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Autosomal recessive keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome(KIDAR)

MedGen UID:
224809
Concept ID:
C1275089
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Desmons syndrome; Ichthyosiform erythroderma, corneal involvement, and hearing loss; Ichthyosiform erythroderma, corneal involvement, deafness; KID syndrome, autosomal recessive
SNOMED CT: Autosomal recessive keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome (403780007); Autosomal recessive KID (keratitis, ichthyosis, deafness) syndrome (403780007)
 
Gene (location): AP1B1 (22q12.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009440
OMIM®: 242150

Definition

Autosomal recessive keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome (KIDAR) is characterized by neonatal-onset ichthyotic erythroderma and profound sensorineural deafness, with failure to thrive and developmental delay in childhood. Severe corneal scarring with vision loss has been observed in adulthood. Low plasma copper and ceruloplasmin levels have been reported in some patients (Alsaif et al., 2019; Boyden et al., 2019). An autosomal dominant form of KID syndrome (KIDAD; 148210) is caused by mutation in the GJB2 gene (121011) on chromosome 13q12. Mutation in the AP1S1 gene (603531) causes a disorder with overlapping features (MEDNIK; 609313). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Partial hair loss is a common feature of KID syndrome, and often affects the eyebrows and eyelashes. Affected individuals may also have small, abnormally formed nails.

Hearing loss in this condition is usually profound, but occasionally is less severe.

Most people with KID syndrome have thick, hard skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (palmoplantar keratoderma). Affected individuals also have thick, reddened patches of skin (erythrokeratoderma) that are dry and scaly (ichthyosis). These dry patches can occur anywhere on the body, although they most commonly affect the neck, groin, and armpits. Breaks in the skin often occur and may lead to infections. In severe cases these infections can be life-threatening, especially in infancy. Approximately 12 percent of people with KID syndrome develop a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, which may also affect mucous membranes such as the lining of the mouth.

People with KID syndrome usually have keratitis, which is inflammation of the front surface of the eye (the cornea). The keratitis may cause pain, increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), abnormal blood vessel growth over the cornea (neovascularization), and scarring. Over time, affected individuals experience a loss of sharp vision (reduced visual acuity); in severe cases the keratitis can lead to blindness.

Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is characterized by eye problems, skin abnormalities, and hearing loss.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Palmoplantar keratoderma
MedGen UID:
1635750
Concept ID:
C4551675
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal thickening of the skin of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Cirrhosis of liver
MedGen UID:
7368
Concept ID:
C0023890
Disease or Syndrome
A chronic disorder of the liver in which liver tissue becomes scarred and is partially replaced by regenerative nodules and fibrotic tissue resulting in loss of liver function.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Peripheral neuropathy
MedGen UID:
18386
Concept ID:
C0031117
Disease or Syndrome
Peripheral neuropathy is a general term for any disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The main clinical features used to classify peripheral neuropathy are distribution, type (mainly demyelinating versus mainly axonal), duration, and course.
Photophobia
MedGen UID:
43220
Concept ID:
C0085636
Sign or Symptom
Excessive sensitivity to light with the sensation of discomfort or pain in the eyes due to exposure to bright light.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Conjunctivitis
MedGen UID:
1093
Concept ID:
C0009763
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
Erythroderma
MedGen UID:
3767
Concept ID:
C0011606
Disease or Syndrome
An inflammatory exfoliative dermatosis involving nearly all of the surface of the skin. Erythroderma develops suddenly. A patchy erythema may generalize and spread to affect most of the skin. Scaling may appear in 2-6 days and be accompanied by hot, red, dry skin, malaise, and fever.
Hypoalbuminemia
MedGen UID:
68694
Concept ID:
C0239981
Finding
Reduction in the concentration of albumin in the blood.
Decreased circulating ceruloplasmin concentration
MedGen UID:
472980
Concept ID:
C0240997
Finding
Decreased concentration of ceruloplasmin in the blood.
Decreased circulating copper concentration
MedGen UID:
488831
Concept ID:
C0268070
Disease or Syndrome
A reduced concentration of copper in the blood.
Elevated hepatic transaminase
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
Increased serum bile acid concentration
MedGen UID:
868605
Concept ID:
C4023004
Finding
An increase in the concentration of bile acid in the blood.
Elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase level
MedGen UID:
1370086
Concept ID:
C4476869
Finding
Increased level of the enzyme gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). GGT is mainly present in kidney, liver, and pancreatic cells, but small amounts are present in other tissues.
Alopecia
MedGen UID:
7982
Concept ID:
C0002170
Finding
A noncongenital process of hair loss, which may progress to partial or complete baldness.
Ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
7002
Concept ID:
C0020757
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the skin characterized the presence of excessive amounts of dry surface scales on the skin resulting from an abnormality of keratinization.
Fragile nails
MedGen UID:
341661
Concept ID:
C1856963
Finding
Nails that easily break.
Sparse hair
MedGen UID:
1790211
Concept ID:
C5551005
Finding
Reduced density of hairs.
Keratoconus
MedGen UID:
44015
Concept ID:
C0022578
Disease or Syndrome
A cone-shaped deformity of the cornea characterized by the presence of corneal distortion secondary to thinning of the apex.
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Decreased lacrimation
MedGen UID:
116004
Concept ID:
C0235857
Finding
Abnormally decreased lacrimation, that is, reduced ability to produce tears.

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