period.
Neonatal respiratory distress
MedGen UID:
924182
Concept ID:
C4281993
Finding
Respiratory difficulty as newborn.
Dental crowding
MedGen UID:
11850
Concept ID:
C0040433
Finding
Changes in alignment of teeth in the dental arch
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Short palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98067
Concept ID:
C0423112
Finding
Distance between the medial and lateral canthi is more than 2 SD below the mean for age (objective); or, apparently reduced length of the palpebral fissures.
Underdeveloped nasal alae
MedGen UID:
322332
Concept ID:
C1834055
Congenital Abnormality
Thinned, deficient, or excessively arched ala nasi.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Thick vermilion border
MedGen UID:
332232
Concept ID:
C1836543
Finding
Increased width of the skin of vermilion border region of upper lip.
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Highly arched eyebrow
MedGen UID:
358357
Concept ID:
C1868571
Finding
Increased height of the central portion of the eyebrow, forming a crescent, semicircular, or inverted U shape.
Low insertion of columella
MedGen UID:
866874
Concept ID:
C4021229
Finding
Insertion of the posterior columella below the nasal base.
Long eyelashes
MedGen UID:
342955
Concept ID:
C1853738
Finding
Mid upper eyelash length >10 mm or increased length of the eyelashes (subjective).
Exotropia
MedGen UID:
4613
Concept ID:
C0015310
Disease or Syndrome
A form of strabismus with one or both eyes deviated outward.
Alacrima
MedGen UID:
87488
Concept ID:
C0344505
Disease or Syndrome
Absence of tear secretion.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Machol K, Rousseau J, Ehresmann S, Garcia T, Nguyen TTM, Spillmann RC, Sullivan JA, Shashi V, Jiang YH, Stong N, Fiala E, Willing M, Pfundt R, Kleefstra T, Cho MT, McLaughlin H, Rosello Piera M, Orellana C, Martínez F, Caro-Llopis A, Monfort S, Roscioli T, Nixon CY, Buckley MF, Turner A, Jones WD, van Hasselt PM, Hofstede FC, van Gassen KLI, Brooks AS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Lachlan K, Sebastian J, Madan-Khetarpal S, Sonal D, Sakkubai N, Thevenon J, Faivre L, Maurel A, Petrovski S, Krantz ID, Tarpinian JM, Rosenfeld JA, Lee BH; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Campeau PM
Am J Hum Genet 2019 Jan 3;104(1):164-178. Epub 2018 Dec 20 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.11.007. PMID: 30580808Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Vera G, Sorlin A, Delplancq G, Lecoquierre F, Brasseur-Daudruy M, Petit F, Smol T, Ziegler A, Bonneau D, Colin E, Mercier S, Cogné B, Bézieau S, Edery P, Lesca G, Chatron N, Sabatier I, Duban-Bedu B, Colson C, Piton A, Durand B, Capri Y, Perrin L, Wiesener A, Zweier C, Maroofian R, Carroll CJ, Galehdari H, Mazaheri N, Callewaert B, Giulianno F, Zaafrane-Khachnaoui K, Buchert-Lo R, Haack T, Magg J, Rieß A, Blandfort M, Waldmüller S, Horber V, Leonardi E, Polli R, Turolla L, Murgia A, Frebourg T, Lebre AS, Nicolas G, Saugier-Veber P, Guerrot AM
Eur J Med Genet 2020 Oct;63(10):104004. Epub 2020 Jul 17 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.104004. PMID: 32688057
Al-Sayed MD, Al-Zaidan H, Albakheet A, Hakami H, Kenana R, Al-Yafee Y, Al-Dosary M, Qari A, Al-Sheddi T, Al-Muheiza M, Al-Qubbaj W, Lakmache Y, Al-Hindi H, Ghaziuddin M, Colak D, Kaya N
Am J Hum Genet 2013 Oct 3;93(4):721-6. Epub 2013 Sep 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.08.001. PMID: 24075186Free PMC Article

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