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Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures(NEDHSS)

MedGen UID:
1841290
Concept ID:
C5830654
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: NEDHSS
 
Gene (location): EIF4A2 (3q27.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0957541
OMIM®: 620455

Definition

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures (NEDHSS) is characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and fine and gross motor delay. Most affected individuals are severely affected and may be unable to walk, have feeding difficulties requiring tube-feeding, and develop early-onset seizures. Additional features may include cortical blindness and nonspecific structural brain abnormalities. Rare individuals present only with hypotonia and mild developmental delay (Paul et al., 2023). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Chordee
MedGen UID:
66363
Concept ID:
C0221182
Congenital Abnormality
Ventral, lateral, or ventrolateral bowing of the shaft and glans penis of more than 30 degrees.
Phimosis
MedGen UID:
87496
Concept ID:
C0345326
Congenital Abnormality
The male foreskin cannot be fully retracted from the head of the penis.
Finger clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
120550
Concept ID:
C0265610
Congenital Abnormality
Familial isolated clinodactyly of fingers is a rare, genetic, non-syndromic, congenital limb malformation disorder characterized by angulation of a digit in the radio-ulnar (coronal) plane, away from the axis of joint flexion-extension, in several members of a single family with no other associated manifestations. Deviation is usually bilateral and commonly involves the fifth finger. Affected digits present trapezoidal or delta-shaped phalanges on imaging.
Small hand
MedGen UID:
108279
Concept ID:
C0575802
Finding
Disproportionately small hand.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Atrial septal defect, ostium secundum type
MedGen UID:
91034
Concept ID:
C0344724
Congenital Abnormality
A kind of atrial septum defect arising from an enlarged foramen ovale, inadequate growth of the septum secundum, or excessive absorption of the septum primum.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Tube feeding
MedGen UID:
8641
Concept ID:
C0014327
Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure
Feeding problem necessitating food and nutrient delivery via a tube.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Poor suck
MedGen UID:
324693
Concept ID:
C1837142
Finding
An inadequate sucking reflex, resulting in the difficult of newborns to be breast-fed.
Microtia
MedGen UID:
57535
Concept ID:
C0152423
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the external ear.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Autism
MedGen UID:
13966
Concept ID:
C0004352
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Autism is considered to be a complex multifactorial disorder involving many genes. Accordingly, several loci have been identified, some or all of which may contribute to the phenotype. Included in this entry is AUTS1, which has been mapped to chromosome 7q22. Other susceptibility loci include AUTS3 (608049), which maps to chromosome 13q14; AUTS4 (608636), which maps to chromosome 15q11; AUTS6 (609378), which maps to chromosome 17q11; AUTS7 (610676), which maps to chromosome 17q21; AUTS8 (607373), which maps to chromosome 3q25-q27; AUTS9 (611015), which maps to chromosome 7q31; AUTS10 (611016), which maps to chromosome 7q36; AUTS11 (610836), which maps to chromosome 1q41; AUTS12 (610838), which maps to chromosome 21p13-q11; AUTS13 (610908), which maps to chromosome 12q14; AUTS14A (611913), which has been found in patients with a deletion of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS14B (614671), which has been found in patients with a duplication of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS15 (612100), associated with mutation in the CNTNAP2 gene (604569) on chromosome 7q35-q36; AUTS16 (613410), associated with mutation in the SLC9A9 gene (608396) on chromosome 3q24; AUTS17 (613436), associated with mutation in the SHANK2 gene (603290) on chromosome 11q13; AUTS18 (615032), associated with mutation in the CHD8 gene (610528) on chromosome 14q11; AUTS19 (615091), associated with mutation in the EIF4E gene (133440) on chromosome 4q23; and AUTS20 (618830), associated with mutation in the NLGN1 gene (600568) on chromosome 3q26. (NOTE: the symbol 'AUTS2' has been used to refer to a gene on chromosome 7q11 (KIAA0442; 607270) and therefore is not used as a part of this autism locus series.) There are several X-linked forms of autism susceptibility: AUTSX1 (300425), associated with mutations in the NLGN3 gene (300336); AUTSX2 (300495), associated with mutations in NLGN4 (300427); AUTSX3 (300496), associated with mutations in MECP2 (300005); AUTSX4 (300830), associated with variation in the region on chromosome Xp22.11 containing the PTCHD1 gene (300828); AUTSX5 (300847), associated with mutations in the RPL10 gene (312173); and AUTSX6 (300872), associated with mutation in the TMLHE gene (300777). A locus on chromosome 2q (606053) associated with a phenotype including intellectual disability and speech deficits was formerly designated AUTS5. Folstein and Rosen-Sheidley (2001) reviewed the genetics of autism.
Gliosis
MedGen UID:
4899
Concept ID:
C0017639
Pathologic Function
Gliosis is the focal proliferation of glial cells in the central nervous system.
Head-banging
MedGen UID:
42337
Concept ID:
C0018672
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Habitual striking of one's own head against a surface such as a mattress or wall of a crib.
Impulsivity
MedGen UID:
43850
Concept ID:
C0021125
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Acting on the spur of the moment in response to immediate stimuli; acting on a momentary basis without a plan or consideration of outcomes; having difficulty establishing or following plans; experiencing a sense of urgency and engaging in self-harming behavior when under emotional distress.
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Neurodegeneration
MedGen UID:
17999
Concept ID:
C0027746
Cell or Molecular Dysfunction
Progressive loss of neural cells and tissue.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Arachnoid cyst
MedGen UID:
86860
Concept ID:
C0078981
Disease or Syndrome
An extra-parenchymal and intra-arachnoidal collection of fluid with a composition similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid.
Focal emotional seizure with laughing
MedGen UID:
78734
Concept ID:
C0270820
Disease or Syndrome
Focal emotional seizure with laughing (gelastic) is characterized by bursts of laughter or giggling, usually without appropriate related emotion of happiness, and described as 'mirthless'.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Spastic tetraparesis
MedGen UID:
658719
Concept ID:
C0575059
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic weakness affecting all four limbs.
Atypical absence seizure
MedGen UID:
108888
Concept ID:
C0595948
Disease or Syndrome
An atypical absence seizure is a type of generalized non-motor (absence) seizure characterized by interruption of ongoing activities and reduced responsiveness. In comparison to a typical absence seizure, changes in tone may be more pronounced, onset and/or cessation may be less abrupt, and the duration of the ictus and post-ictal recovery may be longer. Although not always available, an EEG often demonstrates slow (<3 Hz), irregular, generalized spike-wave activity.
Focal-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
199670
Concept ID:
C0751495
Disease or Syndrome
A focal-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating within networks limited to one hemisphere. They may be discretely localized or more widely distributed, and may originate in subcortical structures.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Epileptic spasm
MedGen UID:
315948
Concept ID:
C1527366
Disease or Syndrome
A sudden flexion, extension, or mixed extension-flexion of predominantly proximal and truncal muscles that is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not as sustained as a tonic seizure. Limited forms may occur
Severe global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
332436
Concept ID:
C1837397
Finding
A severe delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Delayed gross motor development
MedGen UID:
332508
Concept ID:
C1837658
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the large muscles of the body for walking, running, sitting, and crawling.
Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
333548
Concept ID:
C1840379
Finding
Underdevelopment of the vermis of cerebellum.
Hypoplasia of the pons
MedGen UID:
341246
Concept ID:
C1848529
Finding
Underdevelopment of the pons.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Infantile spasms
MedGen UID:
854616
Concept ID:
C3887898
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile spasms represent a subset of "epileptic spasms". Infantile Spasms are epileptic spasms starting in the first year of life (infancy).
Mild global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
861405
Concept ID:
C4012968
Finding
A mild delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Short corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
867519
Concept ID:
C4021902
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed fine motor development
MedGen UID:
869257
Concept ID:
C4023681
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the fingers and hands.
Generalized non-motor (absence) seizure
MedGen UID:
1385688
Concept ID:
C4316903
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized non-motor (absence) seizure is a type of a type of dialeptic seizure that is of electrographically generalized onset. It is a generalized seizure characterized by an interruption of activities, a blank stare, and usually the person will be unresponsive when spoken to. Any ictal motor phenomena are minor in comparison to these non-motor features.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1785336
Concept ID:
C5441562
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally thin corpus callous, due to atrophy, hypoplasia or agenesis. This term is intended to be used in situations where it is not known if thinning of the corpus callosum (for instance, as visualized by magnetic resonance tomography) is due to abnormal development (e.g. a leukodystrophy) or atrophy following normal development (e.g. neurodegeneration).
Diminishment of social interactions
MedGen UID:
1052221
Concept ID:
CN375748
Finding
A reduction in the tendency of a person to seek or maintain social connections or interactions with others compared to previous norms for an individual.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypertonia
MedGen UID:
10132
Concept ID:
C0026826
Finding
A condition in which there is increased muscle tone so that arms or legs, for example, are stiff and difficult to move.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Sagittal craniosynostosis
MedGen UID:
140921
Concept ID:
C0432123
Congenital Abnormality
A kind of craniosynostosis affecting the sagittal suture.
Relative macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
338607
Concept ID:
C1849075
Congenital Abnormality
A relatively mild degree of macrocephaly in which the head circumference is not above two standard deviations from the mean, but appears dysproportionately large when other factors such as body stature are taken into account.
Enlarged cisterna magna
MedGen UID:
344031
Concept ID:
C1853377
Finding
Increase in size of the cisterna magna, one of three principal openings in the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid and pia mater, located between the cerebellum and the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata.
Plagiocephaly
MedGen UID:
1825944
Concept ID:
C2081594
Finding
Asymmetric head shape, which is usually a combination of unilateral occipital flattening with ipsilateral frontal prominence, leading to rhomboid cranial shape.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Hypoventilation
MedGen UID:
469022
Concept ID:
C3203358
Pathologic Function
A reduction in the amount of air transported into the pulmonary alveoli by breathing, leading to hypercapnia (increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide).
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Long palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
340300
Concept ID:
C1849340
Finding
Distance between medial and lateral canthi is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, apparently increased length of the palpebral fissures.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Hirsutism
MedGen UID:
42461
Concept ID:
C0019572
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased hair growth referring to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair).
Synophrys
MedGen UID:
98132
Concept ID:
C0431447
Congenital Abnormality
Meeting of the medial eyebrows in the midline.
Inversion of nipple
MedGen UID:
82844
Concept ID:
C0269269
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of nipples that instead of pointing outward are retracted inwards.
Exotropia
MedGen UID:
4613
Concept ID:
C0015310
Disease or Syndrome
A form of strabismus with one or both eyes deviated outward.
Optic nerve hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
137901
Concept ID:
C0338502
Disease or Syndrome
Underdevelopment of the optic nerve.
Blindness
MedGen UID:
99138
Concept ID:
C0456909
Disease or Syndrome
Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception defined as a profound reduction in visual perception. On the 6m visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 3/60. On the 20ft visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 20/400. On the decimal visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 0.05. Blindness is typically characterized by a visual field of no greater than 10 degrees in radius around central fixation.
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
777085
Concept ID:
C3665347
Finding
Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.
Cerebral visual impairment
MedGen UID:
890568
Concept ID:
C4048268
Pathologic Function
A form of loss of vision caused by damage to the visual cortex rather than a defect in the eye.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Charalambous M, Muñana K, Patterson EE, Platt SR, Volk HA
J Vet Intern Med 2024 Jan-Feb;38(1):19-40. Epub 2023 Nov 3 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16928. PMID: 37921621Free PMC Article
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Abboud H, Probasco JC, Irani S, Ances B, Benavides DR, Bradshaw M, Christo PP, Dale RC, Fernandez-Fournier M, Flanagan EP, Gadoth A, George P, Grebenciucova E, Jammoul A, Lee ST, Li Y, Matiello M, Morse AM, Rae-Grant A, Rojas G, Rossman I, Schmitt S, Venkatesan A, Vernino S, Pittock SJ, Titulaer MJ; Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance Clinicians Network
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Jul;92(7):757-768. Epub 2021 Mar 1 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2020-325300. PMID: 33649022Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ziobro J, Shellhaas RA
Semin Neurol 2020 Apr;40(2):246-256. Epub 2020 Mar 6 doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1702943. PMID: 32143234
Shellhaas RA
Handb Clin Neurol 2019;162:347-361. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00017-5. PMID: 31324320
Jafarpour S, Hirsch LJ, Gaínza-Lein M, Kellinghaus C, Detyniecki K
Seizure 2019 May;68:9-15. Epub 2018 May 21 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.05.013. PMID: 29871784
Gavvala JR, Schuele SU
JAMA 2016 Dec 27;316(24):2657-2668. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.18625. PMID: 28027373
Patterson JL, Carapetian SA, Hageman JR, Kelley KR
Pediatr Ann 2013 Dec;42(12):249-54. doi: 10.3928/00904481-20131122-09. PMID: 24295158

Diagnosis

Wirrell E
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2022 Apr 1;28(2):230-260. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001074. PMID: 35393959
Ziobro J, Shellhaas RA
Semin Neurol 2020 Apr;40(2):246-256. Epub 2020 Mar 6 doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1702943. PMID: 32143234
Shellhaas RA
Handb Clin Neurol 2019;162:347-361. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00017-5. PMID: 31324320
Johnson EL
Med Clin North Am 2019 Mar;103(2):309-324. Epub 2018 Dec 3 doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2018.10.002. PMID: 30704683
Patterson JL, Carapetian SA, Hageman JR, Kelley KR
Pediatr Ann 2013 Dec;42(12):249-54. doi: 10.3928/00904481-20131122-09. PMID: 24295158

Therapy

Peter-Derex L, Philippeau F, Garnier P, André-Obadia N, Boulogne S, Catenoix H, Convers P, Mazzola L, Gouttard M, Esteban M, Fontaine J, Mechtouff L, Ong E, Cho TH, Nighoghossian N, Perreton N, Termoz A, Haesebaert J, Schott AM, Rabilloud M, Pivot C, Dhelens C, Filip A, Berthezène Y, Rheims S, Boutitie F, Derex L
Lancet Neurol 2022 Sep;21(9):781-791. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00235-6. PMID: 35963261
Rosenthal ES
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2021 Oct 1;27(5):1321-1343. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001012. PMID: 34618762
Ziobro JM, Eschbach K, Shellhaas RA
Neurotherapeutics 2021 Jul;18(3):1564-1581. Epub 2021 Aug 12 doi: 10.1007/s13311-021-01085-8. PMID: 34386906Free PMC Article
von Wrede R, Helmstaedter C, Surges R
Clin Drug Investig 2021 Mar;41(3):211-220. Epub 2021 Feb 9 doi: 10.1007/s40261-021-01003-y. PMID: 33559102Free PMC Article
Kotulska K, Kwiatkowski DJ, Curatolo P, Weschke B, Riney K, Jansen F, Feucht M, Krsek P, Nabbout R, Jansen AC, Wojdan K, Sijko K, Głowacka-Walas J, Borkowska J, Sadowski K, Domańska-Pakieła D, Moavero R, Hertzberg C, Hulshof H, Scholl T, Benova B, Aronica E, de Ridder J, Lagae L, Jóźwiak S; EPISTOP Investigators
Ann Neurol 2021 Feb;89(2):304-314. Epub 2020 Nov 27 doi: 10.1002/ana.25956. PMID: 33180985Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Oppermann H, Marcos-Grañeda E, Weiss LA, Gurnett CA, Jelsig AM, Vineke SH, Isidor B, Mercier S, Magnussen K, Zacher P, Hashim M, Pagnamenta AT, Race S, Srivastava S, Frazier Z, Maiwald R, Pergande M, Milani D, Rinelli M, Levy J, Krey I, Fontana P, Lonardo F, Riley S, Kretzer J, Rankin J, Reis LM, Semina EV, Reuter MS, Scherer SW, Iascone M, Weis D, Fagerberg CR, Brasch-Andersen C, Hansen LK, Kuechler A, Noble N, Gardham A, Tenney J, Rathore G, Beck-Woedl S, Haack TB, Pavlidou DC, Atallah I, Vodopiutz J, Janecke AR, Hsieh TC, Lesmann H, Klinkhammer H, Krawitz PM, Lemke JR, Jamra RA, Nieto M, Tümer Z, Platzer K
Eur J Hum Genet 2023 Nov;31(11):1251-1260. Epub 2023 Aug 30 doi: 10.1038/s41431-023-01445-2. PMID: 37644171Free PMC Article
Cuinat S, Nizon M, Isidor B, Stegmann A, van Jaarsveld RH, van Gassen KL, van der Smagt JJ, Volker-Touw CML, Holwerda SJB, Terhal PA, Schuhmann S, Vasileiou G, Khalifa M, Nugud AA, Yasaei H, Ousager LB, Brasch-Andersen C, Deb W, Besnard T, Simon MEH, Amsterdam KH, Verbeek NE, Matalon D, Dykzeul N, White S, Spiteri E, Devriendt K, Boogaerts A, Willemsen M, Brunner HG, Sinnema M, De Vries BBA, Gerkes EH, Pfundt R, Izumi K, Krantz ID, Xu ZL, Murrell JR, Valenzuela I, Cusco I, Rovira-Moreno E, Yang Y, Bizaoui V, Patat O, Faivre L, Tran-Mau-Them F, Vitobello A, Denommé-Pichon AS, Philippe C, Bezieau S, Cogné B
Genet Med 2022 Aug;24(8):1774-1780. Epub 2022 May 14 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2022.04.011. PMID: 35567594
Salanova V, Sperling MR, Gross RE, Irwin CP, Vollhaber JA, Giftakis JE, Fisher RS; SANTÉ Study Group
Epilepsia 2021 Jun;62(6):1306-1317. Epub 2021 Apr 8 doi: 10.1111/epi.16895. PMID: 33830503
Tatum WO, Langston ME, Acton EK
Epileptic Disord 2016 Jun 1;18(2):148-54. doi: 10.1684/epd.2016.0823. PMID: 27238051
Patterson JL, Carapetian SA, Hageman JR, Kelley KR
Pediatr Ann 2013 Dec;42(12):249-54. doi: 10.3928/00904481-20131122-09. PMID: 24295158

Clinical prediction guides

Cuinat S, Nizon M, Isidor B, Stegmann A, van Jaarsveld RH, van Gassen KL, van der Smagt JJ, Volker-Touw CML, Holwerda SJB, Terhal PA, Schuhmann S, Vasileiou G, Khalifa M, Nugud AA, Yasaei H, Ousager LB, Brasch-Andersen C, Deb W, Besnard T, Simon MEH, Amsterdam KH, Verbeek NE, Matalon D, Dykzeul N, White S, Spiteri E, Devriendt K, Boogaerts A, Willemsen M, Brunner HG, Sinnema M, De Vries BBA, Gerkes EH, Pfundt R, Izumi K, Krantz ID, Xu ZL, Murrell JR, Valenzuela I, Cusco I, Rovira-Moreno E, Yang Y, Bizaoui V, Patat O, Faivre L, Tran-Mau-Them F, Vitobello A, Denommé-Pichon AS, Philippe C, Bezieau S, Cogné B
Genet Med 2022 Aug;24(8):1774-1780. Epub 2022 May 14 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2022.04.011. PMID: 35567594
Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article
Vissers LELM, Kalvakuri S, de Boer E, Geuer S, Oud M, van Outersterp I, Kwint M, Witmond M, Kersten S, Polla DL, Weijers D, Begtrup A, McWalter K, Ruiz A, Gabau E, Morton JEV, Griffith C, Weiss K, Gamble C, Bartley J, Vernon HJ, Brunet K, Ruivenkamp C, Kant SG, Kruszka P, Larson A, Afenjar A, Billette de Villemeur T, Nugent K; DDD Study, Raymond FL, Venselaar H, Demurger F, Soler-Alfonso C, Li D, Bhoj E, Hayes I, Hamilton NP, Ahmad A, Fisher R, van den Born M, Willems M, Sorlin A, Delanne J, Moutton S, Christophe P, Mau-Them FT, Vitobello A, Goel H, Massingham L, Phornphutkul C, Schwab J, Keren B, Charles P, Vreeburg M, De Simone L, Hoganson G, Iascone M, Milani D, Evenepoel L, Revencu N, Ward DI, Burns K, Krantz I, Raible SE, Murrell JR, Wood K, Cho MT, van Bokhoven H, Muenke M, Kleefstra T, Bodmer R, de Brouwer APM
Am J Hum Genet 2020 Jul 2;107(1):164-172. Epub 2020 Jun 17 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.05.017. PMID: 32553196Free PMC Article
Meisel C, Loddenkemper T
Neuropharmacology 2020 Aug 1;172:107898. Epub 2019 Dec 5 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.107898. PMID: 31839204
Acharya UR, Hagiwara Y, Adeli H
Epilepsy Behav 2018 Nov;88:251-261. Epub 2018 Oct 11 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.09.030. PMID: 30317059

Recent systematic reviews

Pressler RM, Abend NS, Auvin S, Boylan G, Brigo F, Cilio MR, De Vries LS, Elia M, Espeche A, Hahn CD, Inder T, Jette N, Kakooza-Mwesige A, Mader S, Mizrahi EM, Moshé SL, Nagarajan L, Noyman I, Nunes ML, Samia P, Shany E, Shellhaas RA, Subota A, Triki CC, Tsuchida T, Vinayan KP, Wilmshurst JM, Yozawitz EG, Hartmann H
Epilepsia 2023 Oct;64(10):2550-2570. Epub 2023 Sep 1 doi: 10.1111/epi.17745. PMID: 37655702
Sultana B, Panzini MA, Veilleux Carpentier A, Comtois J, Rioux B, Gore G, Bauer PR, Kwon CS, Jetté N, Josephson CB, Keezer MR
Neurology 2021 Apr 27;96(17):805-817. Epub 2021 Mar 15 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000011839. PMID: 33722992
Jafarpour S, Hirsch LJ, Gaínza-Lein M, Kellinghaus C, Detyniecki K
Seizure 2019 May;68:9-15. Epub 2018 May 21 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.05.013. PMID: 29871784
Mewasingh LD
BMJ Clin Evid 2014 Jan 31;2014 PMID: 24484859Free PMC Article
Beghi E, Carpio A, Forsgren L, Hesdorffer DC, Malmgren K, Sander JW, Tomson T, Hauser WA
Epilepsia 2010 Apr;51(4):671-5. Epub 2009 Sep 3 doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02285.x. PMID: 19732133

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