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Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities(DDISBA)

MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: DDISBA; DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, IMPAIRED SPEECH, AND BEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES
 
Gene (location): SPTBN1 (2p16.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0859178
OMIM®: 619475

Definition

Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Abdominal pain
MedGen UID:
7803
Concept ID:
C0000737
Sign or Symptom
An unpleasant sensation characterized by physical discomfort (such as pricking, throbbing, or aching) and perceived to originate in the abdomen.
Back pain
MedGen UID:
2530
Concept ID:
C0004604
Sign or Symptom
An unpleasant sensation characterized by physical discomfort (such as pricking, throbbing, or aching) localized to the back.
Fatigue
MedGen UID:
41971
Concept ID:
C0015672
Sign or Symptom
A subjective feeling of tiredness characterized by a lack of energy and motivation.
Hematuria
MedGen UID:
5488
Concept ID:
C0018965
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria may be gross hematuria (visible to the naked eye) or microscopic hematuria (detected by dipstick or microscopic examination of the urine).
Bifid scrotum
MedGen UID:
90968
Concept ID:
C0341787
Congenital Abnormality
Midline indentation or cleft of the scrotum.
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Micropenis
MedGen UID:
1633603
Concept ID:
C4551492
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small penis. At birth, the normal penis is about 3 cm (stretched length from pubic tubercle to tip of penis) with micropenis less than 2.0-2.5 cm.
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Single transverse palmar crease
MedGen UID:
96108
Concept ID:
C0424731
Finding
The distal and proximal transverse palmar creases are merged into a single transverse palmar crease.
Genu valgum
MedGen UID:
154364
Concept ID:
C0576093
Anatomical Abnormality
The legs angle inward, such that the knees are close together and the ankles far apart.
Tapered distal phalanges of finger
MedGen UID:
369964
Concept ID:
C1969237
Finding
A reduction in diameter of the distal phalanx of finger towards the distal end.
Aortic aneurysm
MedGen UID:
362
Concept ID:
C0003486
Disease or Syndrome
Aortic dilatation refers to a dimension that is greater than the 95th percentile for the normal person age, sex and body size. In contrast, an aneurysm is defined as a localized dilation of the aorta that is more than 150 percent of predicted (ratio of observed to expected diameter 1.5 or more). Aneurysm should be distinguished from ectasia, which represents a diffuse dilation of the aorta less than 50 percent of normal aorta diameter.
Aortic regurgitation
MedGen UID:
8153
Concept ID:
C0003504
Disease or Syndrome
An insufficiency of the aortic valve, leading to regurgitation (backward flow) of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle.
Congestive heart failure
MedGen UID:
9169
Concept ID:
C0018802
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormality of cardiac function that is responsible for the failure of the heart to pump blood at a rate that is commensurate with the needs of the tissues or a state in which abnormally elevated filling pressures are required for the heart to do so. Heart failure is frequently related to a defect in myocardial contraction.
Heart murmur
MedGen UID:
9171
Concept ID:
C0018808
Finding
An extra or unusual sound heard during a heartbeat caused vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Bicuspid aortic valve
MedGen UID:
57436
Concept ID:
C0149630
Congenital Abnormality
Aortic valve disease-2 (AOVD2) is characterized by bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and dilation of the ascending aorta. Calcification of the valve and the aorta has been observed, and some patients exhibit coarctation of the aorta (Tan et al., 2012; Luyckx et al., 2019; Park et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of aortic valve disease, see AOVD1 (109730).
Abnormality of the cardiovascular system
MedGen UID:
116727
Concept ID:
C0243050
Congenital Abnormality
Any abnormality of the cardiovascular system.
Dilatation of the cerebral artery
MedGen UID:
1386760
Concept ID:
C4476540
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of a localized dilatation or ballooning of a cerebral artery.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Obesity
MedGen UID:
18127
Concept ID:
C0028754
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of substantial excess body fat.
Overweight
MedGen UID:
105424
Concept ID:
C0497406
Finding
Increased body weight with a body mass index of 25-29.9 kg per square meter.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Decreased body weight
MedGen UID:
1806755
Concept ID:
C5574742
Finding
Abnormally low body weight.
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces.
Jaundice
MedGen UID:
43987
Concept ID:
C0022346
Sign or Symptom
Yellow pigmentation of the skin due to bilirubin, which in turn is the result of increased bilirubin concentration in the bloodstream.
Vomiting
MedGen UID:
12124
Concept ID:
C0042963
Sign or Symptom
Forceful ejection of the contents of the stomach through the mouth by means of a series of involuntary spasmic contractions.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Poor suck
MedGen UID:
324693
Concept ID:
C1837142
Finding
An inadequate sucking reflex, resulting in the difficult of newborns to be breast-fed.
Hepatic steatosis
MedGen UID:
398225
Concept ID:
C2711227
Disease or Syndrome
Steatosis is a term used to denote lipid accumulation within hepatocytes.
Abnormal abdomen morphology
MedGen UID:
866551
Concept ID:
C4020869
Anatomical Abnormality
A structural abnormality of the abdomen ('belly'), that is, the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax.
Bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
96788
Concept ID:
C0452138
Disease or Syndrome
A bilateral form of sensorineural hearing impairment.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Cupped ear
MedGen UID:
335186
Concept ID:
C1845447
Congenital Abnormality
Laterally protruding ear that lacks antihelical folding (including absence of inferior and superior crura).
Protruding ear
MedGen UID:
343309
Concept ID:
C1855285
Finding
Angle formed by the plane of the ear and the mastoid bone greater than the 97th centile for age (objective); or, outer edge of the helix more than 2 cm from the mastoid at the point of maximum distance (objective).
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Anxiety
MedGen UID:
1613
Concept ID:
C0003467
Finding
Intense feelings of nervousness, tension, or panic often arise in response to interpersonal stresses. There is worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities. Individuals may feel fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty, and they may also have fears of falling apart or losing control.
Autism
MedGen UID:
13966
Concept ID:
C0004352
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Autism is considered to be a complex multifactorial disorder involving many genes. Accordingly, several loci have been identified, some or all of which may contribute to the phenotype. Included in this entry is AUTS1, which has been mapped to chromosome 7q22. Other susceptibility loci include AUTS3 (608049), which maps to chromosome 13q14; AUTS4 (608636), which maps to chromosome 15q11; AUTS6 (609378), which maps to chromosome 17q11; AUTS7 (610676), which maps to chromosome 17q21; AUTS8 (607373), which maps to chromosome 3q25-q27; AUTS9 (611015), which maps to chromosome 7q31; AUTS10 (611016), which maps to chromosome 7q36; AUTS11 (610836), which maps to chromosome 1q41; AUTS12 (610838), which maps to chromosome 21p13-q11; AUTS13 (610908), which maps to chromosome 12q14; AUTS14A (611913), which has been found in patients with a deletion of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS14B (614671), which has been found in patients with a duplication of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS15 (612100), associated with mutation in the CNTNAP2 gene (604569) on chromosome 7q35-q36; AUTS16 (613410), associated with mutation in the SLC9A9 gene (608396) on chromosome 3q24; AUTS17 (613436), associated with mutation in the SHANK2 gene (603290) on chromosome 11q13; AUTS18 (615032), associated with mutation in the CHD8 gene (610528) on chromosome 14q11; AUTS19 (615091), associated with mutation in the EIF4E gene (133440) on chromosome 4q23; and AUTS20 (618830), associated with mutation in the NLGN1 gene (600568) on chromosome 3q26. (NOTE: the symbol 'AUTS2' has been used to refer to a gene on chromosome 7q11 (KIAA0442; 607270) and therefore is not used as a part of this autism locus series.) There are several X-linked forms of autism susceptibility: AUTSX1 (300425), associated with mutations in the NLGN3 gene (300336); AUTSX2 (300495), associated with mutations in NLGN4 (300427); AUTSX3 (300496), associated with mutations in MECP2 (300005); AUTSX4 (300830), associated with variation in the region on chromosome Xp22.11 containing the PTCHD1 gene (300828); AUTSX5 (300847), associated with mutations in the RPL10 gene (312173); and AUTSX6 (300872), associated with mutation in the TMLHE gene (300777). A locus on chromosome 2q (606053) associated with a phenotype including intellectual disability and speech deficits was formerly designated AUTS5. Folstein and Rosen-Sheidley (2001) reviewed the genetics of autism.
Bruxism
MedGen UID:
676
Concept ID:
C0006325
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Bruxism is characterized by the grinding of the teeth including the clenching of the jaw and typically occur during sleep, but also can occur while the affected individual is awake.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Cerebral palsy
MedGen UID:
854
Concept ID:
C0007789
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral palsy describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to nonprogressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behaviour, by epilepsy, and by secondary musculoskeletal problems.
Clonus
MedGen UID:
40341
Concept ID:
C0009024
Sign or Symptom
A series of rhythmic and involuntary muscle contractions (at a frequency of about 5 to 7 Hz) that occur in response to an abruptly applied and sustained stretch.
Febrile seizure (within the age range of 3 months to 6 years)
MedGen UID:
3232
Concept ID:
C0009952
Disease or Syndrome
A febrile seizure is any type of seizure (most often a generalized tonic-clonic seizure) occurring with fever (at least 38 degrees Celsius) but in the absence of central nervous system infection, severe metabolic disturbance or other alternative precipitant in children between the ages of 3 months and 6 years.
Depression
MedGen UID:
4229
Concept ID:
C0011581
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Frequently experiencing feelings of being down, miserable, and/or hopeless; struggling to recover from these moods; having a pessimistic outlook on the future; feeling a pervasive sense of shame; having a low self-worth; experiencing thoughts of suicide and engaging in suicidal behavior.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Echolalia
MedGen UID:
8532
Concept ID:
C0013528
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
The repetition of words or phrases that are odd or used in a non-social manner. These can be words or phrases that the person has heard or invented.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Impulsivity
MedGen UID:
43850
Concept ID:
C0021125
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Acting on the spur of the moment in response to immediate stimuli; acting on a momentary basis without a plan or consideration of outcomes; having difficulty establishing or following plans; experiencing a sense of urgency and engaging in self-harming behavior when under emotional distress.
Leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
6070
Concept ID:
C0023520
Disease or Syndrome
Leukodystrophy refers to deterioration of white matter of the brain resulting from degeneration of myelin sheaths in the CNS. Their basic defect is directly related to the synthesis and maintenance of myelin membranes. Symmetric white matter involvement at MRI is a typical finding in patients with leukodystrophies.
Spastic diplegia
MedGen UID:
44181
Concept ID:
C0023882
Disease or Syndrome
Spasticity (neuromuscular hypertonia) primarily in the muscles of the legs, hips, and pelvis.
Movement disorder
MedGen UID:
10113
Concept ID:
C0026650
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of movement with a neurological basis characterized by changes in coordination and speed of voluntary movements.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Neurodegeneration
MedGen UID:
17999
Concept ID:
C0027746
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
Progressive loss of neural cells and tissue.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Abnormality of speech or vocalization
MedGen UID:
11531
Concept ID:
C0037822
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormalities in the sound of a person's speech or vocalization are not necessarily associated with a known physical cause or due to stuttering or stammering.
Motor stereotypies
MedGen UID:
21318
Concept ID:
C0038271
Individual Behavior
Use of the same abnormal action in response to certain triggers or at random. They may be used as a way to regulate one's internal state but must otherwise have no apparent functional purpose.
Torticollis
MedGen UID:
11859
Concept ID:
C0040485
Sign or Symptom
Torticollis is a twisted neck as a result of shortening of sternocleidomastoid muscle. This short and fibrotic muscle pulls the head laterally and rotates the chin and face to the opposite end. Facial asymmetry may be a manifestation (summary by Engin et al., 1997).
Agitation
MedGen UID:
88447
Concept ID:
C0085631
Sign or Symptom
A state of extreme restlessness and excessive motor activity is associated with mental distress or a feeling of inner tension.
Emotional lability
MedGen UID:
39319
Concept ID:
C0085633
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Unstable emotional experiences and frequent mood changes; emotions that are easily aroused, intense, and/or disproportionate to events and circumstances.
Falls
MedGen UID:
39084
Concept ID:
C0085639
Finding
A sudden movement downward, usually resulting in injury.
Impaired social interactions
MedGen UID:
57707
Concept ID:
C0150080
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Difficulty interacting with others through emotional, physical, or verbal communication.
EEG abnormality
MedGen UID:
56235
Concept ID:
C0151611
Finding
Abnormality observed by electroencephalogram (EEG), which is used to record of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp.
Polyneuropathy
MedGen UID:
57502
Concept ID:
C0152025
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized disorder of peripheral nerves.
Neurofibromatosis
MedGen UID:
58149
Concept ID:
C0162678
Neoplastic Process
A benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor that generally appears as a soft, skin-colored papule or small subcutaneous nodule. Individuals with neurofibromatosis can have numerous neurofibromas.
Atypical behavior
MedGen UID:
535345
Concept ID:
C0233514
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Atypical behavior is an abnormality in a person's actions, which can be controlled or modulated by the will of the individual. While abnormal behaviors can be difficult to control, they are distinct from other abnormal actions that cannot be affected by the individual's will.
Clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
66708
Concept ID:
C0234535
Disease or Syndrome
A clonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sustained rhythmic jerking, that is regularly repetitive.
Diminished ability to concentrate
MedGen UID:
65900
Concept ID:
C0235198
Finding
Being unable to focus one's attention or mental effort on a particular object or activity.
Short attention span
MedGen UID:
82652
Concept ID:
C0262630
Finding
Reduced attention span characterized by distractibility and impulsivity.
Cognitive impairment
MedGen UID:
90932
Concept ID:
C0338656
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Abnormal cognition is characterized by deficits in thinking, reasoning, or remembering.
Nocturnal seizures
MedGen UID:
581539
Concept ID:
C0393719
Disease or Syndrome
Seizures that occur while the affected individual is sleeping.
Suicidal ideation
MedGen UID:
140856
Concept ID:
C0424000
Finding
Frequent thoughts about or preoccupation with killing oneself.
Hyperactivity
MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding
Hyperactivity is a condition characterized by constant and unusually high levels of activity, even in situations where it is deemed inappropriate.
Violent behavior
MedGen UID:
98408
Concept ID:
C0424323
Finding
Conduct and/or behavior, both verbal and non-verbal, including but not limited to verbal and/or physical aggression, attacks, threats, harassment, intimidation, and other disruptive behaviors in any form or through any medium, that cause or have the potential to cause a reasonable person to fear physical harm from any individual(s) or group(s) towards any person(s) or property. This is commonly defined as a violent act characterized by the use of physical force, anger, or sudden intense activity.
Spastic tetraplegia
MedGen UID:
98433
Concept ID:
C0426970
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paralysis affecting all four limbs.
Tip-toe gait
MedGen UID:
98104
Concept ID:
C0427144
Finding
An abnormal gait pattern characterized by the failure of the heel to contact the floor at the onset of stance during gait.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Dyslexia
MedGen UID:
96906
Concept ID:
C0476254
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A learning disorder characterized primarily by difficulties in learning to read and spell. Dyslectic children also exhibit a tendency to read words from right to left and to confuse letters such as b and d whose orientation is important for their identification. Children with dyslexia appear to be impaired in phonemic skills (the ability to associate visual symbols with the sounds they represent).
Abnormality of the nervous system
MedGen UID:
105425
Concept ID:
C0497552
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the nervous system.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Compulsive behaviors
MedGen UID:
109373
Concept ID:
C0600104
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Behavior that consists of repetitive acts, characterized by the feeling that one "has to" perform them, while being aware that these acts are not in line with one's overall goal.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Focal-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
199670
Concept ID:
C0751495
Disease or Syndrome
A focal-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating within networks limited to one hemisphere. They may be discretely localized or more widely distributed, and may originate in subcortical structures.
Broad-based gait
MedGen UID:
167799
Concept ID:
C0856863
Finding
An abnormal gait pattern in which persons stand and walk with their feet spaced widely apart. This is often a component of cerebellar ataxia.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Peripheral demyelination
MedGen UID:
451074
Concept ID:
C0878575
Pathologic Function
A loss of myelin from the internode regions along myelinated nerve fibers of the peripheral nervous system.
Persistent head lag
MedGen UID:
256151
Concept ID:
C1141883
Finding
The Premie-Neuro and the Dubowitz Neurological Examination score head lag in the same manner. Scoring for both is as follows
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Delayed myelination
MedGen UID:
224820
Concept ID:
C1277241
Finding
Delayed myelination.
Reduced eye contact
MedGen UID:
303190
Concept ID:
C1445953
Finding
A reduced frequency or duration of eye contact.
Head titubation
MedGen UID:
299071
Concept ID:
C1608410
Sign or Symptom
A head tremor of moderate speed (3 to 4 Hz) in the anterior-posterior direction.
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Progressive spastic quadriplegia
MedGen UID:
347944
Concept ID:
C1859736
Finding
Repetitive compulsive behavior
MedGen UID:
409891
Concept ID:
C1969697
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Tics
MedGen UID:
853666
Concept ID:
C2169806
Sign or Symptom
Repeated, individually recognizable, intermittent movements or movement fragments that are almost always briefly suppressible and are usually associated with awareness of an urge to perform the movement.
Brisk reflexes
MedGen UID:
382164
Concept ID:
C2673700
Finding
Tendon reflexes that are noticeably more active than usual (conventionally denoted 3+ on clinical examination). Brisk reflexes may or may not indicate a neurological lesion. They are distinguished from hyperreflexia by the fact that hyerreflexia is characterized by hyperactive repeating (clonic) reflexes, which are considered to be always abnormal.
Irritability
MedGen UID:
397841
Concept ID:
C2700617
Mental Process
A proneness to anger, i.e., a tendency to become easily bothered or annoyed.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Infantile spasms
MedGen UID:
854616
Concept ID:
C3887898
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile spasms represent a subset of "epileptic spasms". Infantile Spasms are epileptic spasms starting in the first year of life (infancy).
Multifocal epileptiform discharges
MedGen UID:
866864
Concept ID:
C4021219
Finding
An abnormality in cerebral electrical activity recorded along the scalp by electroencephalography (EEG) and being identified at multiple locations (foci).
Restrictive behavior
MedGen UID:
892681
Concept ID:
C4021799
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Behavior characterized by an abnormal limitation to a few interests and activities.
Isometric tremor
MedGen UID:
868202
Concept ID:
C4022594
Finding
An isometric tremor occurs with muscle contraction against a rigid stationary object (e.g., when making a fist).
Decreased CSF 5-methyltetrahydrofolate concentration
MedGen UID:
893131
Concept ID:
C4022901
Finding
A reduced concentration of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate(2-) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is the active folate metabolite.
Delayed fine motor development
MedGen UID:
869257
Concept ID:
C4023681
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the fingers and hands.
Intention tremor
MedGen UID:
1642960
Concept ID:
C4551520
Sign or Symptom
A type of kinetic tremor that occurs during target directed movement is called intention tremor. That is, an oscillatory cerebellar ataxia that tends to be absent when the limbs are inactive and during the first part of voluntary movement but worsening as the movement continues and greater precision is required (e.g., in touching a target such as the patient's nose or a physician's finger).
Bursitis
MedGen UID:
691
Concept ID:
C0006444
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of a synovial bursa.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Hypertonia
MedGen UID:
10132
Concept ID:
C0026826
Finding
A condition in which there is increased muscle tone so that arms or legs, for example, are stiff and difficult to move.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Large fontanelles
MedGen UID:
105329
Concept ID:
C0456132
Finding
In newborns, the two frontal bones, two parietal bones, and one occipital bone are joined by fibrous sutures, which form a small posterior fontanelle, and a larger, diamond-shaped anterior fontanelle. These regions allow for the skull to pass the birth canal and for later growth. The fontanelles gradually ossify, whereby the posterior fontanelle usually closes by eight weeks and the anterior fontanelle by the 9th to 16th month of age. Large fontanelles are diagnosed if the fontanelles are larger than age-dependent norms.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Plagiocephaly
MedGen UID:
1825944
Concept ID:
C2081594
Finding
Asymmetric head shape, which is usually a combination of unilateral occipital flattening with ipsilateral frontal prominence, leading to rhomboid cranial shape.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Abnormality of the skeletal system
MedGen UID:
867418
Concept ID:
C4021790
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the skeletal system.
Abnormal curvature of the vertebral column
MedGen UID:
869321
Concept ID:
C4023747
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of an abnormal curvature of the vertebral column.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Laryngeal cleft
MedGen UID:
327075
Concept ID:
C1840311
Congenital Abnormality
Presence of a gap in the posterior laryngotracheal wall with a continuity between the larynx and the esophagus.
Allergy
MedGen UID:
9370
Concept ID:
C0020517
Pathologic Function
An allergy is an immune response or reaction to substances that are usually not harmful.
Osteomyelitis
MedGen UID:
10497
Concept ID:
C0029443
Disease or Syndrome
Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory process accompanied by bone destruction and caused by an infecting microorganism.
Otitis media
MedGen UID:
45253
Concept ID:
C0029882
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation or infection of the middle ear.
Recurrent infections
MedGen UID:
65998
Concept ID:
C0239998
Finding
Increased susceptibility to infections.
Recurrent ear infections
MedGen UID:
473277
Concept ID:
C0743360
Finding
Increased susceptibility to ear infections, as manifested by recurrent episodes of ear infections.
Food allergy
MedGen UID:
1635115
Concept ID:
C4554344
Disease or Syndrome
Primary food allergies primarily occur as a result (most likely) of gastrointestinal sensitization to predominantly stable food allergens (glycoproteins). A secondary food allergy develops after primary sensitization to airborne allergens (e. g., pollen allergens) with subsequent reactions (due to cross-reactivity) to structurally related often labile allergens in (plant) foods.
Fever
MedGen UID:
5169
Concept ID:
C0015967
Sign or Symptom
Body temperature elevated above the normal range.
Hyperbilirubinemia
MedGen UID:
86321
Concept ID:
C0311468
Finding
An increased amount of bilirubin in the blood.
Elevated hepatic transaminase
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
Recurrent fever
MedGen UID:
811468
Concept ID:
C3714772
Sign or Symptom
Periodic (episodic or recurrent) bouts of fever.
Hoarse voice
MedGen UID:
5602
Concept ID:
C0019825
Sign or Symptom
Hoarseness refers to a change in the pitch or quality of the voice, with the voice sounding weak, very breathy, scratchy, or husky.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Ankyloglossia
MedGen UID:
56288
Concept ID:
C0152415
Congenital Abnormality
Ankyloglossia, commonly known as 'tongue-tie,' is a congenital anomaly that occurs predominantly in males and is characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. The phenotype varies from absence of clinical significance to rare complete ankyloglossia where the ventral part of the tongue is fused to the floor of the mouth (Klockars, 2007). Some patients also exhibit absence of lower incisors (Acevedo et al., 2010).
Palpebral edema
MedGen UID:
57877
Concept ID:
C0162285
Pathologic Function
Edema in the region of the eyelids.
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Abnormal facial shape
MedGen UID:
98409
Concept ID:
C0424503
Finding
An abnormal morphology (form) of the face or its components.
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Short uvula
MedGen UID:
853263
Concept ID:
C1401781
Finding
Decreased length of the uvula.
Thick vermilion border
MedGen UID:
332232
Concept ID:
C1836543
Finding
Increased width of the skin of vermilion border region of upper lip.
High, narrow palate
MedGen UID:
324787
Concept ID:
C1837404
Finding
The presence of a high and narrow palate.
Narrow forehead
MedGen UID:
326956
Concept ID:
C1839758
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations below the mean (objective); or apparently narrow intertemporal region (subjective).
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Coarse facial features
MedGen UID:
335284
Concept ID:
C1845847
Finding
Absence of fine and sharp appearance of brows, nose, lips, mouth, and chin, usually because of rounded and heavy features or thickened skin with or without thickening of subcutaneous and bony tissues.
Oval face
MedGen UID:
336480
Concept ID:
C1849025
Finding
A face with a rounded and slightly elongated outline.
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Long palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
340300
Concept ID:
C1849340
Finding
Distance between medial and lateral canthi is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, apparently increased length of the palpebral fissures.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Broad philtrum
MedGen UID:
344210
Concept ID:
C1854111
Finding
Distance between the philtral ridges, measured just above the vermilion border, more than 2 standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased distance between the ridges of the philtrum.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Bitemporal hollowing
MedGen UID:
343363
Concept ID:
C1855488
Finding
Depression of profile in both temporal regions.
Broad eyebrow
MedGen UID:
344657
Concept ID:
C1856121
Finding
Regional increase in the width (height) of the eyebrow.
Depressed nasal tip
MedGen UID:
347214
Concept ID:
C1859717
Finding
Decreased distance from the nasal tip to the nasal base.
Prominent glabella
MedGen UID:
349761
Concept ID:
C1860247
Finding
Forward protrusion of the glabella.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Full cheeks
MedGen UID:
355661
Concept ID:
C1866231
Finding
Increased prominence or roundness of soft tissues between zygomata and mandible.
Abnormality of head or neck
MedGen UID:
867442
Concept ID:
C4021817
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of head and neck.
Nevus
MedGen UID:
45074
Concept ID:
C0027960
Neoplastic Process
A nevus is a type of hamartoma that is a circumscribed stable malformation of the skin.
Melanocytic nevus
MedGen UID:
14364
Concept ID:
C0027962
Neoplastic Process
A oval and round, colored (usually medium-to dark brown, reddish brown, or flesh colored) lesion. Typically, a melanocytic nevus is less than 6 mm in diameter, but may be much smaller or larger.
Hypopigmentation of the skin
MedGen UID:
102477
Concept ID:
C0162835
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction of skin color related to a decrease in melanin production and deposition.
Synophrys
MedGen UID:
98132
Concept ID:
C0431447
Congenital Abnormality
Meeting of the medial eyebrows in the midline.
Abnormality of skin pigmentation
MedGen UID:
224697
Concept ID:
C1260926
Finding
An abnormality of the pigmentation of the skin.
Abnormality of the integument
MedGen UID:
871273
Concept ID:
C4025761
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the integument, which consists of the skin and the superficial fascia.
Nuchal cord
MedGen UID:
98024
Concept ID:
C0405124
Finding
A complication of pregnancy and delivery in which the umbilical cord wraps around the fetal neck once or multiple times.
Abnormal placenta morphology
MedGen UID:
727204
Concept ID:
C1306893
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the placenta, the organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to enable nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange.
Delayed puberty
MedGen UID:
46203
Concept ID:
C0034012
Pathologic Function
Passing the age when puberty normally occurs with no physical or hormonal signs of the onset of puberty.
Gynecomastia
MedGen UID:
6694
Concept ID:
C0018418
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal development of large mammary glands in males resulting in breast enlargement.
Breast mass
MedGen UID:
6143
Concept ID:
C0024103
Finding
A breast lump is any discrete mass in a breast noticed by the patient, significant other, or physician.
Congenital ocular coloboma
MedGen UID:
1046
Concept ID:
C0009363
Congenital Abnormality
Coloboma is an ocular birth defect resulting from abnormal development of the eye during embryogenesis. It is defined as a congenital defect in any ocular tissue, typically presenting as absent tissue or a gap, at a site consistent with aberrant closure of the optic fissure. Failure of fusion can lead to coloboma of one or multiple regions of the inferior portion of the eye affecting any part of the globe traversed by the fissure, from the iris to the optic nerve, including the ciliary body, retina, and choroid. Coloboma is also frequently associated with small (microphthalmic) or absent (anophthalmic) eyes as part of an interrelated spectrum of developmental eye anomalies, and can affect either one or both eyes (summary by Kelberman et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ocular Coloboma A recessive form of ocular coloboma (216820) is caused by mutation in the SALL2 gene (602219) on chromosome 14q11.
Proptosis
MedGen UID:
41917
Concept ID:
C0015300
Disease or Syndrome
An eye that is protruding anterior to the plane of the face to a greater extent than is typical.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Iris coloboma
MedGen UID:
116097
Concept ID:
C0240063
Anatomical Abnormality
A coloboma of the iris.
Chorioretinal coloboma
MedGen UID:
66820
Concept ID:
C0240896
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of a region of the retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid.
Juvenile cataract
MedGen UID:
137062
Concept ID:
C0302254
Anatomical Abnormality
A type of cataract that is not apparent at birth but that arises in childhood or adolescence.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.
Visual loss
MedGen UID:
784038
Concept ID:
C3665386
Finding
Loss of visual acuity (implying that vision was better at a certain time point in life). Otherwise the term reduced visual acuity should be used (or a subclass of that).
Abnormality of the eye
MedGen UID:
1370071
Concept ID:
C4316870
Anatomical Abnormality
Any abnormality of the eye, including location, spacing, and intraocular abnormalities.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Miroševič Š, Khandelwal S, Sušjan P, Žakelj N, Gosar D, Forstnerič V, Lainšček D, Jerala R, Osredkar D
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 19;23(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms232012564. PMID: 36293418Free PMC Article
Mannucci I, Dang NDP, Huber H, Murry JB, Abramson J, Althoff T, Banka S, Baynam G, Bearden D, Beleza-Meireles A, Benke PJ, Berland S, Bierhals T, Bilan F, Bindoff LA, Braathen GJ, Busk ØL, Chenbhanich J, Denecke J, Escobar LF, Estes C, Fleischer J, Groepper D, Haaxma CA, Hempel M, Holler-Managan Y, Houge G, Jackson A, Kellogg L, Keren B, Kiraly-Borri C, Kraus C, Kubisch C, Le Guyader G, Ljungblad UW, Brenman LM, Martinez-Agosto JA, Might M, Miller DT, Minks KQ, Moghaddam B, Nava C, Nelson SF, Parant JM, Prescott T, Rajabi F, Randrianaivo H, Reiter SF, Schuurs-Hoeijmakers J, Shieh PB, Slavotinek A, Smithson S, Stegmann APA, Tomczak K, Tveten K, Wang J, Whitlock JH, Zweier C, McWalter K, Juusola J, Quintero-Rivera F, Fischer U, Yeo NC, Kreienkamp HJ, Lessel D
Genome Med 2021 May 21;13(1):90. doi: 10.1186/s13073-021-00900-3. PMID: 34020708Free PMC Article
Ousley O, Rockers K, Dell ML, Coleman K, Cubells JF
Curr Psychiatry Rep 2007 Apr;9(2):148-58. doi: 10.1007/s11920-007-0085-8. PMID: 17389127

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Miroševič Š, Khandelwal S, Sušjan P, Žakelj N, Gosar D, Forstnerič V, Lainšček D, Jerala R, Osredkar D
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 19;23(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms232012564. PMID: 36293418Free PMC Article
Verbesselt J, Zink I, Breckpot J, Swillen A
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Jan;188(1):46-57. Epub 2021 Sep 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62487. PMID: 34491614Free PMC Article
Mannucci I, Dang NDP, Huber H, Murry JB, Abramson J, Althoff T, Banka S, Baynam G, Bearden D, Beleza-Meireles A, Benke PJ, Berland S, Bierhals T, Bilan F, Bindoff LA, Braathen GJ, Busk ØL, Chenbhanich J, Denecke J, Escobar LF, Estes C, Fleischer J, Groepper D, Haaxma CA, Hempel M, Holler-Managan Y, Houge G, Jackson A, Kellogg L, Keren B, Kiraly-Borri C, Kraus C, Kubisch C, Le Guyader G, Ljungblad UW, Brenman LM, Martinez-Agosto JA, Might M, Miller DT, Minks KQ, Moghaddam B, Nava C, Nelson SF, Parant JM, Prescott T, Rajabi F, Randrianaivo H, Reiter SF, Schuurs-Hoeijmakers J, Shieh PB, Slavotinek A, Smithson S, Stegmann APA, Tomczak K, Tveten K, Wang J, Whitlock JH, Zweier C, McWalter K, Juusola J, Quintero-Rivera F, Fischer U, Yeo NC, Kreienkamp HJ, Lessel D
Genome Med 2021 May 21;13(1):90. doi: 10.1186/s13073-021-00900-3. PMID: 34020708Free PMC Article
Xu N, Lv H, Yang T, Du X, Sun Y, Xiao B, Fan Y, Luo X, Zhan Y, Wang L, Li F, Yu Y
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Nov 30;15(1):335. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01592-5. PMID: 33256793Free PMC Article
Machol K, Rousseau J, Ehresmann S, Garcia T, Nguyen TTM, Spillmann RC, Sullivan JA, Shashi V, Jiang YH, Stong N, Fiala E, Willing M, Pfundt R, Kleefstra T, Cho MT, McLaughlin H, Rosello Piera M, Orellana C, Martínez F, Caro-Llopis A, Monfort S, Roscioli T, Nixon CY, Buckley MF, Turner A, Jones WD, van Hasselt PM, Hofstede FC, van Gassen KLI, Brooks AS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Lachlan K, Sebastian J, Madan-Khetarpal S, Sonal D, Sakkubai N, Thevenon J, Faivre L, Maurel A, Petrovski S, Krantz ID, Tarpinian JM, Rosenfeld JA, Lee BH; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Campeau PM
Am J Hum Genet 2019 Jan 3;104(1):164-178. Epub 2018 Dec 20 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.11.007. PMID: 30580808Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Lohiya N, Chalipat S, Lohiya N, Malwade S
J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2022;15(3):529-532. doi: 10.3233/PRM-210050. PMID: 35754295
Verbesselt J, Zink I, Breckpot J, Swillen A
Am J Med Genet A 2022 Jan;188(1):46-57. Epub 2021 Sep 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62487. PMID: 34491614Free PMC Article
Mannucci I, Dang NDP, Huber H, Murry JB, Abramson J, Althoff T, Banka S, Baynam G, Bearden D, Beleza-Meireles A, Benke PJ, Berland S, Bierhals T, Bilan F, Bindoff LA, Braathen GJ, Busk ØL, Chenbhanich J, Denecke J, Escobar LF, Estes C, Fleischer J, Groepper D, Haaxma CA, Hempel M, Holler-Managan Y, Houge G, Jackson A, Kellogg L, Keren B, Kiraly-Borri C, Kraus C, Kubisch C, Le Guyader G, Ljungblad UW, Brenman LM, Martinez-Agosto JA, Might M, Miller DT, Minks KQ, Moghaddam B, Nava C, Nelson SF, Parant JM, Prescott T, Rajabi F, Randrianaivo H, Reiter SF, Schuurs-Hoeijmakers J, Shieh PB, Slavotinek A, Smithson S, Stegmann APA, Tomczak K, Tveten K, Wang J, Whitlock JH, Zweier C, McWalter K, Juusola J, Quintero-Rivera F, Fischer U, Yeo NC, Kreienkamp HJ, Lessel D
Genome Med 2021 May 21;13(1):90. doi: 10.1186/s13073-021-00900-3. PMID: 34020708Free PMC Article
Jacobs EZ, Brown K, Byler MC, D'haenens E, Dheedene A, Henderson LB, Humberson JB, van Jaarsveld RH, Kanani F, Lebel RR, Millan F, Oegema R, Oostra A, Parker MJ, Rhodes L, Saenz M, Seaver LH, Si Y, Vanlander A, Vergult S, Callewaert B
Clin Genet 2021 Feb;99(2):259-268. Epub 2020 Nov 23 doi: 10.1111/cge.13874. PMID: 33131045
Ousley O, Rockers K, Dell ML, Coleman K, Cubells JF
Curr Psychiatry Rep 2007 Apr;9(2):148-58. doi: 10.1007/s11920-007-0085-8. PMID: 17389127

Therapy

Mitchell WG, Davalos-Gonzalez Y, Brumm VL, Aller SK, Burger E, Turkel SB, Borchert MS, Hollar S, Padilla S
Pediatrics 2002 Jan;109(1):86-98. PMID: 11773546

Prognosis

Mannucci I, Dang NDP, Huber H, Murry JB, Abramson J, Althoff T, Banka S, Baynam G, Bearden D, Beleza-Meireles A, Benke PJ, Berland S, Bierhals T, Bilan F, Bindoff LA, Braathen GJ, Busk ØL, Chenbhanich J, Denecke J, Escobar LF, Estes C, Fleischer J, Groepper D, Haaxma CA, Hempel M, Holler-Managan Y, Houge G, Jackson A, Kellogg L, Keren B, Kiraly-Borri C, Kraus C, Kubisch C, Le Guyader G, Ljungblad UW, Brenman LM, Martinez-Agosto JA, Might M, Miller DT, Minks KQ, Moghaddam B, Nava C, Nelson SF, Parant JM, Prescott T, Rajabi F, Randrianaivo H, Reiter SF, Schuurs-Hoeijmakers J, Shieh PB, Slavotinek A, Smithson S, Stegmann APA, Tomczak K, Tveten K, Wang J, Whitlock JH, Zweier C, McWalter K, Juusola J, Quintero-Rivera F, Fischer U, Yeo NC, Kreienkamp HJ, Lessel D
Genome Med 2021 May 21;13(1):90. doi: 10.1186/s13073-021-00900-3. PMID: 34020708Free PMC Article
Yıldız Bölükbaşı E, Afzal M, Mumtaz S, Ahmad N, Malik S, Tolun A
Am J Med Genet A 2017 Sep;173(9):2494-2499. Epub 2017 Jun 21 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38332. PMID: 28636205
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Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004 May;130(5):547-54. doi: 10.1001/archotol.130.5.547. PMID: 15148175
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Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2002 Apr 25;63(2):129-36. doi: 10.1016/s0165-5876(02)00004-6. PMID: 11955604
Mitchell WG, Davalos-Gonzalez Y, Brumm VL, Aller SK, Burger E, Turkel SB, Borchert MS, Hollar S, Padilla S
Pediatrics 2002 Jan;109(1):86-98. PMID: 11773546

Clinical prediction guides

Miroševič Š, Khandelwal S, Sušjan P, Žakelj N, Gosar D, Forstnerič V, Lainšček D, Jerala R, Osredkar D
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 19;23(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms232012564. PMID: 36293418Free PMC Article
Lohiya N, Chalipat S, Lohiya N, Malwade S
J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2022;15(3):529-532. doi: 10.3233/PRM-210050. PMID: 35754295
Jacobs EZ, Brown K, Byler MC, D'haenens E, Dheedene A, Henderson LB, Humberson JB, van Jaarsveld RH, Kanani F, Lebel RR, Millan F, Oegema R, Oostra A, Parker MJ, Rhodes L, Saenz M, Seaver LH, Si Y, Vanlander A, Vergult S, Callewaert B
Clin Genet 2021 Feb;99(2):259-268. Epub 2020 Nov 23 doi: 10.1111/cge.13874. PMID: 33131045
Yi Z, Zhang Y, Song Z, Pan H, Yang C, Li F, Xue J, Qu Z
Ital J Pediatr 2020 Jul 9;46(1):95. doi: 10.1186/s13052-020-00847-y. PMID: 32646507Free PMC Article
Yıldız Bölükbaşı E, Afzal M, Mumtaz S, Ahmad N, Malik S, Tolun A
Am J Med Genet A 2017 Sep;173(9):2494-2499. Epub 2017 Jun 21 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38332. PMID: 28636205

Recent systematic reviews

Miroševič Š, Khandelwal S, Sušjan P, Žakelj N, Gosar D, Forstnerič V, Lainšček D, Jerala R, Osredkar D
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 19;23(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms232012564. PMID: 36293418Free PMC Article
Jacobs EZ, Brown K, Byler MC, D'haenens E, Dheedene A, Henderson LB, Humberson JB, van Jaarsveld RH, Kanani F, Lebel RR, Millan F, Oegema R, Oostra A, Parker MJ, Rhodes L, Saenz M, Seaver LH, Si Y, Vanlander A, Vergult S, Callewaert B
Clin Genet 2021 Feb;99(2):259-268. Epub 2020 Nov 23 doi: 10.1111/cge.13874. PMID: 33131045

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