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Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies 2(SSFSC2)

MedGen UID:
1782253
Concept ID:
C5543057
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: SHORT STATURE, FACIAL DYSMORPHISM, AND SKELETAL ANOMALIES WITH OR WITHOUT CARDIAC ANOMALIES 2; SSFSC2
 
Gene (location): SCUBE3 (6p21.31)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0030953
OMIM®: 619184

Definition

Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies-2 (SSFSC2) is characterized by thin and short long bones, distinctive facial dysmorphism, and dental and skeletal abnormalities, in the absence of developmental delay or intellectual disability. Cardiac anomalies have been reported in some patients (Lin et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SSFSC, see SSFSC1 (617877). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Digits that appear disproportionately short compared to the hand/foot. The word brachydactyly is used here to describe a series distinct patterns of shortened digits (brachydactyly types A-E). This is the sense used here.
Short palm
MedGen UID:
334684
Concept ID:
C1843108
Finding
Short palm.
Cardiac arrhythmia
MedGen UID:
2039
Concept ID:
C0003811
Finding
Any cardiac rhythm other than the normal sinus rhythm. Such a rhythm may be either of sinus or ectopic origin and either regular or irregular. An arrhythmia may be due to a disturbance in impulse formation or conduction or both.
Patent foramen ovale
MedGen UID:
8891
Concept ID:
C0016522
Congenital Abnormality
Failure of the foramen ovale to seal postnatally, leaving a potential conduit between the left and right cardiac atria.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Postnatal growth retardation
MedGen UID:
395343
Concept ID:
C1859778
Finding
Slow or limited growth after birth.
Oral-pharyngeal dysphagia
MedGen UID:
120596
Concept ID:
C0267071
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing due to an abnormality in the mouth or throat.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Joint stiffness
MedGen UID:
56403
Concept ID:
C0162298
Sign or Symptom
Joint stiffness is a perceived sensation of tightness in a joint or joints when attempting to move them after a period of inactivity. Joint stiffness typically subsides over time.
11 pairs of ribs
MedGen UID:
326950
Concept ID:
C1839731
Finding
Presence of only 11 pairs of ribs.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Short long bone
MedGen UID:
344385
Concept ID:
C1854912
Finding
One or more abnormally short long bone.
Bicoronal synostosis
MedGen UID:
866810
Concept ID:
C4021164
Congenital Abnormality
Synostosis affecting the right and the left coronal suture.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Tracheobronchomalacia
MedGen UID:
137939
Concept ID:
C0340231
Disease or Syndrome
Williams-Campbell syndrome is a congenital disorder characterized by severe bronchiectasis and recurrent pulmonary infections caused by a cartilage abnormality involving the 4th-6th order subsegmental bronchi. It typically presents in infancy or childhood with symptoms of coughing, wheezing, and dyspnea. Imaging reveals normal central airways with severe bilateral cystic bronchiectasis in the subsegmental bronchi, often associated with bronchial wall thickening, mucous plugging, and bronchomalacia. During dynamic imaging, the abnormal bronchi will demonstrate ballooning on inspiratory imaging and collapse/air-trapping on expiratory imaging (summary by Marini et al., 2017).
Enamel hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
3730
Concept ID:
C0011351
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental hypoplasia of the dental enamel.
Partial congenital absence of teeth
MedGen UID:
43794
Concept ID:
C0020608
Congenital Abnormality
Tooth agenesis in some form is a common human anomaly that affects approximately 20% of the population. Although tooth agenesis is associated with numerous syndromes, several case reports describe nonsyndromic forms that are either sporadic or familial in nature, as reviewed by Gorlin et al. (1990). The incidence of familial tooth agenesis varies with each class of teeth. Most commonly affected are third molars (wisdom teeth), followed by either upper lateral incisors or lower second premolars; agenesis involving first and second molars is very rare. Also see 114600 and 302400. Selective tooth agenesis without associated systemic disorders has sometimes been divided into 2 types: oligodontia, defined as agenesis of 6 or more permanent teeth, and hypodontia, defined as agenesis of less than 6 teeth. The number in both cases does not include absence of third molars (wisdom teeth). Faulty use of the terms, however, have confounded their use. The term 'partial anodontia' is obsolete (Salinas, 1978). Genetic Heterogeneity of Selective Tooth Agenesis Other forms of selective tooth agenesis include STHAG2 (602639), mapped to chromosome 16q12; STHAG3 (604625), caused by mutation in the PAX9 gene (167416) on chromosome 14q12; STHAG4 (150400), caused by mutation in the WNT10A gene (606268) on chromosome 2q35; STHAG5 (610926), mapped to chromosome 10q11; STHAG7 (616724), caused by mutation in the LRP6 gene (603507) on chromosome 12p13; STHAG8 (617073), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13; STHAG9 (617275), caused by mutation in the GREM2 gene (608832) on chromosome 1q43; STHAG10 (620173), caused by mutation in the TSPEAR gene (612920) on chromosome 21q22; and STHAGX1 (313500), caused by mutation in the EDA gene (300451) on chromosome Xq13. A type of selective tooth agenesis that was formerly designated STHAG6 has been incorporated into the dental anomalies and short stature syndrome (DASS; 601216). Of 34 unrelated patients with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, van den Boogaard et al. (2012) found that 56% (19 patients) had mutations in the WNT10A gene (STHAG4), whereas only 3% and 9% had mutations in the MSX1 (STHAG1) and PAX9 (STHAG3) genes, respectively. The authors concluded that WNT10A is a major gene in the etiology of isolated hypodontia. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations Yu et al. (2016) observed that the most frequently missing permanent teeth in WNT10B-associated oligodontia were the lateral incisors (83.3%), whereas premolars were missing only 51.4% of the time, which they noted was a pattern 'clearly different' from the oligodontia patterns resulting from WNT10A mutations. They also stated that the selective pattern in WNT10B mutants was different from that associated with mutations in other genes, such as MSX1, in which second premolars are missing, and PAX9, in which there is agenesis of molars.
Isolated Pierre-Robin syndrome
MedGen UID:
19310
Concept ID:
C0031900
Congenital Abnormality
Pierre Robin sequence is a craniofacial anomaly comprising mandibular hypoplasia, cleft secondary palate, and glossoptosis leading to life-threatening obstructive apnea and feeding difficulaties during the neonatal period (summary by Tan et al., 2013).
Dental crowding
MedGen UID:
11850
Concept ID:
C0040433
Finding
Changes in alignment of teeth in the dental arch
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
Triangular face
MedGen UID:
324383
Concept ID:
C1835884
Finding
Facial contour, as viewed from the front, triangular in shape, with breadth at the temples and tapering to a narrow chin.
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Thick vermilion border
MedGen UID:
332232
Concept ID:
C1836543
Finding
Increased width of the skin of vermilion border region of upper lip.
Long nose
MedGen UID:
326583
Concept ID:
C1839798
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased length from the nasal root to the nasal base.
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Short chin
MedGen UID:
784514
Concept ID:
C3697248
Finding
Decreased vertical distance from the vermilion border of the lower lip to the inferior-most point of the chin.
Misalignment of incisors
MedGen UID:
869137
Concept ID:
C4023556
Finding
Misaligned incisor.
Oligodontia
MedGen UID:
904670
Concept ID:
C4082304
Congenital Abnormality
The absence of six or more teeth from the normal series by a failure to develop.
Brittle hair
MedGen UID:
120480
Concept ID:
C0263490
Disease or Syndrome
Fragile, easily breakable hair, i.e., with reduced tensile strength.
Astigmatism
MedGen UID:
2473
Concept ID:
C0004106
Disease or Syndrome
Astigmatism (from the Greek 'a' meaning absence and 'stigma' meaning point) is a condition in which the parallel rays of light entering the eye through the refractive media are not focused on a single point. Both corneal and noncorneal factors contribute to refractive astigmatism. Corneal astigmatism is mainly the result of an aspheric anterior surface of the cornea, which can be measured readily by means of a keratometer; in a small fraction of cases (approximately 1 in 10) the effect is neutralized by the back surface. The curvature of the back surface of the cornea is not considered in most studies, because it is more difficult to measure; moreover, in the case of severe corneal astigmatism, there is evidence that both surfaces have the same configuration. Noncorneal factors are errors in the curvature of the 2 surfaces of the crystalline lens, irregularity in the refractive index of the lens, and an eccentric lens position. Since the cornea is the dominant component of the eye's refracting system, a highly astigmatic cornea is likely to result in a similarly astigmatic ocular refraction (summary by Clementi et al., 1998).
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  

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Michelena HI, Della Corte A, Evangelista A, Maleszewski JJ, Edwards WD, Roman MJ, Devereux RB, Fernández B, Asch FM, Barker AJ, Sierra-Galan LM, De Kerchove L, Fernandes SM, Fedak PWM, Girdauskas E, Delgado V, Abbara S, Lansac E, Prakash SK, Bissell MM, Popescu BA, Hope MD, Sitges M, Thourani VH, Pibarot P, Chandrasekaran K, Lancellotti P, Borger MA, Forrest JK, Webb J, Milewicz DM, Makkar R, Leon MB, Sanders SP, Markl M, Ferrari VA, Roberts WC, Song JK, Blanke P, White CS, Siu S, Svensson LG, Braverman AC, Bavaria J, Sundt TM, El Khoury G, De Paulis R, Enriquez-Sarano M, Bax JJ, Otto CM, Schäfers HJ; Endorsed by the Heart Valve Society (HVS), European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI), Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS), American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS), Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR), Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT), North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI) and the International Bicuspid Aortic Valve Consortium (BAVCon)
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Arch Argent Pediatr 2020 Apr;118(2):e149-e161. doi: 10.5546/aap.2020.eng.e149. PMID: 32199055
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Recent clinical studies

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Circulation 2009 Mar 3;119(8):1085-92. Epub 2009 Feb 16 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.804617. PMID: 19221222
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Therapy

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Clinical prediction guides

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Gravholt CH, Andersen NH, Conway GS, Dekkers OM, Geffner ME, Klein KO, Lin AE, Mauras N, Quigley CA, Rubin K, Sandberg DE, Sas TCJ, Silberbach M, Söderström-Anttila V, Stochholm K, van Alfen-van derVelden JA, Woelfle J, Backeljauw PF; International Turner Syndrome Consensus Group
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